WHOSE OPINION IS REFLECTED IN THE MISHNAH?
(Mishnah): If the fire was on Shabbos night, one may save three meals.
Suggestion: It was before eating the evening meal (it is like Chachamim, who say that one eats three meals on Shabbos)!
Rejection: No, it was after eating (it is like R. Chidka, who says that one eats three meals after the evening meal)!
(Mishnah): If the fire was on Shabbos morning, one may save two meals.
Suggestion: It was before eating (it is like Chachamim).
Rejection: No, it was after eating.
(Mishnah): If the fire was on Shabbos afternoon, one may save one meal.
Suggestion: It was before eating.
Rejection: No, it was after eating.
Question (Seifa - R. Yosi): No matter when it was, one may save three meals.
This implies that the first Tana agrees that we eat three meals on Shabbos (but he only allows saving for remaining meals)!
Conclusion: Our Mishnah is unlike R. Chidka.
Question (Mishnah): One who has food for two meals may not take from the Tamchuy (food that is collected and distributed daily to the poor), one who has food for 14 meals may not take from the Kupah (money collected and distributed weekly to those ashamed to take from the Tamchuy).
This is not like either Tana!
Chachamim hold that one eats 15 meals each week [two each weekday, and three on Shabbos], R. Chidka adds one more, i.e. 16!
Answer #1: Really, it is like Chachamim - the third Shabbos meal is eaten [shortly before evening,] in place of what the Oni would normally eat at night on Motzei Shabbos.
Suggestion: It is like Chachamim, it is unlike R. Chidka!
Rejection and Answer #2: It can even be like R. Chidka - [also] the Shabbos night meal is in place of what the Oni would normally eat during the day on Erev Shabbos!
Rejection: It is unreasonable to require him to fast [any day, but especially] Erev Shabbos! (Ta'anis 26A - Ma'amados do not fast on Erev Shabbos, because it is dangerous.)
Answer #3: It is like R. Akiva, who says that it is better to conduct on Shabbos like on a weekday [and have only two meals] than to (Mishnah Berurah 242:1 - begin to) receive Tzedakah. (Regarding Shabbos meals, it can be like Chachamim or R. Chidka.)
(Mishnah): If an Oni passes through a city, we do not give less than a loaf bought for a Pundiyon (a 12th of a Dinar) when four Sa'im of wheat sell for a Sela (four Dinarim. It follows that a Pundiyon buys a 12th of a Se'ah, i.e. the volume of 12 eggs. A Pundiyon buys a loaf the size of six eggs, for half the price is for firewood and the baker's labor. The loaf is for the two meals he eats in one day).
If he will stay for the night, we provide what he needs for the night;
If it is Shabbos, we give him food for three meals.
Suggestion: This is like Chachamim, it is unlike R. Chidka!
Rejection: It is even like R. Chidka - the case is, he already has a meal with him, he will eat it for the fourth Shabbos meal.
Question: Will we send him away with nothing?!
Answer: We give him a meal when he leaves.
Question: What are 'needs for the night'? (We give a night meal even if he will not stay!)
Answer: It is a bed and felt to put under his head.
THE REWARD FOR HONORING SHABBOS
(Beraisa): One may wash bowls that he ate in on Shabbos night for the sake of Shabbos morning; one may wash bowls used Shabbos morning for the sake of Shabbos afternoon;
One may not wash [on Shabbos] bowls used Shabbos afternoon [since he will not eat another meal on Shabbos];
One may wash cups, jugs and flasks at any time, for one does not fix times for drinking.
