ROSH HASHANAH 26 (5 Sivan) - Dedicated l'Zecher Nishmas Reb Chaim Aryeh ben Aharon Stern Z'L by Shmuel Gut of Brooklyn, N.Y.
 
12th CYCLE DEDICATIONS
 
ROSH HASHANAH 26-30 - Dedicated Dr. Shalom Kelman of Baltimore, MD. May the Zechus of helping thousands study the Torah provide a Refu'ah Sheleimah for his father, Dr. Herbert (Isser Chayim ben Itta Fruma) Kelman.

1)

(a)From where does our Mishnah know that Rosh Hashanah requires a Shofar (and not a trumpet)?

(b)Why is a cow's horn not valid?

(c)What does Rebbi Yosi learn from the Pasuk in Yehoshua "bi'Meshoch b'Keren ha'Yovel"? What does "ha'Yovel" mean?

(d)The Rabanan counter Rebbi Yosi by arguing that, even though all Shofros are called horns, they are also referred to as Shofros; whereas that of a cow is referred to exclusively as a horn. Where is a cow (or a bull)'s horn called a Keren?

1)

(a)Our Mishnah knows that Rosh Hashanah requires a Shofar (and not a trumpet) - from the fact that the Torah compares Rosh Hashanah to Yovel (as we shall see later), and by Yovel the Torah writes in Behar "v'Ha'avarta Shofar Teru'ah".

(b)A cow's horn is not valid for blowing on Rosh Hashanah - because it is called a 'Keren', and not a 'Shofar'.

(c)Rebbi Yosi learns from the Pasuk in Yehoshua "bi'Meshoch b'Keren ha'Yovel" - that the horn of a ram too, is referred to as 'Keren' (yet it is Kasher)!

(d)The Rabanan counter Rebbi Yosi by arguing that, even though all Shofros are called horns, they are also referred to as Shofros; whereas those of a cow are referred to exclusively as horns - like the Pasuk in v'Zos ha'Berachah (in the blessing of Yosef) "Bechor Shoro Hadar lo, v'Karnei Re'em Karnav" (see Tosfos DH 'Chutz').

2)

(a)What does Rebbi Yosi learn from the Pasuk in Tehilim "v'Sitav la'Hashem mi'Shor Par"?

(b)The Rabanan explain that Pasuk like Rav Masna, who says that the bull that Hash-m created at Ma'aseh Bereishis was fully-grown. How do they learn that from the words "mi'Shor Par"?

2)

(a)Rebbi Yosi learns from the Pasuk in Tehilim "v'Sitav la'Hashem mi'Shor Par" (the acronym of 'Shofar') that the horn of a bull is also called a Shofar.

(b)The Rabanan explain "Shor Par" like Rav Masna, who says that the bull that Hash-m created at Ma'aseh Bereishis was fully-grown - because a calf is called a 'Shor' from the day that it is born, whereas it is only called a 'Par' from when it enters its third year. Consequently, the Pasuk is coming to teach us that, as soon as the Shor of Ma'aseh Bereishis was born, it was fully-grown like a Par.

3)

(a)Ula connects the Rabanan's reasoning with Rav Chisda, who explains why the Kohen Gadol was forbidden to enter the Kodesh ha'Kodashim with the 'Bigdei Zahav'. What is the reason that is common to both?

(b)How will we then explain the fact that the blood of the bull on Yom Kippur was taken inside the Kodesh ha'Kodashim?

(c)And how will we explain the fact that ...

1. ... the Aron, the lid and the Cherub (all made of gold) were in the Kodesh ha'Kodashim?

2. ... the Kohen Gadol entered the Kodesh ha'Kodashim with the spoon and the fire-pan (also made of gold) on Yom Kippur?

(d)What does Rebbi Yosi prove from the fact that the Kohen Gadol wore gold for the Avodos in the Heichal on Yom Kippur (as well as the whole year round)? Why did he indeed not do so?

(e)How do the Rabanan counter this argument?

