[65a - 39 lines; 65b - 48 lines]

1a)[line 1] BA'AL OV- a necromancer who communicates with the dead (in a manner that our Gemara will explain)

b)[line 1] ZEH PISOM HA'MEDABER MI'SHECHYO- this is the sorcerer known as Pisom, who [arouses the spirit of the dead to] speak from his armpit

2)[line 2], YIDE'ONI, ZEH HA'MEDABER B'FIV- a necromancer who communicates with the dead by placing the bone of a Yidu'a / Adnei ha'Sadeh (a creature defined by the Yerushalmi (Kil'ayim 8:5) as "a wild man of the fields") in his or her mouth. The bone speaks of its own accord, without the aid of the Yide'oni practitioner.

3)[line 3] HA'NISH'AL BAHEM B'AZHARAH- the person who consults them has violated a Mitzvas Lo Sa'aseh (but is not liable to the death penalty)

4)[line 5] GABEI KERISOS- on the list of sins punishable by Kares (Mishnah, Kerisos 2a)

5)[line 5] SHAYEREI L'YIDE'ONI- it leaves out Yide'oni

6)[line 6] HO'IL U'SHNEIHEN B'LAV ECHAD NE'EMRU- since both [Ov and Yide'oni] are prohibited by one Lo Sa'aseh [therefore, one who practices both of these b'Shogeg would bring only one Korban Chatas]

7)[line 10] CHALUKIN HEN B'MISA- they [Ov and Yide'oni] are separated [by the word "" in the Pasuk] regarding the death penalty that applies to them(Vayikra 20:27).

8a)[line 15] MA'ASEH RABAH- a significant act

b)[line 16] MA'ASEH ZUTA- a small act [such as the speech of the Megadef; the Yide'oni practitioner, however, does not speak at all]

9)[line 17] AKIMAS SEFASAV- the movement of his lips

10)[line 18] HAKASHAS ZERO'OSAV- the banging of his arms

11)[line 19] ?AFILU L'RABANAN?- [is the banging of arms considered a sufficient act] even according to the Rabanan (who omit Megadef from the list on Kerisos 2a, but include Ba'al Ov)?

12)[line 29] MEKATER LA'SHED- [the Ba'al Ov in Kerisos 2a that involves an action, refers to] one who burns an offering to the demon [in charge of this type of sorcery]

13)[line 30] MEKATER L'CHABER- one who burns [something] in order to gather the demons [and not to serve the demons as idolatry]

14)[line 33]" [ ]"V'CHOVER CHAVER, [V'SHO'EL OV V'YIDE'ONI V'DORESH EL HA'MESIM]"- "[There shall not be found among you...] or an animal charmer, [or one who consults the forms of witchcraft known as "Ov" and "Yide'oni," or a necromancer]" (Devarim 18:11). See Background to Sanhedrin 56:32, and the continuation of our Daf.

15)[line 33] CHOVER CHAVER- one who gathers creatures together using certain incantations

16)[line 35] HAI MAN D'TZAMID ZIBURA V'AKRAVA- one who brings together bees or scorpions

17)[last line] HO'IL V'YESHNO BA'LEV- since the sin of Megadef is dependent upon the intention in his heart [and not the act of speech alone]


18)[line 1] EDIM ZOMEMIN

See Background to Sanhedrin 41:11.

19a)[line 5] CHASEMAH B'KOL - he muzzled the animal with his voice (e.g. he gave a verbal command that frightened it to refrain from eating)

It is prohibited to muzzle an animal when it is threshing grain, as the Torah states, "Lo Sachsom Shor b'Disho" (Devarim 25:4). The Gemara discusses this prohibition in Bava Metzia 88b et. seq.

b)[line 5] V'HINHIGAH B'KOL - or drove [two animals of differing species] with his voice (KIL'EI BEHEMAH: MANHIG)

See Background to Sanhedrin 59:27.

