[66a - 49 lines; 66b - 44 lines]
1)[line 1]אל תתחיל ביAL TASCHIL BI- "Do not begin [the tax-collection] with me!"
2)[line 5]בדבר שחייבין על זדונו כרת, ועל שגגתו חטאתDAVAR SHE'CHAYAVIN AL ZEDONO KARES V'AL SHIGEGASO CHATAS- a Melachah that one would be liable to Kares for committing wittingly, and a Korban Chatas for committing unwillingly (i.e., a Melachah that involved an act of "Meleches Machasheves"; see Background to Sanhedrin 62:31)
3)[line 6]מכלל דאיכא מידיMI'KELAL D'IKA MIDI- this implies that there is something
4)[line 8]תחומין, ואליבא דרבי עקיבאTECHUMIN, V'ALIBA D'REBBI AKIVA - Techumin, according to the opinion of Rebbi Akiva (TECHUMIN: MID'ORAISA / MID'RABANAN)
(a)A person is only allowed to walk a distance of 2000 Amos, approximately 960 meters (3147 feet) or 1,152 meters (3774 feet), depending upon the differing Halachic opinions, from his city or dwelling place (if he is not in a city) on Shabbos or Yom Tov. If he wants to walk another 2000 Amos, he must make an Eruv Techumin.
(b)This is accomplished by placing an amount of food that would be used for two meals nearly 2000 Amos away from his present location, in the direction in which he wishes to walk. The location where his food is placed is considered his new dwelling or place of Shevisah for that Shabbos or Yom Tov, and he may walk 2000 Amos in any direction from there.
(c)The Tana'im (Mishnah, Sotah 27b) argue as to whether Techumin are mid'Oraisa or mid'Rabanan. The Halachah follows the opinion that they are mid'Rabanan (RAMBAM Hilchos Shabbos 27:1).
5)[line 9]הבערה, ואליבא דרבי יוסיHAV'ARAH, V'ALIBA D'RABI YOSI (HAV'ARAH L'LAV YATZ'AH / L'CHALEK YATZ'AH)
6)[line 11]עד שיקללם בשםAD SHE'YEKALELAM B'SHEM- unless he curses them with HaSh-m's Name
7)[line 11]קללם בכנויKILELAM B'CHINUY- if he cursed them with an Attribute of HaSh-m (e.g. שַׁ-קָּי, צב-קות, חנון, רחום - RASHI)
8)[line 14]"[וְנֹקֵב שֵׁם ה' מוֹת יוּמָת, רָגוֹם יִרְגְּמוּ בוֹ כָּל הָעֵדָה; כַּגֵּר כָּאֶזְרָח,] בְּנָקְבוֹ שֵׁם יוּמָת""[V'NOKEV SHEM HASH-M MOS YUMAS, RAGOM YIRGEMU VO KOL HA'EDAH; KA'GER KA'EZRACH,] B'NOKVO SH-M YUMAS"- "[And one who blasphemes the name of HaSh-m shall surely be put to death, the entire assembly shall stone him; a proselyte like a native], if he blasphemes the Name [of HaSh-m] he shall die" (Vayikra 24:16).
9)[line 15]לימדLIMED- [this word] teaches [through the methodology "Im Eino Inyan" - see entry #24 below]
10)[line 16]"כִּי אִישׁ אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר יְקַלֵּל אֶת אָבִיו וְאֶת אִמּוֹ מוֹת יוּמָת; אָבִיו וְאִמּוֹ קִלֵּל דָּמָיו בּוֹ""KI ISH ISH ASHER YEKALEL ES AVIV V'ES IMO, MOS YUMAS; AVIV V'IMO KILEL, DAMAV BO"- "For any person that shall curse his father and his mother, shall be put to death; his father and his mother he has cursed, his blood is upon him" (Vayikra 20:9).
