[124a - 46 lines; 124b - 45 lines]

1)[line 2]נגרNAGAR- a door-peg (that is placed into a hole in the doorstep to lock the door)

2)[line 3]שומטהSHOMTAH- he may drag it

3)[line 8]איעפושיI'APUSHEI- [so that the Lechem ha'Panim do not become] moldy


(a)According to Torah law, in a courtyard which has in it houses owned by different people, all of the neighbors may transfer objects from their houses to the courtyard and into other houses on Shabbos. Even though each house is a separate Reshus ha'Yachid, it is permissible to move objects from one Reshus ha'Yachid to another. Such is also the case when several courtyards open on a dead-end alley, and when a city is completely walled. (RAMBAM Hilchos Eruvin 1:1)

(b)King Shlomo decreed that transferring objects from one Reshus ha'Yachid to another is forbidden, unless an Eruv Chatzeiros (lit. a mixing of the courtyards) is created on Friday, before Shabbos begins. (Shabbos 14b, Eruvin 21b). (The equivalent of an Eruv Chatzeiros for an alley or a city is called a Shituf Mava'os.) This is accomplished by all of the neighbors collectively setting aside a loaf of bread, in one common container, in one of the houses of the courtyard, or one of the courtyards of the alleyway. This shows that all neighbors have an equal share in all of the Reshuyos ha'Yachid, just as they all have a share in that bread. They can be considered one Reshus again. (In the case of an alley or city, any food is permissible to use as an Eruv, except for water, salt and mushrooms.) (RAMBAM ibid. 1:4-9)

5)[line 26]גרף של רעיGERAF SHEL RE'I (a pan of refuse)

(a)The Rabanan enacted a prohibition of Muktzah against handling certain types of objects on Shabbos (the extent of this prohibition is the subject of an argument between Rebbi Yehudah and Rebbi Shimon; see Shabbos 45a and other places, and Background to Shabbos 44:3 and 44:5a-b).

(b)However, when an item of Muktzah that is disgusting is resting in a place where people would like to sit and they find it very unpleasant to sit near such a disgusting item, the Rabanan permitted the item to be removed, due to the honor of Shabbos which the item would otherwise be diminishing. For example, a pan of human or animal refuse, or a dead mouse, even though it is Muktzah, may be removed.

(c)It is not permitted to place a disgusting item in a place where people will want to sit, with the intention to move it later when people sit there and are disgusted by it. For example, while eating dates, one may not pile up the date pits in one place at the table in order to permit moving the pits when the pile becomes disgusting to those who want to sit there (Shabbos 143a). (See Insights to Beitzah 36:1 for explanations of how Rabah was able to instruct Abaye to place his bed into the mill-room in order to be able to move the millstone afterwards.)

6)[line 27]רב ספרא חבריןRAV SAFRA CHAVRIN- Rav Safra, our peer

7)[line 31]בקעתBEKA'AS- a piece of wood

8a)[line 36]משיליןMESHILIN- it is permitted to lower

b)[line 36]ארובהARUBAH- skylight; aperture in the roof

9)[line 38]אותו ואת בנוOSO V'ES BENO

(a)It is forbidden to slaughter a cow, female sheep or female goat and her offspring on the same day, as it states in Vayikra 22:28, "v'Shor O Seh, Oso v'Es Beno Lo Sishchatu b'Yom Echad." The person who slaughters the second animal in front of two witnesses, after having received a proper warning, is punished with Malkus (lashes).

(b)At certain times of year (as enumerated in the Mishnah Chulin 83a), it is assumed that one who buys an animal buys it in order to slaughter it immediately and use its meat. Therefore, the seller must inform the buyer if he sold the animal's mother (or offspring) on that day, so that the buyer will not transgress the prohibition of slaughtering the offspring (or the mother) on the same day that the mother (or the offspring) was slaughtered.

(c)There is an argument between the sages (Chulin 78b) as to whether Oso v'Es Beno also applies to an animal and its father (Chananyah) or whether it only applies to an animal and its mother (Rabanan; the Halachah follows this opinion).

