FOR WHAT MAY ONE MACHSHICH?
(Mishnah - Aba Sha'ul): The general rule is [if one may discuss doing something, he may Machshich for it].
Question: Regarding which part of the Mishnah does he say this?
Suggestion: He says this about the Reisha (one may not Machshich to hire workers or bring produce).
Rejection: If so, he should have said [his rule regarding Isur,] 'If one may not discuss doing something, he may not Machshich for it'!
Answer: He says this about the Seifa, one may Machshich to guard produce.
Question: If so, instead of saying 'If one may discuss doing something, he may Machshich for it', he should [begin with the law already taught, and learn to something new, i.e.] say 'If one may Machshich for something, he may discuss it'!
Answer: Indeed, he discusses the Seifa - he comes to learn from the following law:
(Rav Yehudah): Reuven may tell Shimon 'Guard my produce in your Techum, and I will guard your produce in my Techum'.
Aba Sha'ul says to the first Tana, you agree that one may say 'Guard my produce in your Techum, and I will guard your produce in my Techum' [so you should agree that he may Machshich for it, for if one may discuss...]
Question: Aba Sha'ul could have said just this - why did he say 'the general rule is'?
Answer: It includes the following law (going to attend to the needs of a bride or Mes):
(Beraisa): One may not Machshich to bring an animal;
If one's animal was outside the Techum, he calls to it and it comes;
Aba Sha'ul says, the general rule is - if one may discuss doing something, he may Machshich for it.
One may Machshich to attend to the needs of a bride or a Mes, to bring a coffin or shrouds;
One may say [to a Shali'ach who will buy things for the bride or Mes] 'Go to place Ploni to buy; if you cannot find it there, go to Almoni; spend 100 - if you cannot buy it for 100, spend 200'.
R. Yosi b'Rebbi Yehudah says, one may not mention a price.
MELACHOS THAT MIGHT HAVE BEEN DONE FOR A JEW
(Mishnah): One may Machshich to attend to the needs of a bride or a Mes, to bring a coffin or shrouds;
If a Nochri brought flutes on Shabbos, one may not eulogize with them unless they came from a nearby place (inside the Techum).
If [Nochrim] made a coffin or dug a grave [for a Nochri or to sell], a Yisrael may be buried in it;
If they made it for a Yisrael, no Yisrael may ever be buried in it.
(Gemara) Question: What does it mean '[they came from] a nearby place'?
Version #1 (Rashi) Answer #1 (Rav): [We know that] it came from nearby (inside the Techum);
Answer #2 (Shmuel): [Even if we know that they came from outside the city,] we are lenient to assume that it came from inside the Techum.
Version #1A - Support (for Shmuel - Mishnah): If they made a coffin or dug a grave, a Yisrael may be buried in it.
Even though we do not know whether or not it was for a Yisrael, it is permitted mi'Safek - the same applies to if we do not know if it came from outside the Techum!
Another Mishnah supports Rav:
(Mishnah): If Yisraelim and Nochrim are in a city, and there was a bathhouse open on Shabbos - if the majority [of the residents] are Nochrim, one may bathe in it immediately [on Motzei Shabbos];
If the majority are Yisraelim, one must wait the time needed to heat the water [after Shabbos].
If it is half-half, one must wait the time needed to heat the water;
R. Yehudah says, regarding a small bath, if there is 'Reshus', one may bathe immediately.
Question: What is 'Reshus'?
Answer (Rav Yehudah): It is an important official who has 10 servants that simultaneously heat up hot water for him for a small bath (we assume that it was heated after Shabbos).
Version #1B - Support (for Shmuel - Mishnah): If Yisraelim and Nochrim....R. Yehudah says, regarding a small bath, if there is Reshus, one may bathe immediately. (The first Tana does not support Rav - when it is half-half, the water is heated for both.)
Version #2 (Rif) Answer #1 (Rav): [We know that today] it came from nearby (inside the Techum);
Answer #2 (Shmuel): We are concerned [that they came from outside the Techum at night, even if it was inside the Techum in the morning; 'unless they came from a near place' means, one must wait on Motzei Shabbos until they could come from a near place].