(R. Shimon ben Pazi): The three Shabbos meals are learned from three times it says "Yom"; one who fulfills them is saved from three harsh "Yomim" - the birth pangs of Moshi'ach, judgment in Gehinom, and the war of Gog and Magog:
Regarding birth pangs of Moshi'ach it says "Hine Anochi Shole'ach Lachem Es Eliyahu ha'Navi Lifnei Bo Yom Hash-m"; we learn from there to judgment in Gehinom and to the war of Gog and Magog, about which it also says "Yom" - "Yom Evrah ha'Yom ha'Hu", "B'Yom Bo Gog"
(R. Yochanan): Anyone who makes Shabbos a delight receives an inheritance without boundaries - "Az Tis'anag Al Hash-m...v'Ha'achalticha Nachalas Yakov" (Beis Yosef - this is Midah k'Neged Midah, for spending to honor Shabbos without limit);
It is not like the [limited] inheritance promised to Avraham, "Kum His'halech ba'Aretz l'Arkah [ul'Rachbah]", or that promised to Yitzchak, "Ki Lecha ul'Zar'acha Eten Es Kol ha'Aratzos ha'El";
Rather, it is like what was promised to Yakov, "U'Foratzta Yamah va'Kedmah v'Tzafonah va'Negbah".
(Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak): He is saved from servitude in Galus - "V'Atah Al Bamoseimu Sidroch".
(Rav Yehudah): He is given his heart's desires - " V'His'anag Al Hash-m va'Yiten Lecha Mish'alos Libecha";
Question: What 'Oneg' does the verse discuss ("V'His'anag")?
Answer: "V'Korasa la'Shabos Oneg".
Question: How does one makes Shabbos a delight?
(Rav Yehudah bar Shmuel): One eats a dish of spinach, big fish and heads of garlic (these were prestigious foods).
(R. Chiya bar Ashi): Even a small matter for the honor of Shabbos fulfills Oneg.
Question: What is this small matter?
Answer (Rav Papa): It is fish fried in its own oil with flour.
(R. Chiya bar Aba): Anyone who guards Shabbos properly, even if he serves idolatry like the generation of Enosh, he will be forgiven - "Ashrei Enosh Ya'aseh Zos...[Shomer Shabos] me'Chalelo" - we read this 'Machul Lo' (he is forgiven).
(Rav Yehudah): Had [all of] Yisrael observed the first Shabbos, no nation could have ruled over them - it says "Va'Yhi ba'Yom ha'Shevi'i Yotz'u Min ha'Am Lilkot", and afterwards "Va'Yavo Amalek". (Tosfos 87B asks, this was not the first Shabbos - Hash-m commanded them about Shabbos in Marah, the Man fell more than a week later! Tosfos ha'Rosh - Moshe did not tell Yisrael until the Man fell, it was the first Shabbos after Yisrael were commanded.)
(R. Yochanan): If Yisrael would observe two Shabbosos properly, they would be redeemed immediately - it says "Asher Yishmeru Es Shabsosai", and shortly afterwards it says "Va'Havi'osim El Har Kodshi". (Tosfos Nidah 13A - there is a storehouse of Neshamos that must be born before the redemption - women would have multiple births to fulfill this speedily.)
(R. Yosi): May my portion be among those who eat three meals on Shabbos! (He said this because people do not realize how important it is.)
R. YOSI'S DICTUMS
(R. Yosi): May my portion be among those who finish Hallel every day.
Question: But it was taught that one who says Hallel every day blasphemes! (Rashi - Hallel was enacted to thank Hash-m at certain times - if one says it every day, it is a mere song! Maharsha - the enactment was to publicize Hash-m's miracles done at certain times - if one says it every day, he does not publicize these miracles - it is as if he denies Hash-m's ability.)
Answer: R. Yosi refers to those who say two psalms of praise in Pesukei d'Zimra ("Halelu Es Hash-m Min ha'Shomayim..." and "Halelu Kel b'Kodsho").
(R. Yosi): May my portion be among those who pray when the sun is red (Shacharis at sunrise, and Minchah at sunset)!
(R. Chiya bar Aba): It is a Mitzvah to pray when the sun is red.
(R. Zeira): He learns from "Yira'ucha Im Shamesh v'Lifnei Yare'ach Dor Dorim".
(R. Yosi): May my portion be among those who die from intestinal sickness (the pain atones for transgressions).
It was taught that most Tzadikim die from intestinal sickness.
(R. Yosi): May my portion be among those who die on the way to a Mitzvah (Maharsha - at the time of doing a Mitzvah - Sheluchei Mitzvah are not harmed on account of engaging in the Mitzvah, but there is no blanket protection from any harm at the time).