3)

(a)Ula connects the Rabanan's reasoning with Rav Chisda, who explains why the Kohen Gadol was forbidden to enter the Kodesh ha'Kodashim with the 'Bigdei Zahav' - because of the principle 'Ein Kategor Na'aseh Sanegor' ('a prosecutor [i.e. gold that was used for the Golden Calf] cannot become a defense counsel'). For the same reason, he says, the Rabanan forbade using a calf's horn to plead on our behalf before Hash-m.

(b)The fact that the blood of the bull on Yom Kippur was taken inside the Kodesh ha'Kodashim is not a problem - because it has changed (i.e. they worshipped the bull, not the blood, which was not visible at the time).

(c)The fact that ...

1. ... the Aron, the lid and the Cherub (all made of gold) were in the Kodesh ha'Kodashim, does not present a problem either - because it is not the sinner who brought it in at the time of Kaparah (i.e. it was there already).

2. ... the Kohen Gadol entered the Kodesh ha'Kodashim with the spoon and the fire-pan (also made of gold) on Yom Kippur is also no problem - because he did not adorn himself with it (or use it as a intrinsic part of the Avodah).

(d)Rebbi Yosi proves from the fact that the Kohen Gadol wore gold for the Avodos in the Heichal on Yom Kippur (as well as the whole year round) because he did not wear them in the Kodesh ha'Kodashim - that by the same token, one should be able to use a cow's horn (which was not blown in the Kodesh ha'Kodashim either).

(e)The Rabanan counter - that the Shofar, which brings our memories before the Throne of Hash-m, is considered as if it was in the Kodesh ha'Kodashim (and may therefore not be made of gold wherever it is).

4)

(a)How can Ula (and subsequently Abaye, whom we are now about to discuss) offer their own reasons for the Tana Kama, when he himself said 'Mipnei she'Hu Keren'?

(b)Abaye gives the Tana Kama's reason as being the fact that the Torah writes "Shofar", and not "Shofros". What does he mean?

(c)What will Rebbi Yosi reply to that?

4)

(a)When Ula and Abaye (who knew full-well that the Tana Kama himself said 'Mipnei she'Hu Keren') gave their own reasons - they were merely stating additional ones ('Chada v'Od Ka'amar').

(b)Abaye gives the Tana Kama's reason as being the fact that the Torah writes "Shofar", and not "Shofros" - meaning that the horn of a cow is made up of sections (to which one new section is added each year) giving it the impression of being formed of one Shofar within another, whereas the Torah requires one single Shofar (and not a multiple one).

(c)Rebbi Yosi will reply however - that they are not really different sections at all, since they are all joined together.

5)

(a)Rebbi Akiva discovered the meaning of various words on his travels (presumably to nullify evil decrees against the Jews). What did they call a ram's horn in Arabia?

(b)When he went to ...

1. ... France, they called a Nidah 'Galmudah'. What is that an acronym for?

2. ... Africa, they called a Ma'ah (a small coin), 'Kesitah'. Why do we need to know this?

(c)Rebbi and Resh Lakish traveled, too. The former learned the meaning of the word 'Kirah', the latter, of the words 'Ninfi' and 'Sechvi'. What did people mean when they spoke of ...

1. ... 'Kirah'? Why do we need to know that?

2. ... 'Ninfi'? Which Pasuk in Tehilim has the same connotation?

3. ... 'Sechvi'?

5)

(a)Rebbi Akiva discovered the meaning of various words on his travels (presumably to nullify evil decrees against the Jews). In Arabia - they called a ram's horn, 'Yovel'.

(b)When he went to ...

1. ... France, they called a Nidah, 'Galmudah' - which is the acronym for - 'Gemulah Dah mi'Ba'alah' ('This woman is separated from her husband').

2. ... Africa, they called a Ma'ah (a small coin), 'Kesitah' - thus enabling us to explain the Pasuk in Vayishlach (describing Yakov's purchase of land from Sh'chem) "b'Mei'ah Kesitah".

(c)Rebbi and Resh Lakish traveled, too. The former learned the meaning of the word 'Kirah', the latter, of the words 'Ninfi' and 'Sechvi'. When people spoke of ...