20)[line 7] AKIMAS PIV- the movements of his mouth (not necessarily in words)

21)[line 9] HO'IL V'YESHNAN BI'RE'IYAH- since the sin of Edim Zomemin is dependent upon what they [claim to] have seen [and not upon the effect of their voices alone]

22)[line 10] BEIN HA'PERAKIM- upon the joints; between the appendages

23)[line 11] HA'MENI'ACH ETZEM YIDU'A B'FIV- one who places the bone of a Yidu'a in his mouth; see entry #2 above

24)[line 12]"[ , ;] [ ]""[V'SHAFALT, ME'ERETZ TEDABERI, U'ME'AFAR TISHACH IMRASECH] V'HAYAH K'OV ME'ERETZ KOLECH [U'ME'AFAR IMRASECH TETZAFTZEF]"- "[And you shall be humbled and speak [as if] from the ground, and from the dust your speech shall bend over;] your voice wil be as Ov from the ground, and from the dust your speech shall twitter" (Yeshayahu 29:4).

25)[line 13] MISHTA'I KI URECHEI- it speaks normally (i.e. from the ground)

26)[line 14] ...SALIK V'YASIV- it arises and rests...

27)[line 15]"[ ] ""... VA'TOMER HA'ISHAH EL SHA'UL, ELOHIM RA'ISI OLIM MIN HA'ARETZ" - "[The king said to her, 'Do not be afraid; but what did you see?'] The woman said to Shaul, 'I saw angels coming up from the ground'" (Shmuel I 28:13) (SHA'UL CALLS UP THE SPIRIT OF SHMUEL)

(a)When Shaul ha'Melech saw the attacking Philistine army in what would be his final battle, he was gripped by fear. He tried to consult HaSh-m to find out what he should do, but HaSh-m declined to answer him through any medium - dreams, the Urim v'Tumim, and the prophets. Shaul then told his servants to find for him a Ba'alas Ov (a necromancer) through whose services he would be able to bring up Shmuel, who had recently died, from the grave. Although this was no easy matter (as Shaul himself had just destroyed all of the Ovos and the Yide'onim from the entire land), his servants were informed of a witch who lived in Ein Dor.

(b)Disguising himself, Shaul went to visit her, accompanied by two trusted servants (Avner and Amasa). When the Ba'alas Ov expressed fear as to what would happen to her if Shaul found out that she had survived his "witch-hunt," he promised her that nothing would happen to her. Following Shaul's instructions to conjure up Shmuel, she did so, but immediately let out a scream, as it is a rule of necromancy that the person who is brought up appears upside-down, unless he is being brought up on behalf of a king, in which case he would appear head-first. Since Shmuel appeared head-first, she now knew that the man who was visiting her was none other than Shaul ha'Melech, whom she immediately accused of having tricked her (as she thought that he now intended to kill her).

(c)The king repeated his assurance that nothing would happen to her, and asked her what she had seen (as in necromancy, the witch sees but cannot hear, while the person on whose behalf the person is being brought up hears but cannot see). By her description, Shaul knew that it was indeed Shmuel whom she had brought up.

(d)Chazal ascribe Shmuel's use of the plural form of the word "Elokim" (angels) to the fact that Shmuel, fearful that he was being called to the Heavenly Court to give a reckoning for his deeds in this world, had asked Moshe Rabeinu to accompany him to testify on his behalf.

(e)It is noteworthy that in Shaul's response to Shmuel, Shaul omitted mention of the Urim v'Tumim (even though the Urim v'Tumim did not respond to his request either). This was because Shaul attributed the Urim v'Tumim's silence to his having killed the priestly city of Nov, and now he felt embarrassed at having perpetrated such a terrible sin. This explains the positive side of Shmuel's otherwise negative message.

(f)Shmuel's response was, unfortunately, not a happy one. He informed Shaul that because he failed to destroy Amalek as he had been instructed to do, HaSh-m had departed from him and became his enemy. Furthermore, He had taken the kingdom away from him and given it to David. Moreover, Yisrael would be defeated by the Pelishtim, and he and his sons would join him (Shmuel) in Gan Eden. (Shaul was thus informed that he merited Gan Eden, because of his remorse for his sin.)

28)[line 18]ZECHURO- (a) upon his male organ (RASHI); (b) this Aramaic name of this type of sorcery is "Zechuru" (TOSFOS, based on Targum)

29)[line 22] ?!L'HEICHA SALIK?!- to where does it [need to] arise?


