[12a - 47 lines; 12b - 50 lines]

1)[line 1] BI'SHNEI RA'AVON- in years of famine [since food is scarce and Chodosh would remain forbidden for another month if a month was added to the year]

2)[line 1]" , - , ; , ' '""V'ISH BA MI'BA'AL SHALISHAH, VA'YAVEI L'ISH HA'EL-KIM LECHEM BIKURIM ESRIM LECHEM SE'ORIM, V'CHARMEL B'TZIKOLONO; VA'YOMER, 'TEN LA'AM, V'YOCHELU'" - "And a man came from Ba'al Shalishah, and he brought the man of G-d bread of the first produce - twenty loaves of barley - and full heads of grain in its husk; and he said, 'Give to the people, that they may eat'" (Melachim II 4:42) (ELISHA MIRACULOUSLY FEEDS HIS STUDENTS)

The events described in this verse took place in a year of famine. The Navi Elisha, the "man of G-d" in the verse, miraculously distributed the food to one hundred people, and each was satisfied with his portion. According to the Gemara (Kesuvos 106a), each individual loaf sufficed for one hundred people.

3)[line 4]KALAH- (lit. light) quick

4)[line 5]BIKERAH- ripen

5)[line 6]CHITIM- wheat (which is more commonly used for human consumption, and ripens later than other grains)

6)[line 9] EMOR ME'ATAH- (lit. say from now) from here we may deduce

7)[line 9] RE'UYAH HAYESAH OSAH SHANAH SHE'TIS'ABER- that year was fit to have been made into a leap year [due to the factor of (a) Aviv, as evidenced by that which only barley had ripened (RASHI); (b) both Aviv and Peiros ha'Ilan (TOSFOS DH Re'uayah)]

8)[line 11] SHNAS BA'TZORES- a year of famine

9)[line 11] BEIS HA'GERANOS- the threshing floor (where grain is sold)

10)[line 12] EIN ME'ABRIN ES HA'SHANAH LIFNEI ROSH HASHANAH- [Beis Din] does not deliberate (and subsequently publicize) whether or not the following year should include an extra Adar prior to Rosh Hashanah (since people will forget by then and come to eat Chametz on Pesach)

11)[line 14] MIPNEI HA'DECHAK- due to extenuating circumstances, i.e., fear that a qualified Beis Din will not be available to declare a leap year closer to Adar, or that a Nochri king will not allow it

12)[line 16]ZUG- a pair [of Talmidei Chachamim]

13)[line 16]REKES- the city of Teverya

14)[line 17] TAFSO NESHER- (a) a contingent of Persian troops (lit. an eagle or vulture, which is a reference to the king) seized them (RASHI, RABEINU CHANANEL first explanation); (b) they were held up by rain (that is "Nosher" - "falls" - from the sky) (ARUCH cited by the GILYON HASHAS, RABEINU CHANANEL second explanation)

15)[line 17]LUZ- a city in Eretz Yisrael

16)[line 18]TECHELES- wool dyed indigo from the secretion of a sea creature called the Chilazon, used in Tzitzis

17)[line 18]B'ZECHUSAM- in the merit of [the Techeles] (RABEINU CHANANEL)

18)[line 19] AMUSEI YEREICHEI NACHSHON- lit. the issue of the loins of Nachshon; i.e., the Nasi (hereditary position of spiritual leader of Eretz Yisrael), who was descended from Nachshon ben Aminadav, the first Nasi of Shevet Yehudah

19)[line 20] LI'KVO'A NETZIV ECHAD- lit. to establish a pillar; i.e., to add a month to the year

20)[line 20] EDOMI HA'LAZ- that wicked Edomite; i.e., the evil Roman Emperor

21)[line 21] BA'ALEI ASUFOS NE'ESAFU- the masters of the gatherings (i.e., the Chachamim - RABEINU CHANANEL) gathered

22)[line 22] YARE'ACH SHE'MES BO AHARON HA'KOHEN- the month in which Aharon ha'Kohen died, i.e., the month of Av (which is two months prior to Tishrei)

23)[line 22] , CHASHUVEI MECHASHVEI, GELUYEI LO MEGALU- they calculated [that it would be proper to add a month to the upcoming year], [but] they did not reveal it

24)[line 24]" , ; [ ]""VELI'SHLOMO SHNEIM ASAR NITZAVIM AL KOL YISRAEL, V'CHILKELU ES HA'MELECH V'ES BEISO; CHODESH BA'SHANAH [YIHEYEH AL HA'ECHAD L'CHALKEL]"- "And Shlomo had twelve officers appointed over all of Yisrael, and they supported the king and his household; each one had one month for which he was responsible to provide support" (Melachim I 4:7). Each officer was appointed over one section of Eretz Yisrael, from which he collected taxes for one month out of the year. These funds went toward feeding the king, his household, and animals, as well as other royal expenses.