1. ... 'Kirah' - they meant 'Mechirah' (a purchase) - enabling us to explain the Pasuk in Vayechi (describing Yakov's purchase of the Me'aras ha'Machpelah) "Asher Karisi Li" (although the simple explanation of the word is "which I dug" - see Rashi in Chumash 50:5).

2. ... 'Ninfi' - a bride, similar to the Pasuk in Tehilim (describing Yerushalayim) "Yefei Nof (a beautiful bride) Mesos Kol ha'Aretz").

3. ... 'Sechvi' - they meant a 'rooster'.

26b----------------------------------------26b

6)

(a)How did Levi react, when a man said to him 'Kav'an Pelanya'?

(b)What would Rava from Barnish have asked him, to find out what he was saying?

(c)Why did Levi not employ that method?

(d)The Talmidei Chachamim in the Beis Hamedrash quoted him the Pasuk in Tehilim "ha'Yikba Adam Elokim"? What does this mean?

6)

(a)When a man approached Levi, and said 'Kav'an Pelanya'! - he did not have a clue as to what he meant, so he went to ask in the Beis ha'Medrash.

(b)Rava from Barnish would have asked him - 'How did he 'Kav'a' you? With what did he 'Kav'a' you? And why did he 'Kav'a' you"? In this way, he would have easily discovered what he meant.

(c)Levi did not employ that method - because he thought that 'Kav'a' was something to do with Isur, and not a monetary issue at all.

(d)The Talmidei Chachamim in the Beis Hamedrash quoted him the Pasuk in Tehilim "ha'Yikba Adam Elokim" - which means "Does a man steal from G-d"? from which he should have understood that the man was telling him that someone stole from him.

7)

(a)The maidservant of Rebbi appears to have been something of a linguist, from whom the Rabanan learnt many words. She once taught them that Chaluglugos is the equivalent of what they knew as 'Parpachinin' (purslane-plant). What did she mean when she said to the Rabanan 'Till when will you enter the Beis Hamedrash 'Sirugin Sirugin'?

(b)Based on statements made by her, how did they subsequently interpret the Pasuk ...

1. ... in Mishlei "Salselehah u'Seromemeka"?

2. ... in Yeshayah (with reference to Bavel) "v'Teiteisiha bi'Metatei Hashmed?

3. ... in Tehilim "Hashlech al Hash-m Yehavcha, v'Hu Yechalkelecha"?

7)

(a)The maidservant of Rebbi appears to have been something of a linguist, from whom the Rabanan learnt many words. She once taught them that Chaluglugos is the equivalent of what they knew as 'Parpachinin' (purslane-plant). When she asked the Rabanan 'Till when will you enter the Beis Hamedrash 'Sirugin Sirugin'? - she meant to ask them why they always entered the Beis Hamedrash 'in dribs and drabs' (not all at the same time).

(b)Based on statements made by her, they subsequently interpreted the Pasuk ...

1. ... in Mishlei "Salselehah u'Seromemeka" to mean - "Turn it over (Discuss the Torah in depth, and it will elevate you".

2. ... in Yeshayah (with reference to Bavel) "v'Teiteisiha bi'Meta'tei Hashmed" - "And I will sweep it with a broom and destroy it (Bavel).

3. ... in Tehilim "Hashlech al Hash-m Yehavcha, v'Hu Yechalkelecha" - "Throw your load onto Hash-m, and He will feed you".

8)

(a)According to the Tana of our Mishnah, the Shofar of Rosh Hashanah must be made from the straight horn of an ibex (a kind of wild-goat), and the mouthpiece of the one blown in the Beis Hamikdash overlaid with gold. Why does the former have to be straight?

(b)How many Shofros and how many trumpets were blown in the Beis Hamikdash?

8)

(a)According to the Tana of our Mishnah, the Shofar of Rosh Hashanah must be made from the straight horn of an ibex (a kind of wild-goat), with the mouthpiece of the ones that were blown in the Beis Hamikdash overlaid with gold. The former has to be straight - because the order of the day is straightness (honesty, simplicity).

