THINGS A WOMAN MAY WEAR OUTSIDE ON SHABBOS
(Mishnah) Question: What may a woman wear outside, and what is forbidden? (Mishnayos starting on 64B will detail what is permitted.)
Answer: She may not go out with threads of wool or linen in her head, or ribbons;
She may not immerse with them unless she loosens them.
She may not go out with Totefes or Sarbitin (the various ornaments are explained later) if they are not sewn [into a headdress that covers her hair];
She may not go out with Kavul to Reshus ha'Rabim, nor with Ir Shel Zahav, nor with Katla, nose rings or rings without a stamp, or a needle without a hole;
If she went out with any of these, she is exempt.
(Gemara) Question: Why does the Mishnah mention immersing [while wearing Kelim that she may not wear]?
Answer (Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak): This clause is the reason for the previous one:
She may not go out with threads of wool or linen because Chachamim require her to remove them before immersing, even during the week - if she will wear them on Shabbos, perhaps she will have to immerse, and she will remove them and carry them four Amos in Reshus ha'Rabim!
Question (Rav Kahana): What is the law regarding [woven] chains of threads?
Answer (Rav): Anything woven is permitted [it cannot be made tight, therefore it need not be removed].
Version #1 (Rav Huna brei d'Rav Yehoshua): Anything woven is permitted.
Version #2 (Rav Huna brei d'Rav Yehoshua): I saw that my sisters are not particular to remove them [when bathing, for they do not obstruct water at all, all the more so one need not remove them to immerse].
Question: What is the difference between these versions?
Answer: They argue about when they are dirty:
Version #1 permits them, for they are woven; Version #2 forbids them, for one removes them [when immersing] for one's own cleanliness.
WHICH THREADS ARE A CHATZITZAH?
(Mishnah): The following are a Chatzitzah on a person - threads of wool or linen or ribbons in a girl's head;
R. Yehudah says, [threads of] wool or hair are not a Chatzitzah, because water goes through them.
(Rav Huna): [Not only ribbons, but] also the threads discussed are in a girl's head.
Question (Rav Yosef): What does Rav Huna come to exclude?
Answer: He excludes threads on the neck (all agree that they are not a Chatzitzah).
Question: What kind of threads [on the neck] does he exclude?
They cannot be wool - the first Tana says that something soft (wool) tied on something hard (the hair on her head) is a Chatzitzah, all the more so soft on soft (the neck) is a Chatzitzah (for it can be tied more tightly)!
Answer #1: They are linen.
Rejection: The first Tana says that hard (linen) on hard is a Chatzitzah, all the more so hard on soft!
Answer #2: [They can be any material -] threads on the neck are not a Chatzitzah because a woman does not tie them tightly, lest she choke herself.
Question (Abaye - Beraisa): Girls may go out with strings in their [pierced] ears (to prevent the holes from closing), but not with Chavakin (bands) wrapped around their necks.
If a woman does not tie tightly around her neck, Chavakin should be permitted!
Answer (Ravina): The Beraisa discusses [thick] Katla'os tied tightly to make her neck look stout (since they are thick, they do not choke her. Tosfos - Katla of the Mishnah is loose, one may not go out with it lest she remove it to show to friends and carry it.)
(Beraisa - R. Yehudah): [Threads of] wool or hair are not a Chatzitzah, because water goes through them.
(Rav Yosef): The Halachah follows R. Yehudah regarding threads of hair.
Objection (Abaye): This implies that Chachamim argue about threads of hair (but we have no source to say this)!
Suggestion: We must say that the first Tana also discussed threads of hair, for otherwise R. Yehudah would not have discussed them!
Rejection: Perhaps R. Yehudah says, just like you agree with me that threads of hair are not a Chatzitzah, you should agree that threads of wool are not a Chatzitzah!
(Rav Nachman): Chachamim agree that threads of hair are not a Chatzitzah.
Support (Beraisa): Threads of wool are a Chatzitzah, threads of hair are not a Chatzitzah;
R. Yehudah says, neither of these is a Chatzitzah.
(Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak): We can also derive this from a Mishnah (64B):
(Mishnah): A woman may go out with threads of hair, whether they are hers or of someone else.
Question: Who is the Tana of the Mishnah?
It is not R. Yehudah - he permits even threads of wool (a bigger Chidush, he would have taught this)!
Answer: It is Chachamim - this shows that they agree about threads of hair.
WEARING ADORNMENTS OF THE HEAD ON SHABBOS
(Mishnah): She may not go out with Totefes.
Question: What is Totefes?
Answer #1 (Rav Yosef): It is a Kesher (spices wrapped together; alternatively, pearls) worn around the neck to counter Ayin Ra'ah.
Objection (Abaye): If so, it should be permitted, like a Kemi'a!
Answer #2 (Rav Yehudah): It is an ornament worn on the forehead.
Support (Beraisa): A woman may go out with a golden headdress, and with Totefes or Sarbitin fixed in it. (The Kesher for Ayin Ra'ah is not usually put in the headdress (Tosfos ha'Rosh) - we cannot support Rav Yehudah from [the following] Amora'im, the support must be from the Beraisa itself.)
(R. Avahu): Totefes goes from one ear to the other, Sarbitin reaches until the jaws.
(Rav Huna): Poor girls make them from colored strings (Tosfos ha'Rosh - nevertheless, we are concerned lest they remove them to show friends), rich girls make them from silver or gold.
(Mishnah): She may not go out [to Reshus ha'Rabim] with Kavul (this can refer to a sign showing that the wearer is a slave, or to a woolen cap worn for a Tachshit under her headdress).
Question (R. Yanai): Does the Mishnah discuss a signet [of slavery] - but one may wear a cap in Reshus ha'Rabim (she is unlikely to remove it, lest her hair will be exposed);
Or, does it forbid a cap, and all the more so a signet (she might remove it to avoid publicizing that she is a slave)!
Answer #1 (R. Avahu): Presumably, it discusses a cap.
Support (Beraisa): A woman may go out with a Kavul or Istama (this will be defined) in a Chatzer;
R. Shimon ben Elazar permits to go out to Reshus ha'Rabim with a Kavul.
R. Shimon ben Elazar says, the general rule is - she may go out with anything under the headdress, not with something over the headdress.
Question: What is Istama?
Answer (R. Avahu): It is Bizyoni.
Question: What is Bizyoni?
Answer (Abaye): It is felt used to tie down hairs that leave the headdress (Rashi; Aruch - to tie down the apparel on her head; alternatively, they are strings to deter flies).
(Beraisa): Three Halachos were taught regarding Istama:
Sha'atnez does not apply to it; (Rashi - for felt is not spun. Tosfos - mid'Rabanan, Sha'atnez applies to felt, for the wool and linen were each Shu'a (combed) - Chachamim did not forbid Istama, for it is hard and does not give warmth. Ramban - it is not worn for the sake of a garment, only for a Tachshit.)
Tzara'as does not apply to it (for it is not considered a garment. Ramban - no Tum'ah applies to it; Tosfos - it is Mekabel other Tum'os);
One may not go out with it to Reshus ha'Rabim;
R. Shimon adds a fourth Halachah - the decree against crowns of brides [to limit Simchah after the Churban] does not apply to it.