25)[line 27]"... "" U'NETZIV ECHAD ASHER BA'ARETZ"- "... and one officer who was in the land" (Melachim I 4:19). After listing the twelve officers by name, this verse seems to imply that there was an additional officer.

26)[line 28] KENEGED CHODESH HA'IBUR- [the single officer was a thirteenth officer whose job it was to collect taxes] during the extra month of a leap year

27a)[line 30] EIN ME'ABRIN ES HA'SHANAH LO MI'SHANAH L'CHAVERTAH- (a) do not make the current year into a leap year only because the following year following needs to fall at a later time (RASHI); (b) do not make the next year into a leap year relying on calculations made during the previous year (TOSFOS DH Lo)

b)[line 30] V'LO SHALOSH SHANIM ZO ACHAR ZO- and (a) do not make three leap years in a row [since the month of Nisan would then fall out in the summer] (first explanation of RASHI); (b) do not calculate at one time when the next three leap years must fall out (second explanation of RASHI, preferred by TOSFOS DH v'Lo)

28)[line 32] CHAVUSH B'VEIS HA'ASURIM- incarcerated in prison

29)[line 35]SHEVI'IS - The Seventh Year

(a)One must desist from working the land every seventh year (Vayikra 25:1-7); this year is termed Shemitah or Shevi'is. Planting and pruning of grapevines, for example, are Biblically prohibited for the entire duration of the year. Additionally, produce which grows during the seventh (Shevi'is) year is holy, which in this context means:

1.It is considered ownerless; anyone may enter a field and pick that which he wishes to eat.

2.It may not be bought and sold in a normal fashion (see Insights to Sukah 40:1).

3.It may be consumed only in the manner considered normal for that type of food, or burned to provide illumination in the case of oil. It may not be wasted, used for medicinal purposes, fed to animals, etc.

(b)As planting is forbidden during Shemitah, new crops - such as grain and vegetables - will not become available. The Beraisa cited by our Gemara teaches that the Beis Din should not make the Shemitah year into a leap year, since it extends the time when one may not work the land.

30)[line 36] LO B'MOTZA'EI SHEVI'IS- nor during the year following Shevi'is [since the supply of old grain from the sixth year is limited, and the new grain of the eighth year ("Chadash" - see Background to Sanhedrin 11:71) is permitted only after the second day of Pesach)

31)[line 36] EREV SHEVI'IS- on the year prior to Shemitah [so that there should be an extra month to work the land]

32)[line 37] HAYU ME'ABRIN B'MOTZA'EI SHEVI'IS- they would make the year following Shevi'is into a leap year [and one need not be concerned about a shortage of produce, since one is able to import produce grown outside of Eretz Yisrael]

33)[line 41] CHOSHESHIN L'GUSHEIHEN- [whether or not] we worry that clods of earth from outside of Eretz Yisrael [will arrive with the produce and cause Tum'ah through (a) Ohel (see Background to Sanhedrin 4:28) (RASHI) ; (b) Maga (contact) and Masa (moving them) (TOSFOS DH Chosheshin)

34)[line 42] MIPNEI HA'TUM'AH- due to [considerations that, should the year not become a leap year, then most of Klal Yisrael will be] Tamei [when the time comes to offer the Korban Pesach on the fourteenth of Nisan] (see RASHI)

35)[line 45] BIKESH RACHAMIM AL ATZMO- he pleaded for mercy upon himself (i.e., that he should not be punished for having done so)

