STRINGENCIES OF MOVING KELIM ON SHABBOS
(R. Elazar): The following Mishnayos were all taught before other Kelim were permitted - Kanim, poles, Glustera and [the Beraisa about] Meduchah:
Kanim - (Mishnah): Arranging the small poles (that held up Lechem ha'Panim) or removing them does not override Shabbos.
Poles - (Mishnah): There were smooth thin poles in the Azarah - [when Erev Pesach is on a weekday] two people hold up a pole on their shoulders, the Pesach is flayed hanging on it;
R. Eliezer says, when it is on Shabbos, each man puts one hand on his friend's shoulder, the Pesach is flayed hanging from their hands;
Glustera - (Mishnah - R. Yehoshua): If a bolt (for locking a door) has a thick end (fitting to crush garlic), one may [remove and] drag it from one door to [hang on] another (it may not be moved normally, even though it is Kli she'Melachto l'Heter);
R. Tarfon says, it is like all Kelim, it may be moved in the Chatzer.
Meduchah is the above Beraisa (123B, that Abaye asked from).
Objection (Rava): Perhaps all of these were after Kelim were permitted!
(New Lechem ha'Panim is placed on the Shulchan on Shabbos day, the old bread is removed.) Kanim hold up and separate the loaves so they will not get moldy - it is possible to remove poles from the old bread before Shabbos and arrange the new bread on them on Motzei Shabbos, we are not concerned for mold in a short time (the old loaves are without poles for less than a day, and also the new bread. Rashba - since it is possible without them, it is as if there is no need for them; Rabah makes this objection, he forbids moving from the sun to the shade.)
We do not use poles to hold up Korban Pesach on Shabbos, because it is possible to do like R. Eliezer;
R. Yanai explained that the Mishnah of Glustera discusses a Chatzer without an Eiruv;
R. Yehoshua holds that within the doorway (from which the bolt was taken) resembles inside [the house], therefore one may not carry it normally in the Chatzer;
R. Tarfon holds that within the doorway is like outside, one may not take it out to the Chatzer;
The Beraisa of Meduchah is like R. Nechemyah (in the coming Mishnah).
(Mishnah): All Kelim may be moved for a need or without a need;
R. Nechemyah says they may be moved only for a need.
(Gemara) Question: What are 'for a need' and 'without a need'?
Answer #1 (Rabah): 'For a need' is using Kli she'Melachto l'Heter; 'without a need' is moving Kli she'Melachto l'Heter for its place, or moving Kli she'Melachto l'Isur to use it, but not for its place;
R. Nechemyah permits even Kli she'Melachto l'Heter only to use it, but not for its place.
Objection (Rava): You cannot call for its place 'without a need'!
Answer #2 (Rava): 'For a need' is Kli she'Melachto l'Heter for its use or place; 'without a need' is from the sun to the shade, or Kli she'Melachto l'Isur for its use or place, but not from the sun to the shade;
R. Nechemyah says that even Kli she'Melachto l'Heter may be moved only for its use or place, but not from the sun to the shade.
Question (Rav Safra, Rav Acha and Rav Huna): According to Rabah, according to R. Nechemyah, how may we move bowls [after finishing the food inside]?
Answer (Rav Safra): One may move it just like Geraf Shel Re'i (because it bothers him there).
Abaye asked the same question to Rabah, he cited Rav Safra's answer.
Question (Abaye - Beraisa): If there is garlic in a Meduchah, it may be moved; if not, not.
Answer (Rabah): That refers to moving it from the sun to the shade.
Question (Abaye - Beraisa): Both [Beis Shamai and Beis Hillel] agree that if one cut meat on it (an Eli), it may not be moved.
Answer (Rabah): Also that refers to moving it from the sun to the shade.
Question (Mishnah): [On Yom Tov] one may not support a bowl or door with a piece of wood.
A piece of wood is Melachto l'Heter on Yom Tov (it may be burned) - this teaches that Kli she'Melachto l'Heter may not be moved for its use or place!
Answer: There, since it is Melachto l'Isur on Shabbos, we decree to forbid on Yom Tov like on Shabbos.
Question: Even on Shabbos it should be permitted - Melachto l'Isur is permitted for the sake of its use or place!
Answer: That is only if it is a Kli - this is not a Kli.
PROHIBITING AN ACT ON YOM TOV ON ACCOUNT OF SHABBOS
Question: We do not decree [Yom Tov on account of Shabbos]!
(Mishnah #1): One may lower produce [on the roof to avoid the rain] through a skylight on Yom Tov, but not on Shabbos.
Contradiction: We [usually] do decree [Yom Tov on account of Shabbos]!
(Mishnah #2): The only difference between [what is permitted and forbidden on] Yom Tov and Shabbos is preparation of food.
Resolution #1 (Rav Yosef): Mishnah #1 is R. Yehoshua [who permits toil on Yom Tov to save one's money]; Mishnah #2 is R. Eliezer:
(Beraisa - R. Eliezer): If an animal and its child fell into a pit [on Yom Tov], he brings one animal up with intent to slaughter it today, and brings food down to sustain the other;
R. Yehoshua says, he brings one animal up with intent to slaughter it today, then decides that he would rather slaughter the other today, permitting him to bring it up - then he may slaughter either.
Rejection: Perhaps R. Eliezer does not permit toil there because it is possible to feed the animal in the pit [there will not be a loss], but he would permit lowering produce [he has no other way to save it];
Perhaps R. Yehoshua permits only when there is a scheme [it looks like he toils in order to slaughter it], but he would forbid where there is no way to scheme!
