Note: These review questions and answers are confined to Rashi's explanation (exclusively),except where otherwise indicated. For the same reason, they are not necessarily Halachah le'Ma'aseh.
(a)What is the penalty for performing a Melachah on Shabbos?
(a)The penalty for performing a Melachah on Shabbos is Sekilah (stoning) - if it is performed on purpose, and there are two witnesses and warning; Kareis (death - - at the hands of Hash-m - before fifty) if there are not, and a Korban Chatas, if it is performed by mistake - i.e. he forgot, or was unaware, that it was Shabbos, or that that Melachah was prohibited on Shabbos.
(a)What does 'Yetzi'os ha'Shabbos' incorporate?
(b)What does 'Shetayim she'Hein Arba' mean?
(c)And what is the meaning of 'bi'F'nim' and 'ba'Chutz'?
(d)What does one have to do in order to be Chayav for carrying on Shabbos?
(a)'Yetzi'os ha'Shabbos' incorporates - carrying something from a private domain (a Reshus ha'Yachid) to a public one (a Reshus ha'Rabim), or vice-versa. The reason that the Mishnah uses the Lashon 'Yetzi'os' (which infers the former), and not Hachnasos, or Hotza'os (which is gramatically more accurate) - is because the Pasuk, from which we learn the Isur of carrying, is "Al Yeitzei Ish mi'Mekomo" (Sh'mos). Rashi DH 'Sh'tayim'. quotes a different Pasuk.
(b)'Sh'tayim she'Hein Arba'- means two min ha'Torah, which are four - when one adds the two de'Rabbanans.
(c)'bi'Fenim' - means for the man standing inside (whom the Mishnah describes as the rich man), and 'ba'Chutz, the man who is standing outside (the poor man).
(d)Before one becomes Chayav on Shabbos, one has to do three things: 1. Make an Akirah (i.e. pick up the article); 2. transport it from one domain to another (The Isur of carrying four Amos in the street is not discussed here); 3. Make a Hanachah (i.e. put it down).
(a)Which are the two cases in which the rich man in our Mishnah is Chayav?
(b)The Mishnah concludes both of them with the words 'u'Ba'al ha'Bayis Patur'. What does Patur usually mean, and what does it mean in this case?
(c)'Pashat he'Ani es Yado Lif'nim, ve'Natal Ba'al ha'Bayis mi'Tochah, O she'Nasan le'Tochah, ve'Hotzi, Sh'neihem Peturim'. Why is that?
(d)When the Mishnah concludes 'Sh'neihem Peturim' is it referring to the Akiros, to the Hanachos or both?
(a)The Ba'al ha'Bayis is Chayav - if he either picks up the article from his house and places it into the hands of the poor man who is waiting outside (and whose hands are outside, too); or if he takes the article from the hands of the poor man (which are outside), and puts it down inside.
(b)Patur in this case - means permitted, though it usually means exempt from punishment, but Asur (mi'de'Rabbanan). This is, because the the poor man does not transgress any Isur Shabbos at (even mi'de'Rabbanan) by receiving the article without making any movement.
(c)In the case of 'Pashat he'Ani es Yado' ... 've'Natal Ba'al ha'Bayis mi'Tochah' ... the Ani is Patur - because he did not make the Hanachah; and the Ba'al ha'Bayis is Patur - because he did not make the Akirah.
(d)When the Mishnah concludes 'Sh'neihem Peturim' - it incorporates only the one who, in each case, makes the Akirah (although those who make the Hanachah have also transgressed an Isur de'Rabbanan). His Isur is stronger, because he may come to complete the Melachah (whereas the one who makes the Hanachah only, cannot possibly go on to complete the Melachah).
(a)What is the meaning of ...
1. ... 'Shevu'os Shetayim she'Hein Arba'?
2. ... 'Yedi'os ha'Tum'ah Sh'tayim she'Hein Arba'?
(b)The two initial Mar'os Nega'im are Se'eis (as white as white wool) and Baheres (white like snow). What are the additional two? From which word in the Torah do we learn them?
(a)The meaning of ...
1. ... 'Shevu'os Shetayim she'Hein Arba' is - constitutes an oath that concerns the future (i.e. an oath that he will do something good or something bad). Should he break break his oath, he is obligated to bring a Korban Olah ve'Yored (that is the 'Shetayim' referred to by the Mishnah in Shevu'os). The 'Arba' - comes to include, not Isurim de'Rabbanan (as it does in our Mishnah), but the two equivalent cases of an oath which concern the past (e.g. he swears that he ate, when really he did not; or that he did not, when really he did).