11)[line 18]אין לי אלא אביו ואמוEIN LI ELA AVIV V'IMO- I would only know [if he cursed both] his father and mother
12)[line 19]אביו שלא אמו, אמו שלא אביוAVIV SHE'LO IMO, IMO SHE'LO AVIV- [if, however, he cursed] his father but not his mother, [or] his mother but not his father
13)[line 20]תלמוד לומר, "אָבִיו וְאִמּוֹ קִלֵּל"TALMUD LOMAR, "AVIV V'IMO KILEL"- this verse teaches it: "his father and mother he has cursed" (by placing the word "curse" adjacent to the word "father" in the first half of the verse, and adjacent to "mother" in the second half - RASHI)
14)[line 26]"[וְאִישׁ אוֹ אִשָּׁה כִּי יִהְיֶה בָהֶם אוֹב אוֹ יִדְּעֹנִי מוֹת יוּמָתוּ; בָּאֶבֶן יִרְגְּמוּ אֹתָם] דְּמֵיהֶם בָּם""[V'ISH O ISHAH KI YIHYEH VAHEM OV O YIDE'ONI, MOS YUMASU; BA'EVEN YIRGEMU OSAM,] DEMEIHEM BAM"- "[And any man or woman, if there shall be in them (the sin of) of Ov or Yide'oni, they shall surely be put to death; they shall stone them with stones,] their blood is upon them" (Vayikra 20:27).
15)[line 28]"אֱ-לֹקִים לֹא תְקַלֵּל, וְנָשִׂיא בְעַמְּךָ לֹא תָאֹר""EL-KIM LO SEKALEL, V'NASI V'AMECHA LO SAOR"- "You shall not curse a judge, and a prince among your people you shall not curse" (Shemos 22:27). (See entry #25 below regarding the meaning of the word "El-kim" in this verse.)
16)[line 31]בנין אבBINYAN AV
In the Introduction to the Sifra (the Halachic Midrash to Vayikra), Rebbi Yishmael lists thirteen methods that Chazal use for extracting the Halachah from the verses of the Torah. One of them is called Binyan Av. A Binyan Av (lit. "building through a father" - father in this sense means a Biblical source), is a rule of Biblical interpretation in which one subject is deemed a prototype in order to apply a Halachah stated in that subject to other comparable subjects.
17)[line 31]לא ראי נשיא כראי דייןLO RE'I NASI K'RE'I DAYAN - (TZAD HA'SHAVEH)
(a)The method of learning that is being used by our Gemara is called a comparison, or "Mah Matzinu" - "What we have found [in one subject, applies to another subject, also]." Among the rules of this method is the rule of a "Pirchah" (a question), where even a slight difference between the subjects causes the comparison to collapse, and no connection may be made.
(b)If a Pirchah is asked, the Gemara may bring a "Yochi'ach" or "Tochi'ach" (fem.) (a proof), where another subject, which fulfills the requirements of the Pirchah, is used to rebuild the comparison. A second Pirchah usually follows, where the Yochi'ach subject is brought into question. Then the original subject becomes the Yochi'ach.
(c)The conclusion is v'Chazar ha'Din (the Din goes back and forth), Lo Re'i Zeh k'Re'i Zeh (this subject is not exactly like that subject and vice versa), but the Tzad ha'Shaveh (common denominator) may be used to connect the Halachos of the two subjects, and we may learn a new Halachah from them. The common denominator may also be brought into question, which inhibits learning the new Halachah from the two subjects.
18a)[line 33]דיין אתה מצווה על הוראתוDAYAN, ATAH METZUVEH AL HORA'ASO- [in regards to] a judge, one is prohibited to differ from his Halachic ruling
b)[line 34]שהנשיא אתה מצווה על המראתוNASI, ATAH METZUVEH AL HAMRA'ASO- [in regards to] the ruler, one is prohibited to disobey him in practice
19)[line 36]מה להצד השוה שבהןMAH L'HA'TZAD HA'SHAVEH SHE'BAHEN- [however,] what [do we find] regarding their common factor
20)[line 37]שכן גדלותן גרמה להןSHE'KEN GADLUSAN GAREMAH LAHEN- that their great status causes [these prohibitions] regarding them
21)[line 37]"לֹא תְקַלֵּל חֵרֵשׁ [וְלִפְנֵי עִוֵּר לֹא תִתֵּן מִכְשֹׁל; וְיָרֵאתָ מֵּאֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲנִי ה']""LO SEKALEL CHERESH..."- "Do not curse the deaf, [and do not put a stumbling-block before the blind; and you shall fear your G-d, I am HaSh-m" (Vayikra 19:14).