Resolution #2 (Rav Papa): Beis Shamai decree Yom Tov on account of Shabbos, Beis Hillel do not:
(Mishnah - Beis Shamai): One may not Motzi a child, Lulav or Sefer Torah to Reshus ha'Rabim [on Yom Tov];
Beis Hillel permit.
Rejection: Granted, Beis Shamai forbid Hotza'ah [on Yom Tov on account of Shabbos] - this is no source that they do so regarding Tiltul (moving Muktzeh)!
Answer: Tiltul was forbidden on account of Hotza'ah - if people can move, they will be Motzi!
Rav holds like Rava:
(Rav): Moving a hoe so it will not be stolen is Tiltul without a need, it is forbidden.
Inference: He forbids moving so it will not be stolen - but for its use or place is permitted.
Question: But Rav Kahana visited Rav's house, and Rav said 'Bring a beam for him to sit on';
Suggestion: Rav said 'to sit on' to teach that Kli she'Melachto l'Isur is permitted only for use, not for its place
Answer #1: No, he said 'Move the beam [so he can sit in its place]'.
Answer #2: He moved it from a bad place to a good place (had Rav not said 'to sit on', one might have thought that it is permitted from sun to shade).
Mari bar Rachel had felt pillows in the sun; he asked Rava if he may move them; Rava permitted.
Mari: I have others!
Rava: These are useful in case guests will come.
Mari: I have others in case guests will come!
Rava: This shows that you hold like Rabah [who forbids from sun to shade] - it is permitted for anyone else, it is forbidden for you.
(R. Aba citing Rav): One may move a cloth brush on Shabbos, but not a broom made from a date branch;
(R. Elazar): Even a date broom is permitted.
Question: What is the case?
Suggestion: They argue about 'for its use and place'.
Rejection: Rav would not forbid - he holds like Rava!
Answer: They argue about from sun to shade.
Objection: R. Elazar would not permit this regarding a date branch!
Answer: Really, they argue about from sun to shade - it should say, also R. Elazar said so (cloth is permitted, a branch is forbidden).
MOVING BROKEN KELIM ON SHABBOS
(Mishnah): If a Kli may be moved, its fragments may be moved with it, on condition that they have a use, e.g. pieces of a kneading trough to cover a barrel, or pieces of glass to cover a flask;
R. Yehudah says, the fragments may be moved only if they have a use like the original function of the Kli, e.g. pieces of a trough to pour thick porridge into it, or pieces of glass to pour oil into them.
(Gemara - Rav Yehudah): They argue about when it broke before Shabbos - R. Yehudah requires a use like the original Kli, Chachamim accept any use;
If it broke on Shabbos, all permit, for at the start of Shabbos the fragments were Muchanim (prepared for use) as part of the Kelim.
Rejection (Rav Zutrai - Beraisa): One may burn Kelim [on Yom Tov], but not broken Kelim.
Question: When did the Kelim break?
Suggestion: They broke before Yom Tov.
Rejection: They are like pieces of wood, surely they may be burned!
Answer: They broke on Yom Tov (and nevertheless, one may not burn them)!
Correction: Rather, Rav Yehudah taught that they argue about when it broke on Shabbos - Chachamim say that the fragments were Muchanim, R. Yehudah says that they are Nolad (unless they can be used like the original Kli);
If it broke before Shabbos, all permit, for the fragments were Muchanim for use before Shabbos.
(Beraisa #1): One may burn Kelim, but not broken Kelim.
(Beraisa #2): Just like one may burn Kelim, he may burn broken Kelim.
(Beraisa #3): One may not burn Kelim or broken Kelim.
Resolution: Beraisa #1 is R. Yehudah [who forbids Muktzeh and Nolad - Kelim are not Muktzeh, but broken Kelim are Nolad], Beraisa #2 is R. Shimon [who permits Muktzeh and Nolad], Beraisa #3 is R. Nechemyah [who only permits Kelim for their intended purpose].
(Rav Nachman): One may move bricks left over from building, for one can sit on them;
If he piled them up, this shows that he plans to use them for [another] building (they are forbidden).
(Rav Nachman citing Shmuel): One may move a small piece of earthenware in a Chatzer, but not in a Karmelis;
(Rav Nachman himself): It is permitted even in a Karmelis, but not in a Reshus ha'Rabim;
(Rava): It is permitted even in a Reshus ha'Rabim.
This is like Rava taught elsewhere:
Rava was walking in a Reshus ha'Rabim of Mechuza; his shoes got muddy, so he took a piece of Cheres and cleaned them; Rabanan shouted to protest.
Rava: Not only do they not know what is permitted and what is forbidden, they even teach [their mistakes] to others!
If it was in a Chatzer it would be fitting to cover a Kli - here also it is fitting for me!
(Rav Yehudah): If a barrel was crushed, the cork and the fragments may be moved on Shabbos.
Support (Beraisa): If a barrel was crushed, the cork and the fragments may be moved on Shabbos;
One may not cut off protrusions from fragments to make them fitting to cover Kelim or support the legs of a bed (this is Makeh b'Patish);
If he threw the cork to the wasteheap, it is forbidden [it is no longer a Kli].
Objection (Rav Papa): If one threw his cloak to the wasteheap, is it forbidden?!
Correction (Rav Papa): Rather, if he threw the cork to the wasteheap before Shabbos, it is forbidden.