PERFORMING HATMANAH TO KEEP SOMETHING COLD
(Mishnah): If it (a pot) was not covered before Shabbos, one may not cover it on Shabbos;
If it was covered and became exposed, one may cover it;
One may fill a flask [of cold water] and put it under a pillow or blanket [to keep it cold].
(Gemara - Shmuel): One may Matmin something cold [to keep it cold].
Objection (Rav Yosef): We already learn this from our Mishnah - one may fill a flask and put it under a pillow or blanket!
Answer (Abaye): One might have thought that this is permitted only regarding things [like water (Rashi; Tosfos ha'Rosh - wine)] that people do not normally Matmin [to keep them warm], but not regarding things [like a Tavshil] that people normally Matmin - Shmuel teaches that both of these are permitted.
(Rav Huna citing Rebbi): One may not Matmin something cold.
Question (Beraisa): Rebbi permitted Hatmanah of something cold.
Answer: Rav Huna cited what Rebbi said at first, the Beraisa is after Rebbi heard R. Yishmael b'Rebbi Yosi [cite his father]:
Rebbi: Hatmanah of cold food is forbidden.
R. Yishmael b'Rebbi Yosi: My father permitted it!
Rebbi: The elder has already ruled (I retract)!
Rav Papa: See how much Chachamim endeared each other! Had R. Yosi been alive, he would have sat humbly in front of Rebbi, just like his son did - R. Yishmael b'Rebbi Yosi was as great as his father;
Nevertheless, Rebbi showed honor to R. Yosi by saying 'The elder has already ruled'.
On Shabbos, Rav Nachman told his slave to Matmin water; on a weekday, he told his slave to bring hot water from a Nochri. R. Ami was upset.
Question (Rav Yosef): R. Ami should not have been upset - Rav Nachman followed his Rebbi'im, Rav and Shmuel!
(Shmuel): One may Matmin something cold.
(Rav): Bishul Akum (the Isur mid'Rabanan to eat something cooked by a Nochri) does not apply to something that can be eaten raw.
Answer: R. Ami holds that an important person should be stringent.
THE COVERING OF A POT THAT IS TAMUN
(Beraisa): Even though on Shabbos Hatmanah is forbidden even in something that does not add heat, one may increase the coverings;
R. Shimon ben Gamliel says, one may remove the sheet it was wrapped in and Matmin in a coat [which insulates better], or vice-versa.
Similarly, R. Shimon ben Gamliel taught [another leniency -] Hatmanah is forbidden only in the kettle that was on the fire - if one transferred the water to another kettle, one may Matmin the latter kettle.
[Hatmanah on Shabbos is forbidden lest one heat the food beforehand -] since he cools the food [by transferring it to another kettle], we are not concerned lest he heat it!
If one covered a pot with something that may be moved [on Shabbos], whether Hatmanah (surrounding the pot) was done in something that may or may not be moved, one may take [the pot, to take food] and return [it];
If one covered with something that may not be moved, whether Hatmanah was done in something that may or may not be moved:
If the pot was partially uncovered, one may take and return; if not, not.
R. Yehudah says, fine chaff of linen is like manure (it adds heat, one may not Matmin in it even from before Shabbos).
[On Shabbos] one may put a [copper] kettle on top of a kettle, or a [Cheres] pot on top of a pot, or a pot on top of a kettle (this text is according to the comment in the margin), but not a kettle on top of a pot (for the kettle retains heat better, it will heat the pot. Rashi's preferred text permits even this.)
One may seal the opening of the pot with dough (kneaded from before Shabbos);
One may not put one pot or kettle on top of another in order to warm the top one, it is permitted to do so just to keep it warm.
Just like [on Shabbos] one may not Matmin something hot, one may not Matmin something cold.
Rebbi permits Hatmanah of something cold.
One may not crush hail or snow in order to melt it; one may put it in a cup or bowl [to cool off liquid inside].
SHEMIRAH THAT IS NECESSARY FOR DIFFERENT ANIMALS
(Mishnah) Question: What may animals go out with on Shabbos? (A person is commanded that his animal rest on Shabbos; it may wear something [normally] used for Shemirah (to protect the animal, or to prevent it from running away. Tosfos (53A Mahu) - we ask about Reshus ha'Rabim; regarding animals we do not forbid in a Chatzer.)
Answer: A camel may go out with a halter (a noose around the head), a Na'akah may go out with a Chotem (these will be translated), Luvdakim may go out with Prumbi'a, a horse may go out with a chain [around the neck with a ring in it, one leads the horse by a rope going through the ring];
All Ba'alei Shir (animals that normally go out with a chain) may go out with a chain and are pulled by a chain [on Shabbos].
[If it became Tamei], one may sprinkle [Mei Chatas] on it and immerse it while it is in place (on the animal; we are not concerned lest the animal be a Chatzitzah, i.e. if it is too tight).
(Gemara) Question: What is a Na'akah with a Chotem?
Answer (Rabah bar bar Chanah): It is a white camel (Me'iri - mule) with an iron ring (it goes through a hole pierced in the wall in the middle of the nose - this is a great Shemirah, for it is prone to run away).
(Mishnah): Luvdakim with Prumbi'a.
(Rav Huna): This is a donkey from Luv with an iron halter.
Levi sent money to Bei Chuzai, and asked them to buy a donkey from Luv (they are big and fast); they returned his money with barley, hinting to him that [one need not make the long journey to Luv to get a good donkey,] a local donkey is fine if he will constantly feed it barley.
(Rav Yehudah citing Shmuel): People asked Rebbi whether or not an animal may go out with Shemirah which is permitted for a different animal.
We need not ask about a white camel with a halter - since it is insufficient Shemirah, surely it is like carrying a load;
We ask about a [regular] camel with an iron nose-ring - since a halter would suffice, it is like a load;
Or, perhaps excessive Shemirah is not considered a load.
R. Yishmael b'Rebbi Yosi: My father taught that four animals go out with a halter - a horse, mule, camel and donkey.
Inference: A camel may go out with a halter, but not with a nose-ring!
Rejection: No, we infer that a camel may go out with a halter, but a white camel may not.
(Beraisa): A donkey of Luv or a camel may go out with a halter.
Tana'im argue about whether or not excessive Shemirah is considered a load:
(Beraisa): A Chayah may not go out with a noose;
Chananyah permits a noose, and anything that guards it.
Question: What is the case?
It cannot discuss a large Chayah - surely, a noose does not suffice!
Answer #1: It discusses a small Chayah.
Rejection: A noose surely suffices (the first Tana would not forbid)!
Answer #2: They argue about a cat:
The first Tana holds that since a small rope suffices for it, a noose is a load; Chananyah holds that excessive Shemirah is not considered a load.
(Rav Huna bar Chiya citing Shmuel): The Halachah follows Chananyah.
Rabah bar Rav Huna and Levi, the son of Rav Huna bar Chiya were riding together on donkeys. Levi's donkey went in front of Rabah's; Rabah was upset (he thought that Levi did so intentionally, even though Rabah was a bigger Chacham). Levi sought to [show that it was unintentional to] appease him.
Question (Levi): May a wicked animal like my donkey go out with an iron halter [or is this excessive Shemirah]?
Answer (Rabah bar Rav Huna): Your father taught that the Halachah follows Chananyah (it is permitted even if it would be excessive Shemirah).