22)[line 38]באומללים שבעמך הכתוב מדברB'UMELALIM SHEB'AMCHA HA'KASUV MEDABER- the verse speaks of the unfortunate among your people
23)[line 42]שכן משוניןSHE'KEN MESHUNIN- that they are different, [each in some way]
24)[line 43]אם אינו ענין לגופו, תנהו ענין לאביוIM EINO INYAN L'GUFO, TENEIHU INYAN L'AVIV - if it is unnecessary in its context, apply it to his father instead (IM EINO INYAN)
(a)One of the methodologies employed by Chazal when determining Halachah from the verses of the Torah is known as "Im Eino Inyan." At times, it may be impossible to apply a particular law in the verse to the context in which it appears. This may be because we already know that law from a different verse, or conversely, because it would be contradicted by a different verse or by logic.
(b)In such a case, Chazal may instead apply that law to a parallel case, or to a broader scope of cases.
(c)Once the methodology of "Im Eino Inyan" has been applied, we consider the law to have been written explicitly in its new context, and it may be used even as the basis for applying the death penalty (see Encyclopedia Talmudis, vol. 2, "Im Eino Inyan").
25a)[line 44]חולCHOL- mundane (i.e., the word "Elohim" in Shemos 22:27 (see entry #15 above) means "judges")
b)[line 44]קודשKODESH- sanctified (i.e. the word in that verse refers to HaSh-m)
26)[line 47]גמרינן חול מקודשGAMRINAN CHOL MI'KODESH- we learn the prohibition of cursing a judge from the prohibition of doing so towards HaSh-m (the Gemara presently assumes that this derivation is a simple "Mah Matzinu"; see entry #17 above - RASHI)
27)[last line]גמר חול מקודש?!GAMAR CHOL MI'KODESH?!- can we [logically] derive the meaning from the sanctified meaning?!
28)[line 1]נערה המאורסהNA'ARAH HA'ME'ORASAH - A Betrothed Maiden
(a)One who commits adultery with a married woman after having been properly warned of the consequences by two valid witnesses receives the death penalty of Chenek (choking). If the woman was a willing participant in the act, then she too receives Chenek.
(b)One exception to this rule is if the woman was a Na'arah Besulah Me'orasah, a virgin (Besulah) during her first six months after reaching her physical maturity (Na'arah) who had been betrothed with Kidushin (Me'orasah) but not fully married (Nisu'in). In this case, the adulterer and adulteress receive Sekilah (stoning) instead of Chenek (Devarim 22:22-24).
29)[line 3]והיא בבית אביהHI B'VEIS AVIHA- she was still in her father's home [and not yet with the husband's messengers on the way to the Nisu'in]
30)[line 5]בחנקCHENEK- strangulation (the usual penalty for adultery)
31)[line 5]"כִּי יִהְיֶה נַעֲרָה בְתוּלָה מְאֹרָשָׂה לְאִישׁ; [וּמְצָאָהּ אִישׁ בָּעִיר וְשָׁכַב עִמָּהּ]""KI YIHYEH NA'ARAH VESULAH MEORASAH L'ISH; [U'METZA'AH ISH BA'IR, V'SHACHAV IMAH]"- "If there shall be a virgin maiden betrothed to a man; [and (another) man finds her in the city, and lies with her]" (Devarim 22:23).
