[6a - 50 lines; 6b - 33 lines]

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We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.

[1] Rashi 6b DH Aval Lizrok ד"ה אבל לזרוק:

The words "sheha'Zorek me'Reshus ha'Rabim" שהזורק מרשות הרבים

should be "ha'Zorek me'Reshus ha'Rabim" הזורק מרשות הרבים

[2] Gilyon ha'Shas 6b [third entry]:

The words "Ayein Eruvin Amud Alef" עיין ערובין עמוד א'

should be "Ayein Eruvin Daf 6 Amud Alef" עיין ערובין דף ו' עמוד א'


1)[line 11]צדי רשות הרביםTZIDEI RESHUS HA'RABIM- an area at the side of Reshus ha'Rabim which is used by the public only when the Reshus ha'Rabim is congested

2)[line 19]חיפופיCHIFUFEI- "rubbing pegs," pegs stuck into the ground as a barrier so that the people and wagons will not rub against the walls at the side of Reshus ha'Rabim

3)[line 25]ארבע רשויות לשבתARBA RESHUYOS L'SHABBOS- See Charts #1, 2

4a)[line 29]סרטיאSERATYA- a wide street

b)[line 29]פלטיאPELATYA- and a wide, open plaza in a city where people gather for business

5)[line 30]ומבואות המפולשיןU'MAVO'OS HA'MEFULASHIN- and alleyways which are open on both ends to Reshus ha'Rabim

6)[line 33]במזיד, ענוש כרת ונסקלB'MEZID, ANOSH KARES V'NISKAL- If a person had full intent to do a Melachah, he may be liable to Kares (his life is cut short and/or his children will die out) or Sekilah (Halachic stoning). Kares applies if he was not warned, and two witnesses did not see the act. Sekilah applies if he did the Melachah after receiving a proper warning not to do it, and two witnesses saw him do it.

7)[line 34]בקעהBIK'AH- (O.F. chanpagne) a plain [of open fields]

8)[line 34]איסטווניתISTEVANIS- a raised platform in front of the stores on which the shopkeepers st

9)[line 35]אין נושאין ונותניןEIN NOS'IN V'NOSNIN- one may not carry [objects in them for more than four Amos]


(a)According to Torah law, in a courtyard which has in it houses owned by different people, all of the neighbors may transfer objects from their houses to the courtyard and into other houses on Shabbos. Even though each house is a separate Reshus ha'Yachid, it is permissible to move objects from one Reshus ha'Yachid to another. Similarly, when several courtyards open into a walled alley (which is considered a Reshus ha'Yachid), or when a city is surrounded by a wall (making it a Reshus ha'Yachid), it is permitted to transfer objects from one courtyard to another or anywhere within the walled city, according to Torah law. (RAMBAM Hilchos Eruvin 1:1)

(b)However, Shlomo ha'Melech decreed that it is forbidden mid'Rabanan to transfer objects from one house to another or from a house to a courtyard unless an Eruv Chatzeiros (lit. a "mixing" of the courtyards) is created before Shabbos begins. (Shabbos 14b, Eruvin 21b). Similarly, it is forbidden mid'Rabanan to transfer objects between different courtyards or from a courtyard to the alleyway into which the courtyard opens, unless a Shitufei Mavo'os is created before Shabbos begins.

(c)An Eruv Chatzeiros is created by having each of the neighbors set aside a certain amount of bread, in one common container, in one of the houses of the courtyard. By doing so, they demonstrate that all of the neighbors have a share in all of the Reshuyos ha'Yachid, just as they all have a share in that bread. This causes all of their houses and courtyards to be considered a single Reshus ha'Yachid. A Shitufei Mavo'os is created in a similar manner, except that any food except for water, salt and mushrooms may be used for the Shituf and it is not necessary to use bread. (RAMBAM ibid. 1:4-9)


11)[line 1]לחי ... קורהLECHI … KORAH

(a)Although, according to Torah law, a Mavoy (an alley that is walled on three sides which opens into a public thoroughfare and has courtyards that open into it) is a Reshus ha'Yachid, the Chachamim prohibited carrying objects in a Mavoy a distance of four Amos or more. This decree was enacted because a Mavoy is in some ways similar to a Reshus ha'Rabim, since many families make use of a single Mavoy.

(b)To permit carrying within a Mavoy, a Lechi or Korah (as described below) must be placed at the entrance to the Mavoy. The Lechi or Korah serves to set apart the Mavoy from Reshus ha'Rabim. In addition, the courtyards which open into the Mavoy must make a Shitufei Mavo'os before Shabbos begins in order to permit carrying within the Mavoy (see above, #11b).

