LARGE UTENSILS THAT ARE TAMEI
(Rava): According to Chananyah, if a boat can be moved empty and full through oxen, it is considered movable empty and full:
(Mishnah): There are three kinds of wagons [regarding Tum'ah]:
If it is [short] like a chair, it is Tamei Medras;
If it is like a bed, it is Tamei Mes (and all Tum'os except for Medras);
If it is made to carry rocks, it is absolutely Tahor (there are big holes in the bottom - a wooden Kli which cannot hold pomegranates is Tahor),
(R. Yochanan): If it can hold pomegranates, it is Tamei Mes [even though only oxen can move it when full].
(Mishnah): There are three kinds of boxes:
If it opens from the side, it is Tamei Medras (it can be used even when one sits on it);
If it opens from the top, it is Tamei Mes;
If it is too big to carry empty and full, it is absolutely Tahor.
(Beraisa): Medras of Klei Cheres is Tahor;
R. Yosi says, even a boat.
Question: What does this mean?
Answer #1 (Rav Zevid): The first Tana teaches that Klei Cheres are not Mekabel Tum'as Medras, they are Mekabel Tum'as Maga; a Cheres boat is Tamei, like Chananyah;
R. Yosi is Metaher a boat, like our Tana (i.e. of our Mishnah).
Objection (Rav Papa): If so, R. Yosi should not say have said 'even [a boat]'!
Answer #2 (Rav Papa): The first Tana teaches that Klei Cheres are not Mekabel Tum'as Medras, they are Mekabel Tum'as Maga; Klei Etz are Mekabel Tum'as Medras and Maga;
Sefinas ha'Yarden is Tahor, like our Tana;
R. Yosi says, even a boat is Tamei, like Chananyah.
Question: What is the source that Klei Cheres are not Mekabel Tum'as Medras?
Answer #1 (Chizkiyah): "V'Ish Asher Yiga b'Mishkavo" - this equates a Mishkav to a Zav;
Just like a Zav can become Tahor through immersion, also the Mishkav [that becomes an Av ha'Tum'ah] must have Taharah through immersion (Klei Cheres do not).
Answer #2 (D'vei R. Yishmael - Beraisa): "K'Mishkav Nidasah Yihyeh Lah" - this equates a Mishkav to a Zavah;
Just like a Zavah can become Tehorah through immersion, also the Mishkav;
This excludes Klei Cheres, immersion is not Metaher them (their only Taharah is to be broken).
Question (R. Ila'a - Beraisa): A Kal va'Chomer teaches that a reed mat is Mekabel Tum'as Mes:
Small flasks do not receive Tum'ah from a Zav (the opening is too small to stick his finger inside - we expound that anything that cannot Mekabel Tum'ah from his flesh does not Mekabel Tum'ah from his hair or if he moves it), yet they receive Tum'as Mes - a mat is Mekabel Tum'ah from a Zav, all the more so it is Mekabel Tum'as Mes!
It says that a mat is Mekabel Tum'ah (Medras) from a Zav, even though it lacks Taharah [through immersion - when the Torah discusses immersion of Kelim, Peshutei Klei Etz (that do not hold anything) are not mentioned]!
Answer (R. Chanina): A mat is Mekabel Tum'as Medras because other Kelim of its kind (Klei Etz that hold things) become Tehorim though immersion.
R. Ila'a: May Hash-m save us from such reasoning!
R. Chanina: No, may Hash-m save us from your reasoning!
Question: What is R. Chanina's reason?
Answer - Question: It says "V'Ish Asher Yiga b'Mishkavo" (implying only Kelim that can be immersed), and it says "V'Chol ha'Mishkav Asher Yishkav Alav Yitma" (it does not say b'Mishkavo - this implies, even if it cannot be immersed)!
Answer: If other Kelim of its kind can be immersed, it is Mekabel Tum'as Medras, even if it itself cannot be immersed; if no Kli of its kind can be immersed, it is not Mekabel Tum'as Medras.
Answer #3 (to Question (h) - Rava): We learn that Klei Cheres are not Mekabel Tum'as Medras from "V'Chol Kli Fasu'ach Asher Ein Tzamid Pasil Alav" (a Kli Cheres that is not fully sealed becomes Tamei in Ohel ha'Mes);
Inference: If it has a Tzamid Pasil, it is Tahor (nothing can touch its inside - Klei Cheres Mekabel Tum'ah only from their inside)!
The Torah is Metaher in every case, even if it was designated for a Nidah to sit on. (Ri -if it could Mekabel Tum'as Medras, it would not block Tum'as Ohel even if it was Tahor; R. Tam - it is Mekabel Tum'ah if a Nidah moves it, that is like touching it internally - it is not Mekabel any Tum'ah from the outside.)
DIVERSE SEEDS IN A PATCH
(Mishnah): Question: What is the source to permit planting five kinds of seeds in a patch six by six Tefachim, i.e. one on each other the four sides, and one in the middle? (Rashi - a single seed is sown in the middle, it is three Tefachim from each of the sides; even though there is no separation between species on adjacent sides, since it is Nikar (evident) that they are not growing together, it is permitted.)
Answer: "Ki Cha'Aretz Totzi Tzimchah uch'Ginah Zeru'eha Satzmi'ach" - Zeru'eha is plural (this will be explained).
(Gemara) Question: How do we learn this from the verse?
Answer (Rav Yehudah): "Totzi" alludes to one, "Tzimchah" alludes to one, "Zeru'eha" alludes to two, and "Satzmi'ach" alludes to one;
We know that six by six Tefachim is the area needed in order that they will not nurture from each other [when there is no Heker, i.e. the middle and a side. The verse does not teach this Shi'ur; Tosfos - a verse in Shir ha'Shirim alludes to it.]