32)[line 5]בוגרתBOGERES- a girl who has reached full Halachic maturity, six months after developing Simanim as a Na'arah
33)[line 7]פרט לשמסר האב לשלוחי הבעלPERAT L'SHE'MASAR HA'AV LI'SHLUCHEI HA'BA'AL- this excludes when the father has already given her over to the husband's messengers (on the way to the Nisu'in)
34)[line 8]זו דברי רבי מאירZO DIVREI REBBI MEIR- Our Mishnah [which exempts the adulterer "until she is a Na'arah" - implying that if the girl was still a Ketanah, he would be exempt from Sekilah] is the opinion of Rebbi Meir [on Kesuvos 29a, who interprets the word Na'arah regarding Ones and Mefateh to likewise exclude a Ketanah]
35)[line 12]ולמעוטי בוגרת ותו לא!LI'MEUTEI VOGERES, V'SU LO!- to exclude a Bogeres alone
36)[line 15]ותו לא מידיTU LO MIDI- no further questioning is possible
37)[line 19]"[כִּי יִמָּצֵא אִישׁ שֹׁכֵב עִם אִשָּׁה בְעֻלַת בַּעַל] וּמֵתוּ גַּם שְׁנֵיהֶם [הָאִישׁ הַשֹּׁכֵב עִם הָאִשָּׁה וְהָאִשָּׁה; וּבִעַרְתָּ הָרָע מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל]""[KI YIMATZEI ISH SHOCHEV IM ISHAH VEULAS BA'AL,] U'MESU GAM SHNEIHEM..."- "[If a man is found lying with a woman who is married to a husband,] then they both shall die, [the man who lies with the woman, as well as the woman; and you shall destroy the evil from Yisrael]" (Devarim 22:22).
38)[line 19]עד שיהו שניהן שויןAD SHE'YIHYU SHNEIHEN SHAVIN- unless they are both equally liable to punishment
39)[line 21]"[וְאִם בַּשָּׂדֶה יִמְצָא הָאִישׁ אֶת הַנַּעֲרָ הַמְאֹרָשָׂה וְהֶחֱזִיק בָּהּ הָאִישׁ וְשָׁכַב עִמָּהּ;] וּמֵת הָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר שָׁכַב עִמָּהּ לְבַדּוֹ""[V'IM BA'SADEH YIMTZA HA'ISH ES HA'NA'ARAH HA'MEORASAH, V'HECHEZIK BAH HA'ISH V'SHACHAV IMAH;] U'MES HA'ISH ASHER SHACHAV IMAH L'VADO"- "But if the man finds the betrothed maiden in the field, and the man takes hold of her and lies with her;] then the man who has lain with her alone shall die" (Devarim 22:25).
40)[line 25]ואידךIDACH- the other [opinion, namely, Rebbi Yonasan]
41)[line 26]למעוטי מעשה חידודיםLI'M'UTEI MA'ASEH CHIDUDIM- to exclude acts other than relations [an alternate Girsa cited by Rashi and Tosfos: למעוטי מעשה הורדוס - to exclude an act like Herod (see Bava Basra 3b)]
42)[line 29]ועדיין היא בתולהADAYIN HI VESULAH- she is still a virgin (i.e. the relations were she'Lo k'Darka)
43)[line 31]"וּבַת אִישׁ כֹּהֵן כִּי תֵחֵל לִזְנוֹת; [אֶת אָבִיהָ הִיא מְחַלֶּלֶת בָּאֵשׁ תִּשָּׂרֵף]""U'VAS ISH KOHEN KI SECHEL LI'ZNOS; [ES AVIHA HI MECHALELES, BA'ESH TISAREF"- "And if the daughter of a Kohen shall begin to commit adultery; [she defiles her father, she shall be burnt in fire]" (Vayikra 21:9).
44)[line 37]אידך, בחנקIDACH, B'CHENEK- otherwise, she receives Chenek
45a)[line 42]נשאת לאחד מן הפסוליןNIS'ES L'ECHAD MIN HA'PESULIN- if she was previously married to a husband [forbidden to her,] who disqualifies her [from marrying a Kohen in the future]
b)[line 42]מיתתה בחנקMISASAH B'CHENEK- she would be executed with Chenek (and not Sereifah)
46)[line 43]תחילת אחלתהTECHILAS ACHALASAH- her initial defilement