36)[line 46]" , , , , ; , '' '""KI MARBIS HA'AM RABAS ME'EFRAYIM, U'MENASHEH, YISACHAR, U'ZEVULUN LO HITEHARU KI ACHLU ES HA'PESACH B'LO CHA'KASUV; KI HISPALEL YECHIZKIYAHU ALEIHEM LEIMOR, 'HASH-M HA'TOV YECHAPER B'AD'"- "For the [part of the] nation [that was Tamei and] had not become Tahor was more numerous than [the populations of] Efrayim, Menasheh, Yisachar, and Zevulun; [and] that [which] they partook of the Korban Pesach was not in accordance with that which is written [in the Torah]; [and it was] due to this [that King] Yechizkiyahu prayed for them saying, 'HaSh-m Who is good [to all] atone for [this sin]" (Divrei ha'Yamim II 30:18). In context, this verse explains why the Leviyim performed the slaughter of the Korban Pesach and not the owners of the Korbanos. Our Gemara explains that when this verse states that that which "they partook of the Korban Pesach was not in accordance with that which is written [in the Torah]," it is referring to Chizkiyahu ha'Melech's declaration of a leap year, due to the fact that many members of Klal Yisrael were Tamei.


37)[line 5] IBER NISAN B'NISAN- he declared that the next month would be Nisan after the current month had already been declared Nisan

38)[line 7]HESI- lit. carried; i.e., caused them to tarry

39)[line 7] PESACH SHENI - The Deferral of the Korban Pesach

(a)After the Exodus from Mitzrayim, in the first year in the Midbar (desert), Klal Yisrael were instructed to offer the Korban Pesach (see Background to Sukah 42:39). Individuals who were Teme'ei Mes (impure due to contact with a corpse), and therefore unable to offer the Korban, complained to Moshe Rabeinu that they, too, wished to fulfill the Mitzvah. Moshe relayed their request to HaSh-m, who instructed Moshe that any member of Klal Yisrael who is either a Temei Mes or too far away to offer the Korban Pesach on the fourteenth of Nisan, may instead do so on the fourteenth of Iyar, one month later. Then, too, they should consume it together with Matzah and Maror (Bamidbar 9:10-11).

(b)The Gemara in Pesachim explains that this verse refers not only to one who was Tamei with Tum'as Mes, but also to an individual who cannot eat a Korban Pesach due to Tum'ah of any kind. The Gemara defines one who is "far away" as one who is more than fifteen Mil (approximately 15 kilometers / 9.5 miles) away from the walls of Yerushalayim on midday of Erev Pesach. The Gemara concludes that the Mitzvah of Pesach Sheni applies to nearly anyone who is unable to offer the Korban Pesach on the fourteenth of Nisan (see Pesachim 93a-b). However, if the majority of Klal Yisrael is Tamei, the Korban is to be eaten in a state of Tum'ah on Pesach Rishon, and not pushed off to Pesach Sheni. Later, the Gemara will discuss what Chizkiyahu's calculation had been.

40)[line 9] TUM'AH DECHUYAH HI B'TZIBUR - Whether the Prohibition Against Offering a Sacrifice in Impurity is Permitted or Deferred in the Case of a Communal Sacrifice (TUM'AH DECHUYAH HI B'TZIBUR / HUTRAH HI B'TZIBUR)

(a)Private sacrifices (Korbenos Yachid) may not be offered if the Kohanim involved in the offering, the Klei Shareis (vessels in the Beis ha'Mikdash), or the meat or blood of the Korban itself (after its slaughter) are Tamei. Communal sacrifices (Korbenos Tzibur), however, may be offered in such cases. This is termed offering such Korbanos "b'Tum'ah".

(b)Amora'im disagree as to whether the prohibition against offering a Korban in such a case is absolutely permitted ("Tum'ah Hutrah Hi b'Tzibur") or merely deferred ("Tum'ah Dechuyah Hi b'Tzibur") (Pesachim 77a, Yoma 7b). One practical difference that results from this disagreement applies in a case in which all of the Kohanim of the current Beis Av (group of Kohanim whose turn it is to perform the Divine Service that day) are Teme'im, while other Kohanim remain Tahor. According to the opinion which maintains Tum'ah Hutrah Hi b'Tzibur, the current Beis Av may perform the Avodah. According to the opinion which maintains Tum'ah Dechuyah Hi b'Tzibur, other Kohanim who are Tehorim must be found to perform the Avodah instead.

