TUM'AH OF SAK
(Beraisa): Sak has an advantage over Beged - it is Tamei on account of Arig.
Question: Beged is also Arig (what is the advantage of Sak)?
Answer: Sak is Tamei even if it is not Arig.
Question: What is it useful for?
Answer (R. Yochanan): A poor person braids three strands and hangs it on his daughter's neck.
(Beraisa): "Sak" - this only teaches that Sak is Mekabel Tum'ah [from a Sheretz];
Question: What is the source to include a harness strap or band [made from goats' hair]?
Answer: "O Sak" includes these.
Suggestion: Perhaps we include even ropes and strings (they are braided, not spun)!
Rejection: "Sak" - we include only what is like Sak, i.e. it is spun and woven.
Regarding Tum'as Mes it says "V'Chol Kli Or v'Chol Ma'ase Izim,,,Tischata'u" - this includes a harness strap and band.
Suggestion: Perhaps we include even ropes and strings!
Support: Regarding Tum'as Sheretz we include only what is spun and woven - the same should apply to Tum'as Mes!
Rejection: Tum'as Sheretz is lenient, therefore it applies only to what is spun and woven - but Tum'as Mes is more stringent (it makes an Av ha'Tum'ah, which requires seven days and sprinkling of Mei Chatas to become Tahor), perhaps it applies to more things!
Rejection: We learn from a Gezerah Shavah "Beged v'Or" between Tum'as Sheratzim and Tum'as Mes, also the latter applies only to what is spun and woven;
Also, [the Gezerah Shavah teaches that] just like everything made from goats is Mekabel Tum'as Mes, it is Mekabel Tum'as Sheretz.
Question: What is the source for [Tum'as Sheratzim of] something made from horse hair or a cow's tail?
Answer: "O Sak" includes these.
Question: We used "O Sak" to include a harness strap or band!
Answer: That was before we knew the Gezerah Shavah - now that we know the Gezerah Shavah, we learn these from Tum'as Mes, "O Sak" teaches about horse hair and a cow's tail.
Question: What is the source that these Mekabel Tum'as Mes?
Answer #1: Since they are Mekabel Tum'as Sheratzim, just like Kelim from goats, they are like Kelim from goats to Mekabel Tum'as Mes!
Rejection: There are many sources of Tum'as Erev (Sheratzim, Nevelah, semen...) - we cannot learn to Tum'as Shivah, which only comes from a Mes!
Answer #2: We learn from a Gezerah Shavah "Beged v'Or" between Tum'as Sheratzim and Tum'as Mes.
Suggestion: We must say that the Gezerah Shavah is Mufneh (the word(s) we learn from are extra, we do not challenge such a Gezerah Shavah), otherwise we could challenge it - k'Adashah (the size of a lentil) of a Sheretz is Metamei, but only k'Zayis (a bigger Shi'ur) of a Mes is Metamei! (Tosfos ha'Rosh - this is a real challenge, the above challenge [that Tum'as Erev is more prevalent] was not.)
Affirmation: Yes, the Gezerah Shavah is Mufneh;
Sheratzim are equated to semen - "Ish Asher Teztei Mimenu Shichvas Zera; O Ish Asher Yiga b'Chol Sheretz";
Question: It says regarding semen "V'Chol Beged v'Chol Or Asher Yihyeh Alav Shichvas Zera" [is Tamei] - we could learn about Sheratzim from the Hekesh to semen, why does it say "Beged v'Or" regarding Sheratzim?
Answer: "Beged v'Or" regarding Sheratzim is extra, for the Gezerah Shavah [to Tum'as Mes].
Question: It is Mufneh from one side (one of the sources we learn from is extra) - this is like the opinion that we learn from a Gezerah Shavah Mufneh from one side, but do not challenge it;
According to the opinion that we challenge such a Gezerah Shavah, how can we answer?
Answer: It is Mufneh from both sides;
Mes is [also] equated to Shichvas Zera - "Veha'Noge'a b'Chol Temei Nefesh O Ish Asher Teztei Mimenu Shichvas Zera", therefore "Beged v'Or" regarding Mes is [likewise] extra.
(R. Elazar): "Va'Nakrev Es Korban Hash-m...Cheli Zahav Etz'adah v'Tzamid Taba'as Agil v'Chumaz Lechaper Al Nafshoseinu" - Agil is a bra; Chumaz is a girdle;
Support #1 (Rav Yosef): The Targum [of Chumaz] is Mechuch - something that leads to Gichuch (frivolity).
Support #2 (Rabah): Chumaz is an acronym for 'Kan Makom Zimah (this is the place of illicit relations).
(Rav Nachman): "Va'Yiktzof Moshe Al Pekudei ha'Chayil" - Moshe suspected that the soldiers [who defeated Midyan] had sinned [in Zenus, like at Shitim].
The soldiers: "Lo Nifkad Mimenu Ish" (everyone acted like Yisrael)!
Moshe: If so, why are you bringing an atonement?
The soldiers: We did not do a sinful action, but perhaps we had sinful thoughts (Tosfos - there are limits on the Heter to take a woman in war).