2. ... 'Yedi'os ha'Tum'ah Sh'tayim she'Hein Arba' - concerns the two 'Yedi'os ha'Tum'ah' mentioned directly by the Torah - again in connection with the Korban Olah ve'Yored, which are: when someone either ate Kodesh, or entered the Mikdash, having forgotten that he was Tamei (it is when he remembers later, that he is Chayav a Korban). The other two cases included in 'she'Hein Arba' (which the Torah includes in the word "ve'Ne'elam", mentioned twice superfluously) are:when he forgot, not that he was Tamei, but that what he was eating was Kodesh or that he was now entering the Mikdash. When he later remembers, he will be Chayav to bring a Korban.
(b)The initial Mar'os Nega'im are Se'eis (as white as white wool) and Baheres (white like snow) - the additional two, which are both contained in the word "Sapachas" (which actually means secondary): one is secondary to Se'eis (like the outer membrane of an egg), the other, to Baheres (like the lime used to mark the Heichal).
(a)The Tana in the Mishnah in Shavu'os just writes 'two which are four'. What apparent discrepancy is there between the way the Tana presenta the Mishnah there and the way the Tana presents our Mishnah?
(b)The Gemara tries to answer that the Mishnah in Shevu'os (which is not dealing predominantly with Shabbos, as our Mishnah is) confines itself to the Avos, whereas our Mishnah also includes the Toldos. On what grounds do we reject this answer?
(c)And why can we not answer that the Tana in Shavu'os mentions all the Avos (the Yetzi'os), some le'Chiyuv, and some li'Petur?
(d)What does the Gemara finally answer?
(a)With regard to Yetzi'os ha'Shabbos, the Tana in the Mishnah in Shavu'os just writes 'two which are four'. Why then, asks the gemara, does our Tana elaborate 'two which are four for the one inside, and two which are four for the one outside'?
(b)We reject the answer that the Mishnah in Shevu'os (which is not dealing predominantly with Shabbos, as our Mishnah is) confines itself to the Avos, whereas our Mishnah also includes the Toldos - because if that were so, then why does the Mishnah in Shavu'os list four cases, when there are only two Avos (one Hotza'ah for the Ani, and one for the Ba'al ha'Bayis)?
(c)Nor can we answer that it lists two Avos of Chiyuv and two of Petur - since then, it would not be similar to Mar'os Nega'im (the only case which is unanimously agreed upon - see Rashi DH 'Ha Dumya'), where all the cases listed are Chayav.
(d)Rav Papa therefore answers - that our Mishnah, the main source for these Halachos, lists both the cases which are Chayav and those which are Patur, whereas the Mishnah in Shevu'os, which only lists Shabbos (and Nega'im), because of Shevu'os, only mentions the cases (both of the Av - Hotza'ah - and of the Toldah - Hachnasah) of Chiyuv, but not of Petur.
(a)Why are Yetzi'os considered Avos, and Hachnasos, Toldos?
(b)Why are Hachnasos considered Toldos?
(a)Yetzi'os are considered Avos, because the Pasuk "va'Ya'aviru Kol ba'Machaneh", from which we learn the Isur of carrying from one domain to the other, implies carrying from the Reshus ha'Yachid to the Reshus ha'Rabim (since the Pasuk is telling Yisrael in the desert not to bring any more materials from their homes to the collecting place in the street) - According to Tosfos, who learns carrying from "Al Yeitzei Ish" - (meaning 'Al Yotzi Ish'), the source of 'Yetzi'os' is even clearer.
(b)Hachnasos are considered Toldos - because it is not logical to differentiate between carrying from a private domain to a public one, and from a public one to a private one.
(a)Rav Ashi brings a proof from the Mishnah in K'lal Gadol (where the Tana writes 'ha'Motzi mi'Reshus li'Reshus', even though he is also referring to someone who is Machnis) that the Tana refers to Hachnasos as Yetzi'os. How does he also prove it from our Mishnah?
(b)Rava explains that we include Hachnasos in 'Yetzi'os ha'Shabbos' because the Tana really means to say Reshu'yos Sh'tayim ... '. What does he mean by this?
(a)The Mishnah in K'lal Gadol lists the Isur of carrying as 'ha'Motzi mi'Reshus li'Reshus'. What about 'ha'Machnis', which is also Asur? So we see, that the Tana also incorporates 'Machnis' in 'Motzi' (See Tosfos, who discusses the fact that Machnis is a Toldah, and the Mishnah in K'lal Gadol only lists Avos). Clearly then, the Tana incorporates Hachnasah in Hotza'ah.
(b)Rava explains that we include Hachnasos in 'Yetzi'os ha'Shabbos' because the Tana really means to say Reshu'yos Sh'tayim ... ' - meaning that there are two domains, in each of which there are two cases of carrying, making four.