41)[line 10]TZITZ - The Appeasing Quality of the Tzitz (RITZUY TZITZ)

(a)If any part of a Korban becomes Tamei, then it is no longer fit to be offered. Therefore, if the blood of a Korban becomes Tamei before it is dashed against the Mizbe'ach (Zerikas ha'Dam), then the Zerikah may not be performed, and the Korban will not be valid. Rebbi Yehoshua rules that even if the Dam remains Tahor, it is prohibited to perform Zerikas ha'Dam if all of the meat and Chelev (fats) of a Korban become Tamei or otherwise unfit before Zerikas ha'Dam (Pesachim 77b). Another application of this law is that if the Emurim (innards) or other parts of a Korban that are offered on the Mizbe'ach become Teme'im, then the Kohanim may no longer offer them on the Mizbe'ach.

(b)If blood that was Tamei was dashed against the Mizbe'ach, then that Avodah (service) is not automatically invalid. If the Kohen Gadol was wearing the Tzitz (a thin golden band upon which the words "Kodesh la'Sh-m" are inscribed, worn upon his forehead) at that time, then the presence of the Tzitz renders the Avodah acceptable. This means that the owner has fulfilled his obligation of offering his Korban, and he may therefore eat from his offering. The Tzitz similarly renders the Korban acceptable if the meat of the Korban had become Tamei, although in such a case the meat may not be eaten.

(c)These qualities of the Tzitz are understood from that which the Torah describes it as that which "causes [Klal Yisrael] to find favor in the eyes of HaSh-m" (Shemos 28:38).

42)[line 10] YESHNO AL MITZCHO- it is on the forehead of [the Kohen Gadol at the time that the Korban is offered b'Tum'ah]

43)[line 14] KOHEN GADOL B'YOM HA'KIPURIM YOCHI'ACH- the Kohen Gadol on Yom ha'Kipurim [who, when performing the Divine Service in the Holy of Holies, does not wear the Tzitz, and yet if one of the Korbanos becomes Tamei at that time, it is valid] proves [that the actual wearing of the Tzitz is not necessary]

44)[line 15]HANACH- leave aside

45)[line 20] CHISUREI MECHSERA V'HACHI KA'TANI - Amending the Meaning of a Mishnah or Beraisa

(a)In order to answer a question posed from a Mishnah or Beraisa, the Gemara will sometimes explain that we have not understood the Mishnah or Beraisa correctly. The Gemara will say "Chisurei Mechsera v'Hachi ka'Tani" - "Words are missing, and it should be read as follows" - and then add words to the Mishnah or Beraisa which allow it to be read differently, thereby answering the question.

(b)The YAD MALACHI (Klalei ha'Ches, #284) writes that the Gemara will sometimes use "Chisurei Mechsera" to change the original understanding of the Mishnah or Beraisa to one that expresses the opposite ruling. He then quotes the HALICHOS OLAM (2:2) as stating that the Gemara will not go that far, but will rather add to or adjust the original explanation of the Mishnah. The Yad Malachi cites our Gemara in Sanhedrin (12b), however, as proof of his opinion.

(c)How are we to understand that the Tana seemingly forgot to include such integral information? The VILNA GA'ON (end of Divrei Eliyahu, section entitled "Klalim") explains that the use of "Chisurei Mechsera" does not reject the original reading of the Beraisa. The original reading may be read to mean what the Gemara understands in its final explanation, or it may be teaching a different point altogether (RABEINU BACHYA writes similarly in his commentary to Shemos 34:27). The BEIS YOSEF (in "Klalei d'Gemara", Halichos Olam 2:41) explains that these teachings were originally given over in this fashion. Rebbi, who edited much of the Mishnah, recorded them in the Mishnah as they were, expecting those who learned them to fill in the "blanks" on their own. The TIFERES YISRAEL (Boaz to Erchin 4:1) explains that a special tune was utilized when learning Mishnayos and Beraisos to help one commit them to memory (a method used even today in some schools in Eretz Yisrael). The Tana would therefore use wording that fit with the tune even if it rendered the meaning less clear. The Tiferes Yisrael explains that the Tana knew that the true explanation would be apparent to anyone who studied the topic well, as evidenced by that which the Gemara is able to arrive at the proper understanding. (This explanation would appear to be at odds with the explanation of the Vilna Gaon above)

(d)The Gemara will sometimes correct the wording of a Mishnah or Beraisa with the word "Teni..." ("teach") or "Eima..." ("say"). Many Rishonim (e.g., RAN to Nedarim 46a) explain that these terms are used to explain the Tana's statement, as opposed to amending it. Similarly, the Gemara will sometimes answer a question by insisting that the Mishnah or Beraisa taught its ruling wherein the person involved verbally expressed a certain qualification. In such situations the Gemara will explain, "b'Omer..." ("in a case where he said..."). Here too, many Rishonim explain that the Gemara means that even if he did not actually express such a qualification, it is as if he did (e.g., TOSFOS to Yevamos 25b DH b'Omer).

