DISCUSSING BUSINESS ON SHABBOS
(Mishnah): One may not hire workers on Shabbos;
[On Shabbos,] one may not ask his friend to hire workers for him;
One may not Machshich on the Techum (towards the end of Shabbos go to the end of the Techum, i.e. as far from the city as is permitted) to hire workers or to bring produce [from outside the Techum];
One may Machshich [on the Techum] to guard produce - he may return with produce.
Aba Sha'ul says, the general rule is - if [on Shabbos] one may ask someone to do something [after Shabbos], he may Machshich for it.
(Gemara) Question: [Why must it forbid hiring workers and asking a friend to hire workers -] surely the law is the same for him and his friend!
Answer #1 (Rav Papa): The Mishnah forbids asking a Nochri friend.
Objection (Rav Ashi): It is Shevus (forbidden mid'Rabanan) to ask a Nochri to do things forbidden on Shabbos! (Another Mishnah (121A) already teaches this. Mid'Rabanan, we are stringent to consider him a Shali'ach; alternatively, it is forbidden on account of "Daber Davar", discussing things that are forbidden on Shabbos.)
Answer #2 (Rav Ashi): It even discusses asking a Yisrael friend - we infer that one may not ask him to hire workers, but one may tell him to meet at night (he understands, for the sake of work);
Our Mishnah is like R. Yehoshua ben Korchah:
(Beraisa): Reuven may not tell Shimon 'Come to me at night' [so I can hire you];
R. Yehoshua ben Korchah permits.
(Rabah bar bar Chanah): The Halachah follows R. Yehoshua ben Korchah.
(R. Yochanan): R. Yehoshua ben Korchah expounds "Mi'Mtzo Cheftzecha v'Daber Davar" - speech [that explicitly discusses Melachah] is forbidden, thoughts are permitted.
Question (Rav Acha bar Rav Huna): R. Yochanan cannot hold that speech is forbidden and thoughts are permitted, for this implies that thoughts are not considered speech;
But R. Yochanan taught that one may think about Torah anywhere except for a bathhouse or bathroom, for this is not "V'Hayah Machanecha Kodesh";
Regarding this it says "V'Lo Yir'eh Vecha Ervas Davar" (he should likewise expound, speech is forbidden, thoughts are permitted)!
Answer: "Ervas Davar" is expounded to teach Rav Yehudah's law:
One may not recite Shma facing a naked Nochri.
Question: It is forbidden even facing a naked Yisrael!
Answer: He teaches that it is forbidden not only facing a naked Yisrael, rather, even facing a naked Nochri;
One might have thought, since it says "Asher Besar Chamorim Besaram" it is [like facing Ervah of an animal and] permitted - he teaches that this is not so.
Suggestion: Perhaps it is indeed permitted!
Rejection: "V'Ervas Avihem Lo Ra'u" (Ervah of a Nochri is called Ervah).
Question: Speech is not forbidden!
(Rav Chisda and Rav Hamnuna): One may make calculations of a Mitzvah on Shabbos.
(R. Elazar): We may pledge to give Tzedakah to the poor on Shabbos.
(R. Yakov Bar Idi): We attend to issues of mortal danger on Shabbos, and go to synagogues and Batei Medrash to attend to communal concerns on Shabbos.
(R. Shmuel Bar Nachmani): We go to theaters and stadiums to attend to communal concerns on Shabbos
(Tana d'vei Menasheh): We may arrange engagements for girls, and contract teachers to teach Torah or a trade to boys.
Answer: "Mi'Mtzo Cheftzecha v'Daber Davar" - your (business) desires are forbidden, those of Shomayim (Mitzvos) are permitted.
MAKING CALCULATIONS ON SHABBOS
(Rav Yehudah): Calculations that pertain to the king [not to the one doing them], or that have no importance for anyone may be made on Shabbos.
Support (Beraisa #1): [On Shabbos] one may not make calculations that were once relevant or will be relevant to him;
[A commoner] may make calculations relevant to the king or that have no relevance to anyone.
Contradiction (Beraisa #2): One may make unnecessary calculations, but not those that are needed;
For example, one may say 'I hired this many workers for this field, I spent this amount of money for this house' (Beraisa #1 forbids this);
One may not say 'I spent this much so far, I still need to spend this much more.'
Counter-question: Beraisa #1 contradicts itself! (It forbids calculations that were once relevant, even if they are no longer relevant [to him or anyone else] - the Seifa of Beraisa #1 permits them!)
Answer to both questions: It is permitted if he finished paying the workers; if not, not.
WAITING BY THE TECHUM (MACHSHICH) ON SHABBOS
(Mishnah): One may not Machshich...
(Beraisa): A case occurred, a Chasid's fence was breached; he decided to fix the fence, then remembered that it is Shabbos - he refrained from fencing it afterwards;
A miracle occurred, a caper bush grew there to close the opening; its fruits financed him and his household.
(Rav Yehudah): On Shabbos, one may say 'I will go to city Ploni' [even if it is outside the Techum], because if there were shacks [every 70 Amos along the way to extend the city], it would be within the Techum (going there is not inherently forbidden).
(Mishnah): One may not Machshich to hire workers or to bring produce.
Question: Granted, hiring workers is inherently forbidden - but it would be permitted to bring produce if there were Mechitzos (on the sides of the path from here to there, Rav Yehudah should permit this)!
Answer: The case is, the fruits are attached.
Question (R. Oshaya's Beraisa): One may not Machshich to bring Teven or Kash (straw that is harvested with the grain or remains attached, respectively);
Granted, Kash is attached, but Teven is not!
Answer: It discusses rotten Teven (it is Muktzeh).
Question (Mishnah): One may Machshich to attend to the needs of a bride or a Mes.
Inference: It is permitted for needs of a bride or a Mes, not for others.
Granted, there are needs of others resembling needs of a bride that are inherently forbidden, e.g. detaching myrtle;
But needs of a Mes are to bring a coffin and shrouds [like the Mishnah says] - one may Machshich for similar needs of a live person [since it would be permitted if there were Mechitzos]!
Answer: One may Machshich to fix shrouds, this is forbidden for a garment for a live person.
(Mishnah): One may Machshich [to guard produce].
Inference: [This is to save time, i.e. immediately after Shabbos] he will leave the Techum for this, even before making Havdalah.
Question: R. Elazar ben Antignous taught that one may not pursue his desires before making Havdalah!
Suggestion: Perhaps he will make Havdalah in prayer.
Rejection: Rav Yehudah taught that one who makes Havdalah in prayer must also make Havdalah over a cup [of wine]!
Suggestion: Perhaps he will make Havdalah over a cup.
Objection: Where will he find a cup [of wine at the end of the Techum, i.e.] in the field?!
Answer (R. Noson bar Ami): The Mishnah discusses when people are making wine (it is available in the field).
(R. Aba): In Eretz Yisrael, they say 'Ha'Mavdil Bein Kodesh l'Chol', then do their needs.
(Rav Ashi): In Rav Kahana's house, they would say 'Ha'Mavdil Bein Kodesh l'Chol', then cut wood.