(Tana d'vei R. Yishmael): The soldiers needed [to bring the Kelim for] an atonement for getting pleasure from seeing forbidden women.
(Rav Sheshes): The Torah lists external Tachshitim (e.g. rings) with inner Tachshitim (girdles) to teach that one who looks [for pleasure] at a woman's pinky needs atonement like one who looks at her Ervah.
WHAT WOMEN MAY GO OUT WITH
(Mishnah): A woman may go out with strands of hair [used to braid her hair], whether the strands are from her own [detached] hair, or from another woman, or from an animal;
She may go out with Totefes or Sarbitin (head ornaments) if they are sewn [into her headdress];
She may go out with Kavul (a wool cap under her headdress; Tosfos - Shmuel (58A) holds that it is a signet of slavery) or with a wig [used to make it look like she has much hair] in a Chatzer.
She may go out with tufts in her ear [to absorb wax], in her sandal [for comfort] or to absorb Dam Nidah [in that place].
She may go out with a pepper [to counter odors], a salt crystal [to heal teeth] or anything in her mouth [from before Shabbos];
She may not put it in on Shabbos; if it fell out, she may not return it [because cures are forbidden on Shabbos; alternatively, it looks like a scheme to permit taking it out].
Version #1 (our text): R. Meir permits her to go out with an artificial tooth or a golden [cap for a] tooth;
Version #2 (text of Rosh): R. Meir permits her to go out with an artificial golden tooth;
Version #3 (brought in Rashi): She may go out with an artificial tooth;
R. Meir permits her to go out with a golden tooth; (end of Version #3)
GOING OUT WITH DETACHED HAIR
(Gemara): We must teach all three cases of strands of hair:
If we only taught about strands from her own hair, one might have thought that this is permitted for it does not entail disgrace, but hair from another woman is forbidden [lest others will mock her and she will take it off and carry it in Reshus ha'Rabim];
If we only taught about strands from [her or] another woman's hair, one might have thought that this is permitted for it is human hair, but hair from an animal is forbidden (it is more disgraceful).
Version #1 (our text) (Beraisa): A girl may not go out with hair of an old woman, nor an old woman with a girl's hair.
Version #1A (Tosfos - Rav Pores) Question: We understand why an old woman would [want to] go out with a girl's hair - it looks better than her own hair;
Why would a girl [want to] go out with hair of an old woman?
Answer: Indeed, she would not - the Tana merely taught this for parallel structure with the law of an old woman with a girl's hair.
Version #1B (Rashi) Question: We understand why an old woman may not go out with a girl's hair - it looks nicer (perhaps she will remove it to show to others);
Why can't a girl go out with hair of an old woman?
Answer: Indeed, she may - this clause was included with the law of an old woman with a girl's hair (even though the law does not apply here).
Version #2 (Tosfos' preferred text) (Beraisa): An old woman may not go out with a girl's hair, nor a girl with an old woman's hair.
Question: We understand the Chidush that an old woman may not go out with a girl's hair - even though it looks better, we are concerned lest she will be mocked and remove it;
But there is no need to forbid a girl to go out with hair of an old woman (all the more so, she will be mocked and might remove it)!
Answer: Indeed, there is no Chidush - it was taught for parallel structure with the Reisha. (end of Version #2)
(Mishnah): She may go out with Kavul or with a wig in a Chatzer.
(Rav): Everything that Chachamim forbade to wear in Reshus ha'Rabim is forbidden in a Chatzer, except for Kavul and a wig.
(Rav Anani bar Sason citing R. Yishmael [b'Rebbi Yosi]): Everything is [permitted in a Chatzer,] like Kavul and a wig.
Question (Mishnah): She may go out with Kavul or with a wig in a Chatzer.
This is like Rav - but according to Rav Anani, why are these specified?
Answer: Rav Anani cites the opinion of R. Yishmael b'Rebbi Yosi, a Tana - he argues with our Mishnah.
Question: According to Rav, what is special about these, that only they are permitted in a Chatzer?
Answer (Ula): Chachamim permitted these, lest a husband be repulsed by his wife. (Rashba - they cover up a bald spot or a lack of hair. Tosfos - Shmuel explains, a signet of slavery assures a master that his slave does not intend to rebel.)
(Beraisa): "Veha'Davah b'Nidasah" - early Chachamim forbade a Nidah to paint her eyes, apply rouge or adorn herself with colored clothing;
R. Akiva permitted these, lest a husband be repulsed by his wife; "Veha'Davah b'Nidasah" teaches that she is Nidah until she immerses.
(Rav Yehudah): Anything forbidden on account of Mar'is ha'Ayin (suspicion) is forbidden even in private.
Question (Mishnah): [A donkey] may not go out with a bell, even if the clapper is plugged (because it looks like the owner takes it to sell it in the market).
(Beraisa): One may plug up the clapper and take it in the Chatzer (we are concerned for Mar'is ha'Ayin only in Reshus ha'Rabim)!
Answer: Tana'im argue about this (Rav holds like R. Eliezer and R. Shimon):
(Beraisa): [If one's clothes became wet in the rain,] one may spread them to dry in the sun, but not in public view;
R. Eliezer and R. Shimon forbid.