Support (for Shmuel - Mishnah): If Yisraelim and Nochrim are in a city...if the majority are Nochrim, one may bathe in it immediately; if the majority are Yisraelim, or if it is half-half, one must wait the time needed to heat the water (we are not lenient to assume that it was heated for Nochrim, or from Erev Shabbos);
R. Yehudah says, regarding a small bath, if there is Reshus, one may bathe immediately (for the time needed to heat it after Shabbos is negligible). (end of Version #2)
(Mishnah): If they made a coffin or grave [for a Nochri or to sell, a Yisrael may be buried in it].
Question: We should have to wait the time needed to make it [after Shabbos]!
Answer - part 1 (Ula): The case is, the grave was dug on a major road (Yisraelim do not bury there, surely it was for the sake of Nochrim).
Question: That answers regarding a grave - how can we answer regarding a coffin?
Answer - part 2 (R. Avahu): The coffin is on the grave on a major road (surely, it is for the Nochri who will be burned in the grave).
TENDING TO A DEAD BODY ON SHABBOS
(Mishnah): [On Shabbos] we may do all needs of a Mes, e.g. anointing and rinsing, as long as we do not move a limb;
One may remove the pillow from underneath it, so it will be on the [cold] sand [and not decay so quickly].
We may tie the jaw to prevent the mouth from opening more, but not to close it.
Similarly, if a beam [supporting the ceiling] broke, we may put a bench or bed board (Kelim that one may move) there to prevent the ceiling from falling more, but not to raise it [for this would be building].
(Gemara) Question: Rav Yehudah taught that a Talmid once followed R. Meir into a bathhouse and wanted to wash the floor and anoint (apply scented water to) it - R. Meir forbade both of them [because one may not anoint something that we may not move]!
Answer: No - [he forbade anointing lest one even out holes in a dirt floor], floors can be confused with each other, but no one would confuse a floor with a Mes (and anoint a floor because they saw a Mes anointed).
Question: It says 'We may do all needs of a Mes' - what does this come to include?
Answer (Beraisa): One may bring Kelim (e.g. glass) that cool and metal Kelim to put on a Mes' stomach, lest it burst; one may plug up the openings, lest wind enter;
"Ad Asher Lo Yerasek Chevel ha'Kesef" - this refers to the spinal cord; "V'Sarutz Gulas ha'Zahav" - this is the Ever; "V'Sishaber Kad Al ha'Mabu'a" - this is the stomach (it is prone to burst); "V'Narotz ha'Galgal El ha'Bor" - this is the excrement.
(Rav Huna): "V'Zireisi Peresh Al Peneichem Peresh Chageichem" - this refers to people who abandon Torah and make all their days like festivals [for feasting].
(R. Levi): Three days [after death], the stomach bursts and falls to the face, as if to say 'Take back what you gave to me'.
(Mishnah): We may not close the eyes of a Mes;
Even on a weekday one may not close the eyes of one about to die - one who does so murders (it hastens death).
(Gemara - Beraisa): If one closes the eyes just before death, he murders;
This is like a lamp that is going out - if one puts his finger on it, it will extinguish immediately.
(Beraisa - R. Shimon ben Gamliel): If one wants to close the eyes of a Mes, he should blow wine into the nostrils, put oil between the eyelids, and hold the two big toes - the eyes will close by themselves.
(Beraisa - R. Shimon ben Gamliel): One may Mechalel Shabbos for a live newborn baby, but not for David ha'Melech (the most prestigious) Mes;
We may Mechalel for a newborn - we desecrate one Shabbos to enable the baby to later observe many Shabbosos; (Me'iri (Yoma) - we Mechalel even to extend life for a few moments, to enable him to repent in his heart; Bi'ur Halachah (329:4 Ela) - R. Shimon merely gives a reason to distinguish Chai from Mes - he agrees with Shmuel (below), that we Mechalel for any Yisrael, even a baby that will not live to do Mitzvos.)
One may not Mechalel for David ha'Melech Mes - once a person dies, he is Batul from the Mitzvos.
(R. Yochanan): "Ba'Mesim Chofshi" - once someone dies, he is exempt from Torah and Mitzvos.