(c)A Lechi is a pole, plank, or other object that is at least ten Tefachim high, which is stood vertically along one of the walls at the open end of the Mavoy. A Lechi is viewed as though it is a Mechitzah (an entire fourth wall across the open end of the Mavoy), setting the Mavoy apart from the adjacent Reshus ha'Rabim and making it a full-fledged Reshus ha'Yachid. Others maintain that a Lechi serves not as a Mechitzah but only as a Heker (sign) to the people who live in the Mavoy, signaling the end of the Reshus ha'Yachid of the Mavoy and reminding them not to transfer objects from the Mavoy to the adjacent Reshus ha'Rabim. (Eruvin 5a, 15a)

(d)A Korah is a beam, one or more Tefachim thick, which is rested horizontally across the top of the open end of the Mavoy. The Korah, too, serves as a Mechitzah or as a Heker, as described above in (c). (See Insights to Eruvin 2a, and Eruvin Graphic #1.)

12)[line 1]קורהKORAH

(a)Another method for the rectification of a Mavoy, besides Lechi (see above, #12), is Korah (a beam, one Tefach thick). The Korah was placed horizontally across the top of the entrance to the Mavoy.

(b)In the case of two houses on either side of a Reshus ha'Rabim, Rebbi Yehudah requires two beams, which are placed horizontally from house to house, at each end of the houses. The beams span the Reshus ha'Rabim, and signal the border of Reshus ha'Rabim and Reshus ha'Yachid

13a)[line 5]לטלטלL'TALTEL- to prohibit carrying more than four Amos within this area

b)[line 5]לזרוקLI'ZROK- to be Chayav a Chatas if someone throws an object into this area from Reshus ha'Rabim

14)[line 8]דרך רשות הרבים מפסקתןDERECH RESHUS HA'RABIM MEFASKASAN

Chazal instituted various lenient rulings in order to help the Diaspora Jews fulfill the Mitzvah of Aliyah l'Regel (traveling to the Beis ha'Mikdash for the holidays of Pesach, Shavuos and Sukos). One of these is called Pasei Bira'os (planks for the wells). Since a well situated in Reshus ha'Rabim which is at least four by four Tefachim and ten Tefachim deep is a Reshus ha'Yachid, travelers would not be able to draw water from the well on Shabbos if they wanted to set the water down at the edge of the well. By placing four corner pieces around the well, which are not normally acceptable as Mechitzos, the area around the well is considered a Reshus ha'Yachid. The corner pieces were placed ten Amos apart and the open space between them is considered a "doorway" in a full wall. The Mishnah (Eruvin 22a) cited by our Gemara discusses a case where the only path available on which to walk crosses the ten by ten Amah area.

15)[line 19]מגלת סתריםMEGILAS SETARIM- a scroll which contained words from the Oral Law, which were not permitted to be written, that had to be concealed. (Today the Oral Law is permitted to be written, lest we forget it.)

16)[line 20]אבות מלאכותAVOS MELACHOS

(a)There are thirty-nine Avos Melachos (categories of creative acts) that are forbidden mid'Oraisa on Shabbos. Each Av Melachah has Toldos (sub-categories) that are also forbidden mid'Oraisa. A list of the Avos Melachos is found in the Mishnah on Daf 73a.

(b)A person who transgresses one of the Avos or Toldos of Shabbos and was unaware that the act was a Melachah, or he was unaware that the day was Shabbos, needs to bring a Korban Chatas to atone for the sin. If he had full intent to do the Melachah, he may be liable to Kares (his life is cut short and/or his children will die out) or Sekilah (Halachic stoning). Kares applies if he was not warned, and two witnesses did not see the act. Sekilah applies if he did the Melachah after receiving a proper warning not to do it, and two witnesses saw him do it. (According to Isi ben Yehudah, transgressing a particular one of the thirty-nine Melachos never results in Sekilah, but it is not known which one. -Gemara and Tosfos DH Ha)

17)[line 30]רשות הרבים לטומאהRESHUS HA'RABIM L'TUM'AH

Since the Halachos of Tum'as Safek (uncertain Tum'ah) are learned from the case of Sotah (see Background to Berachos 63:6), the ruling in each case of Tum'as Safek depends upon its similarity to the case of a Sotah. One of the requisites is that the Tum'ah be in a Makom Stirah (concealed place). If an object is in Reshus ha'Rabim, which has a constant influx of people, and we are not sure if this object is Tamei mid'Oraisa, the Torah tells us to consider it Tahor. If it is in Reshus ha'Yachid, which is a Makom Stirah, the Torah tells us to consider it Tamei.