10)[line 40]עושה לו פרנסהOSEH LO PARNASAH- he provides it with sustenance


11)[line 5]מרMAR- (O.F. fosoir) hoe; pick-ax

12)[line 9]שותאSHUSA- (a) a box-like trap (RASHI); (b) a beam (BA'AL HA'ME'OR)

13)[line 11]שקולו שותא מקמי כהנאSHEKULU SHUSA MEKAMEI KAHANA- take away the trap (or beam) to make room for Rav Kahana to sit down

14)[line 12]בי סדיותאBEI SADYUSA- a felt pillow

15a)[line 15]מכבדות של מילתאMACHBEDOS SHEL MEILASA- (O.F. escove) brushes made of fine woolen cloth

b)[line 16]של תמרהSHEL TEMARAH- brooms made from palm branches

16)[line 21]עריבהAREIVAH- a basin

17)[line 23]מקפהMIKPAH- a thick mass of grist, oil and onions

18)[line 26]מסיקיםMASIKIM- we may burn (i.e. use as fuel)

19)[line 30]נולדNOLAD

(a)MUKTZAH - The word Muktzah literally means "set aside at the brink [of one's intentions for use]." The term is used to describe items that are set aside not to be used right now, such as wood stacked in a barn. In a broader sense, the word Muktzah includes anything that a person did not intend to use during Bein ha'Shemashos at the start of Shabbos (or Yom Tov), for whatever reason it may be.

(b)THE ARGUMENT OF THE TANA'IM - Rebbi Yehudah and Rebbi Shimon argue as to whether one may move or use on Shabbos items that fit into certain categories of Muktzah. There are at least six different categories of Muktzah over which Rebbi Yehudah and Rebbi Shimon disagree (1. Hiktzehu mi'Da'ato; 2. Nolad; 3. Muktzah Machmas Isur (also known as Migo d'Iskatza'i); 4. Muktzah Machmas Mi'us; 5. Keli she'Melachto Eino Ela l'Isur; 6. Muchan l'Adam Eino Muchan l'Kelavim). On Shabbos, objects that fit into one of these categories may not be moved according to Rebbi Yehudah. There are other categories of Muktzah that may not be moved according to both Rebbi Yehudah and Rebbi Shimon (such as 1. Muktzah Machmas Gufo; 2. Huktzah l'Mitzvaso; 3. Davar she'Eino Ra'uy she'Decha'o b'Yadayim; 4. Davar he'Asur Bein ha'Shemashos she'Lo Chashav she'Yavo l'Yedei Heter b'Shabbos; 5. Muktzah Machmas Chisaron Kis).

(c)NOLAD - When an item did not exist in its present form during Bein ha'Shemashos between Friday and Shabbos, but rather it was created (or was significantly changed) on Shabbos, it belongs to the category of Muktzah known as Nolad ("born"). Utensils that broke on Shabbos did not exist in their present form before Shabbos. Therefore, they are considered Nolad. Similarly, date pits from dates that were eaten on Shabbos are Nolad, since they were part of a fruit when Shabbos entered and emerged as pits only on Shabbos. Moving such items is prohibited according to Rebbi Yehudah, since a person could not have had in mind to use them before Shabbos, when they did not yet exist. It is permitted according to Rebbi Shimon, since he holds that advance positive intention to use an item on Shabbos is not necessary.

20)[line 34]הני ליבני דאישתיור מבניינאHANEI LIVNEI D'ISHTAYUR MI'BINYANA- the bricks left over after a building is constructed

21)[line 35]למיזגאL'MIZGA- to sit or recline [on them]

22)[line 35]שרגינהוSARGINHU- if the owner of the bricks (or the builders) arranged them in an orderly fashion, such as one on top of the other

23)[line 36]חרס קטנהCHERES KETANAH- a shard from a broken earthenware vessel. (Since it originally was part of a vessel, it is not Muktzah - RAMBAN and Rishonim.)

24)[line 38]בריתקא דמחוזא(B'RISKA) [B'RISTEKA] DI'MECHOZA- the marketplace of Mechoza, a large Jewish trading town on the Tigris River

25)[line 39]אתווסאי מסאניה טינאITVAS'EI MESANEI TINA- his shoe got muddy

26)[line 39]קא מכפר ליהKA MECHPER LEI- he started wiping it

27)[line 40]לא מיסתייאLO MISTAYA- it is not enough

28)[line 42]מגופת חבית שנכתתהMEGUFAS CHAVIS SHE'NICHTETAH- (a) the lid of a shattered barrel (RASHI); (b) the shattered lid of a barrel (RITVA, SHITAH L'RAN). According to these Rishonim, the Beraisa is teaching that although a lid of a barrel is not as significant a vessel as the barrel itself, nevertheless its shards are not Muktzah since they originally started out as a complete vessel (see above, #23). (Alternatively, the Beraisa is teaching that a broken lid is not Muktzah even according to the Rebbi Yehudah of our Mishnah, who requires that the broken piece be used in a manner similar to its original use, since a broken piece is also used to cover vessels (as the Gemara mentioned earlier), just like a barrel-lid. -M. KORNFELD)

29)[line 43]יספותYISPOS- file down its rough edges

30)[last line]גלימיהGELIMEI- his coat