(Beraisa - R. Shimon ben Elazar): One need not guard a live newborn baby from weasels and mice, one needs to guard Og Melech ha'Bashan (the biggest) Mes from weasels and mice - "U'Mora'achem v'Chitchem Yihyeh [Al Kol Chayas ha'Aretz...]" - as long as a man has Chiyus (is alive), animals fear him; once he dies, they do not.
(Rav Papa): We have a tradition - lions do not attack two people who are together. (The above verse, "U'Mora'achem...", applies to at least two people together.)
Objection: We see that lions do attach them!
Answer: That is like Rami bar Chama taught:
(Rami bar Chama): Chayos rule over a man only if he appears to them like an animal - "V'Adam Bikar Bal Yalin Nimshal ka'Behemos Yidmu".
(R. Chanina): One may not sleep alone in a house - if he does, he is possessed by Lilis (a Shed).
POVERTY IS PRONE TO COME
(Beraisa - R. Shimon ben Elazar): Do [Tzedakah] while you find [who to give to] and have [what to give] and while it is in your power (Rashi - while you are alive; Maharsha - before old age);
"U'Zchor Es Bor'echa bi'Mei Bechurosecha Ad Asher Lo Yavo'u Yemei ha'Ra'ah" - this is old age; "V'Higi'u Shanim Asher Tomar Ein Li Vahem Chefetz" - these are Yemos ha'Moshi'ach, when there will not be merit or sin (Rashi - for giving or refusing to give Tzedakah, for everyone will be rich; alternatively, there will be no desire to sin - Meforshim on Koheles Rabah).
He argues with Shmuel:
(Shmuel): The only difference between this world and Yemos ha'Moshi'ach is that the kingdoms will cease to rule over Yisrael - "Ki Lo Yechdal Evyon mi'Kerev ha'Aretz".
(Beraisa - R. Eliezer ha'Kapar): One should pray that poverty not strike him - [usually], if it does not strike him, it will strike his son or grandson;
(Tana d'vei R. Yishmael): "Ki Biglal ha'Davar ha'Zeh" - a Galgal (wheel) spins in the world (the fortunes of people go up and down. Maharsha - wealth is determined by the Galgal of Mazalos - through prayer and merits, one who had Mazel to be poor can escape it, but it will return to his children; through great prayer and merits, he can spare even his descendants.)
(Rav Yosef): We have a tradition - a Chacham will not become poor.
Objection: We see that this happens!
Answer: Chachamim become poor, but they do not go [begging] from door to door. (Maharsha - they make do with a small amount; alternatively, people bring to them.)
R. Chiya (to his wife): When an Oni comes begging, give bread to him quickly, in order that your children will be given quickly.
His wife: Do you curse our children [that they will beg for bread]?!
R. Chiya: A verse teaches this - "Ki Biglal ha'Davar ha'Zeh" - Tana d'vei R. Yishmael taught, a Galgal spins in the world.
(R. Gamliel b'Ribi): "V'Nosan Lecha Rachamim v'Richamcha v'Hirbecha" - only one who has mercy on people (this Midah itself came from Hash-m) will receive mercy from Shomayim.
TEARS DIMINISH SIGHT
"Ad Asher Lo Sechshach ha'Shemesh veha'Or" - this is the forehead and nose; "Veha'Yare'ach" - this is the Neshamah; "Veha'Kochavim" - these are the jaws; "V'Shovu he'Avim Achar ha'Geshem" - this is sight, which deteriorates on account of crying [over a person's waning faculties as he ages].
(Shmuel): [The loss on account of] tears return only if the person is less than 40 years old;
(Rav Nachman): Mascara helps sight only for one less than 40 years old - afterwards, even if he puts it on with [tremendous] sticks like warp beams, it will merely prevent deterioration, it will not improve sight.
Question: What do we learn from this?
Answer: A thicker mascara stick helps more.
R. Chanina's daughter died; he did not cry over her.
His wife: Did you [merely] lose a chicken?!
R. Chanina: Why should I suffer loss of a child and blindness?!
He holds like R. Yochanan:
(R. Yochanan): There are six kinds of tears - three are good, three are bad;
Tears on account of smoke, crying and [pain in] the Beis ha'Kisei are bad;
Those on account of a salve, joy and [the smell of] nice produce are good.