Turnusrufus was the Roman procurator of Yerushalayim at the time of the emperor Hadrian. He is mentioned in Ta'anis 29a as having destroyed the Heichal during the Churban of the Second Beis ha'Mikdash. He also challenged Rabbi Akiva regarding the concept of Tzedakah, as recorded in Bava Basra 10a.

31)[line 24] ?MAH YOM MI'YOMAYIM?- Why is this day (Shabbos) different than other days?

32)[line 25] ?MAH GEVER MI'GUVRIN- Why is this man (i.e. Turnusrufus) any different than other men?

33)[line 26] MARI TZAVI- my master (the Caesar) wishes it to be so

34)[line 28] NEHAR SABATYON - the Sabatyon River

Also known as Sambatyon, the river drags along rocks and is turbulent, but on Shabbos it is tranquil. According to the Midrash, some of the Ten Tribes were exiled to the opposite side of the Sambatyon. The Ramban (on Devarim 32:26) identifies it as "Nehar Gozan," mentioned in the context of that exile in Melachim II 17:6. (See Yevamos 16b-17a and Background to the Daf ibid.)

35)[line 28] KIVRO SHEL AVIV YOCHI'ACH- the grave of your father proves it

36)[line 30], , !BIZITO, BIYASHTO, V'KILELATO- You have insulted him, embarrassed him, and blasphemed him!

37)[line 31]" ""DORESH EL HA'MESIM"- one who seeks [knowledge of the future] by consulting the dead (see above, entry #14; see Background to Sanhedrin 56:32d)

38)[line 38]" -; [ ]""KI IM AVONOSEICHEM HAYU MAVDILIM BEINEICHEM L'VEIN EL-KEICHEM..."- "Rather, your iniquities have been separating between you and your G-d; [and your sins have [caused Him to] hide His face from hearing you" (Yeshayahu 59:2).

39)[line 39] , IY BA'U TZADIKEI, BARU ALMA- if the righteous would wish to, they could create a world

40)[line 40] RAVA BARA GAVRA- Rava created a person (by studying Sefer Yetzirah, see entry #43 below)

41a)[line 41] HAVAH KA MISHTA'I BAHADEI- he attempted to speak with him

b)[line 41] V'LO HAVAH KA MEHADAR LEI- but he would not respond

42a)[line 41] ?MIN CHAVRAYA AT?- Are you from (i.e. created by) my fellows?

b)[line 42] !HADAR L'AFRECH!- Return to your dust!

43)[line 42] MA'ALEI SHABATA- Erev Shabbos

44)[line 43] SEFER YETZIRAH- lit. "Book of Creation," containing various combinations of the letters of HaSh-m's Name, see also Berachos 55a.

45)[line 43] IGELA TILSA- a calf that was as if: (a) the third [offspring born to its mother]. Such a calf provides especially choice and delectable meat (RASHI here, second explanation, Pesachim 68b, Shabbos 11a); (b) a calf [which has reached] one-third [of its full growth]. Such a calf provides especially choice and delectable meat (RASHI Eruvin 63a); (c) a calf [which has reached] one-third [of its expected lifespan, at which point it has reached its full growth and tastiness] (RASHI here, first explanation); (d) a calf which is healthy and therefore good to eat (TOSFOS Gitin 56a). (See Insights to Shabbos 136:1.)

46)[line 43]"[ , ] []""[LO YIMATZEI VECHA MA'AVIR BENO U'VITO BA'ESH, KOSEM KESAMIM,] ME'ONEN U'MENACHESH [U'MECHASHEF]"- "[There shall not be found among you any one who makes his son or his daughter pass through the fire (of the Molech), or who uses divination,] or a Me'onen, or a reader of omens, or a sorcerer" (Devarim 18:10). See Background to Sanhedrin 56:31, and the discussion that follows on our Daf.

47)[line 44] MINEI ZECHUR- semen of various species

48)[line 44] OCHEZ ES HA'ENAYIM- one who creates an illusion of having performed sorcery

49)[line 45] MECHASHEV ITIM V'SHA'OS- one who calculates (auspicious) seasons or hours

50)[line 46] LIMUDEI ARVEI SHEVI'IYOS, CHITIN YAFOS- in the years prior to Shemitah, wheat is usually successful

51)[line 46] IKUREI KITNIYOS MIH'YOS RA'OS- uprooting legumes (rather than cutting them) prevents them from going bad