(R. Yosi): May my portion be among those who bring in Shabbos early in Tiverya (it is in a valley, it gets dark very early), and those who end Shabbos late in Tzipori (it is elevated, and it is very late when it gets dark)!
(R. Yosi): May my portion be among Moshivei Beis ha'Medrash (Rashi - those who arouse Talmidim to come; Maharsha - those who sit, they are not quick to leave), not among Ma'amidei Beis ha'Medrash (those who tell them to leave [to eat]; Maharsha - those who stand).
(R. Yosi): May my portion be among those who collect Tzedakah (one who causes others to give is greater than one who gives - Bava Basra 9A), not among those who distribute Tzedakah (it is hard to know how much to give to each Oni).
(R. Yosi): May my portion be among those who are wrongly suspected of transgressing.
(Rav Papa): People wrongly suspected me.
(R. Yosi): I did five Bi'os (acts of relations), producing five great Chachamim in Yisrael.
Question: Who are they?
Answer: R. Yishmael b'Rebbi Yosi, R. Elazar b'Rebbi Yosi, R. Chalafta b'Rebbi Yosi, R, Avtilas b'Rebbi Yosi and R. Menachem b'Rebbi Yosi.
Question: There was also Vardimus!
Answer: Vardimus is Menachem - he is called Vardimus because his face was [pink] like Varad (a rose).
Question: [Surely, 'I did five Bi'os' teaches that he had relations only five times, and each resulted in a Chacham -] did R. Yosi not fulfill the Mitzvah of Onah (having relations with his wives regularly)?!
Correction: Rather, five times he did Bi'ah and repeated the act [to help cause the children to be males].
(R. Yosi): I always call my wife 'my house' (she conducts the whole house), I always call my ox 'my field' (the produce is due to its strength).
(R. Yosi): I never looked at my Milah (Ever).
Question: Rebbi [Yehudah ha'Nasi] was called Rabbeinu ha'Kodesh because he never looked at his Milah - R. Yosi should have also received this title!
Answer: Rebbi had another attribute - he never put his hands below his belt (to distance himself from things that arouse lust).
(R. Yosi): The rafters of my house never saw the fringes of my garment (he would remove it only under a sheet, for Tzeni'us).
(R. Yosi): I never transgressed the words of my colleagues:
I know that I am not a Kohen - nevertheless, if they would tell me go to the Duchan [at the time of] Birkas Kohanim, I would go! (Maharsha - he would ascend the Duchan, but he would not say the Berachos, a Yisrael is forbidden to do so. Tosfos ha'Rosh - this is just a parable for how far he would go to comply.)
(R. Yosi): I never said something and retracted [when the one I spoke about came. Alternatively - I never said something and turned around to see if the one I spoke about was there. Maharsha - R. Yosi permits statements like, "There is fire in Ploni's house" - surely, if Ploni was there, it was not said in a negative way.]
MITZVOS THAT THE CHACHAMIM WERE ESPECIALLY CAREFUL ABOUT
(Rav Nachman): I will receive (Rashi - reward; Maharsha - help from Hash-m) for fulfilling three meals on Shabbos.
(Rav Yehudah): I will receive for concentration in prayer.
(Rav Huna brei d'Rav Yehoshua): I will receive for not going four Amos with my head exposed. (Maharshal (Teshuvah 72) - this shows that this is only Midas Chasidus. Taz (O.C. 8:3) - now that baring the head is a Nochri rite, it is letter of the law.)
(Rav Sheshes): I will receive for fulfilling the Mitzvah of Tefilin (not going four Amos without them).
(Rav Nachman): I will receive for fulfilling the Mitzvah of Tzitzis.
Rav Yosef (to Rabah's son): What was your father most careful about?
Rabah's son: He was very careful about Tzitzis - once he was ascending a ladder, and his Tzitzis snapped - he did not descend until he put in a new thread to fix it.
(Abaye): I will receive, for when I see a Chacham finish learning a Maseches [by heart], I make a celebration for Rabanan.
(Rava): I will receive, for when a Chacham comes in front of me for judgment, I do not sleep until I investigate all angles to vindicate him.
(Mar bar Rav Ashi): I am disqualified from judging a Chacham - I love him like myself, and a person does not see fault in himself!