[131a - 40 lines; 131b - 53 lines]
1)[line 3]כמאן דסתימי דמוK'MAN D'SETIMEI DAMU- as if they are sealed up
2)[line 4]מבטלי ליה רשותאMEVATLEI LEI RESHUSA
3)[line 12]מכשירי מצוהMACHSHIREI MITZVAH- actions performed in preparation for a Mitzvah
4)[line 15]שתי הלחםSHTEI HA'LECHEM
(a)The Shtei ha'Lechem Minchah brought on Shavuos (Vayikra 23:16-17) consists of two loaves of bread made from two Esronim of fine wheat flour (approximately 4.32, 4.98 or 8.64 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) mixed with Se'or (sourdough), which causes them to rise and become Chametz. Each loaf is seven Tefachim long (approximately 53.2, 56 or 67.2 cm) and four Tefachim wide (30.4, 32 or 38.4 cm); the corners of the loaves project upward to a height of four Etzba'os (Menachos 96a, RAMBAM Hilchos Temidin u'Musafin 8:10). It was baked from "Chadash," the newly grown wheat (Vayikra 23:17). One loaf is given to the Kohen Gadol and the other is divided among the rest of the Kohanim in the Mikdash at the time. They are eaten on the day of Shavu'os and the night afterwards, until midnight (RAMBAM Hilchos Temidin u'Musafin 8:11).
(b)In conjunction with the Shtei ha'Lechem, the Kohanim offer in the name of the Tzibur various Korbenos Olah (one bullock, two rams, and seven male sheep), a female goat as a Korban Chatas, and two sheep (the Kivsei Atzeres) that are Zivchei Shelamim (Vayikra 23:18-19). (These sheep were the only Shelamim brought by the Tzibur, and the only Shelamim that were Kodshei Kodashim.) Tenufah (waving portions of Korbanos, see Background to Menachos 93:39) of the Shtei ha'Lechem is performed twice: once along with the live sheep, and once with the Chazeh and Shok (the chest and the two upper sections of the right hind leg, until the hip joint) of both sheep.
(c)Until the Shtei ha'Lechem are offered there is a prohibition to offer Menachos of Chadash in the Beis ha'Mikdash, which is removed after they are offered (Menachos 68b).
(a)There is a Mitzvah to bring the Minchas ha'Omer on the second day of Pesach. A large quantity of barley is reaped after nightfall after the first day of Pesach. At this time the grain is still moist, and the process of extracting one Omer (approximately 2.16, 2.49 or 4.32 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) of fine barley flour is extremely difficult. The flour is baked and offered on the 16th of Nisan. It is also referred to as the Minchas Bikurim (Vayikra 2:14-16). Levonah is added, and Tenufah (waving portions of Korbanos, see Background to Sanhedrin 82:60), Hagashah, Kemitzah, and Haktarah are performed (see Background to Menachos 72:25a:c).
(b)The Sheyarei ha'Minchah, also called the Mosar ha'Omer, are eaten by the Kohanim. In addition, a lamb is offered as an Olah, as it states in Vayikra 23:12. The Minchas ha'Omer is the first offering of the new grain of the year (Chadash). Until it is offered, there is a prohibition to eat Chadash (Kidushin 37a, Menachos 68b, RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'achalos Asuros 10:2), which is removed after it is offered.
6)[line 19]מופניMUFNEI- they (the words) must be free (i.e. are not necessary for the understanding of the simple meaning of the verse or for any other Derashah, so that they may be used to infer a Gezeirah Shavah)
7)[line 22]לאי; אפנויי מופניLAI; AFNUYEI MUFNEI- indeed; they are certainly free (for inferring a Gezeirah Shavah)
8)[line 26]מופנה מצד אחד למידין ומשיביןMUFNEH MI'TZAD ECHAD LEMEIDUN U'MESHIVIN (GEZEIRAH SHAVAH)
(a)In the Introduction to the Sifra (the Halachic Midrash to Vayikra), Rebbi Yishmael lists thirteen methods that Chazal use for extracting the Halachah from the verses of the Torah. One of them is Gezeirah Shavah, which is a Halachic device by which two similar words in the Torah from different subjects teach that laws from one subject apply to the other.
(b)A sage may use the method of Gezeirah Shavah only if he received a tradition from his teachers that a Gezeirah Shavah exists between the two words. However, the comparison that he makes regarding which laws are applied from one subject to the other may be his own, in the event that he did not learn this directly from his teachers.
(c)MUFNEH MI'SHENEI TZEDADIM - If two similar words in the Torah are free of any Derashah, they may be used unconditionally for the inference of a Gezeirah Shavah between the two topics.
(d)MUFNEH MI'TZAD ECHAD - If only one of the words is free, there is a Machlokes whether they may be used unconditionally for the inference of a Gezeirah Shavah ("Lemedin v'Ein Meshivin"), or if they can only be used for a Gezeirah Shavah if we have no logical argument against learning the Gezeirah Shavah ("Lemedin u'Meshivin").
(e)EINO MUFNEH KOL IKAR - If both words are used for another Derashah, there is a Machlokes whether they can only be used for a Gezeirah Shavah if we have no logical argument not to learn the Gezeirah Shavah, or if they cannot be used at all for a Gezeirah Shavah.
(f)If there are a few possible Halachos that the Gezeirah Shavah teaches, we learn them all ("Ein Gezeirah Shavah l'Mechetzah"). We do not say that it teaches us only one or two of the Halachos (unless we have an explicit teaching that excludes a specific Halachah).
9)[line 45]ורדיית הפתREDIYAS HA'PAS- peeling a pita off the wall of an oven