46a)[line 32]" [ ...]""HA'CHODESH HA'ZEH LACHEM [ROSH CHODASHIM...]"- "This month is for you [the first of months...]" (Shemos 12:2). This Mitzvah, to count Nisan as the first month, was one of the first Mitzvos that Klal Yisrael received when they left Mitzrayim.

b)[line 32] ZEH NISAN V'EIN ACHER NISAN- (the Gemara derives) this month is Nisan [once it has been declared as such], and no other month is Nisan (i.e., it is too late to change it to Adar)

47)[line 34] RA'UY L'KOV'O NISAN- it was fit to be established as Nisan [had witnesses arrived testifying that they had seen the new moon that day]

48a)[line 38] HAYU YISRAEL MECHTZAH TEME'IM U'MECHTZA TEHORIM- [the men of Klal] Yisrael were [approximately, and possibly even more than] half Teme'im and half Tehorim [on the fourteenth of Nisan]

b)[line 38] V'NASHIM MASHLIMOS L'TEHORIM V'ODFOS ALEIHEM- and the women [were mostly Tehoros to the point that they] completed [the half of Klal Yisrael] who were Tahor and pushed the numbers beyond the halfway point

49)[line 39] MI'UTAN TEME'IM- the minority of the entirety of Klal Yisrael

50)[line 40]RESHUS- are permitted [but not obligated to offer the Korban Pesach]

51)[line 42] ?IBRUHA MAI?- what is the law if they did declare it a leap year [on the final day of Adar]?

52)[line 44] MI'PURAYA L'PISCHA TELASIN YOMIN HAVU- from Purim until Pesach there are thirty days

53)[line 45] [] SHOA'LIN [V'DORSHIN] B'HILCHOS HA'PESACH KODEM L'PESACH SHELOSHIM YOM - We Ask and Lecture Regarding the Laws of Pesach Thirty Days Prior to the Onset of Pesach

(a)Moshe taught the laws of Pesach Sheni (see above, entry #39) thirty days prior, on Erev Pesach Rishon. From this we learn that the thirty days prior to a festival is a period especially suited to learning the laws pertaining to that festival (RASHI to Pesachim 6b).

(b)Some Rishonim understand that this applies only to a student who wishes to ask questions of his Rebbi, whereas others maintain that during this time frame a Rav should publicly expound upon the Halachos of the festival. Also discussed by the Rishonim is whether this concept applies only to Pesach, or to all three Regalim of Pesach, Shavuos, and Sukos. See Insights to Megilah 32:2 for a full treatment of this topic.

54)[line 46] KI MATI REISH YARCHA- if, when Rosh Chodesh [Nisan] arrives

55)[line 46] MERACHKIN LEI- they distance [Pesach from Purim by an additional month]

56)[line 47] ASI L'ZILZULEI B'CHAMETZ- people may come to treat the prohibition against [owning or eating] Chametz lightly [on Pesach, since they will assume that Pesach had fallen one month earlier]

57)[line 47] MEIDA YEDI'EI D'SHATA MA'ABARTA B'CHUSHBENA TALYA MILSA- people are aware that [the determination of] a leap year is dependent upon [seasonal] calculations

58)[line 48]AMREI- they will say [to themselves]

59)[line 48] LO SALIK LEHU- they did not manage [to complete the calculations]

60)[line 49] HAYESAH TEKUFAH CHASEIRAH RUBO SHEL CHODESH- the [summer] season ("Tekufas Tamuz," defined as the ninety-one days between the Summer solstice and the autumnal equinox) will require most of the month of Tishrei; i.e., the autumnal equinox will fall out more than halfway through the month of Tishrei

61)[last line] SHISHAH ASAR YOM- sixteen days [such that the autumnal equinox will fall out no earlier than the seventeenth of Tishrei]