(b)In the Beis Hamikdash - they blew two Shofros and two trumpets.

9)

(a)According to the Tana of our Mishnah, on what kind of Shofros did they blow in the Beis Hamikdash on fast-days? Which fast-days is the Tana referring to?

(b)With what were their mouthpieces overlaid?

(c)Rebbi Yehudah disagrees with the Tana Kama. In his opinion, on what does one blow ...

1. ... on Rosh Hashanah?

2. ... on Yom Kippur of the Yovel?

(d)How were the Shofros and trumpets placed, and how did the way they were blown differ ...

1. ... on Rosh Hashanah?

2. ... on fast-days?

9)

(a)According to the Tana of our Mishnah, in the Beis Hamikdash on fast-days (when they fasted and prayed for rain), they blew bent rams' horns.

(b)Their mouthpieces were overlaid - with silver.

(c)Rebbi Yehudah disagrees with the Tana Kama. In his opinion ...

1. ... on Rosh Hashanah - one blows on bent rams' horns.

2. ... on Yom Kippur of Yovel - on the straight horn of an ibex.

(d)The Shofros ...

1. ... on Rosh Hashanah - are placed on the inside (because they are the main Mitzvah of the day), and the trumpets on the outside. For the same reason, those blowing the Shofros would blow a little longer than those blowing the trumpets.

2. ... on fast-days - are placed on the outside, and the trumpets on the inside, because it is the trumpets that comprised the main Mitzvah. And for the same reason, the trumpeters blew a little longer that those blowing the Shofros.

10)

(a)What does the Tana mean when he compares the Yovel to Rosh Hashanah with regard to ...

1. ... the blowing?

2. ... the Berachos?

(b)What is the purpose of blowing the Shofar on Yom Kippur of the Yovel?

10)

(a)By comparing the Yovel to Rosh Hashanah with regard to ...

1. ... the blowing, the Tana means - that on Yom Kippur of the Yovel one blows on a straight horn of an ibex, just like on Rosh Hashanah.

2. ... the Berachos, he means - that, just like on Rosh Hashanah, one recites Malchiyos, Zichronos and Shofros, so too, does one recite them on Yom Kippur of Yovel.

(b)The purpose of blowing the Shofar on Yom Kippur of the Yovel - a sign that all Jewish servants are now free, and that purchased fields must now revert to their original owners.

11)

(a)In Levi's opinion, the Mitzvah on Rosh Hashanah and on Yom Kippur of Yovel is to blow on a ram's horn, and during the rest of the year, on a straight one. Why does he not say that he rules like Rebbi Yehudah?

(b)What is the basis of the Machlokes between the Tana Kama and Rebbi Yehudah regarding the Shofar of Yovel?

(c)And on what grounds does Levi decline to rule like Rebbi Yehudah regarding Yovel, too?

(d)And what is the source of the Machlokes between the Tana Kama and Rebbi Yehudah regarding the Shofar of Rosh Hashanah?

11)

(a)In Levi's opinion, the Mitzvah on Rosh Hashanah and on Yom Kippur of Yovel is to blow on a ram's horn, and during the rest of the year, on a straight one. He does not simply say that he holds like Rebbi Yehudah - because that would imply that he rules like him by the Yovel (where Rebbi Yehudah requires the straight horn of the ibex) as well as by Rosh Hashanah, when in fact, there, he holds like the Tana Kama (though it is unclear why he does not then say that he rules like Rebbi Yehudah with regard to Rosh Hashanah).

(b)The basis of the Machlokes between the Tana Kama and Rebbi Yehudah regarding the Shofar of Yovel is - that whereas the Tana Kama learns a 'Gezeirah-Shavah' to compare the Yovel to Rosh Hashanah (and vice-versa), Rebbi Yehudah does not.

(c)Levi declines to rule like Rebbi Yehudah regarding Yovel, too - because he follows the opinion of the Tana Kama, who learns the 'Gezeirah-Shavah'.

(d)The source of the Machlokes between the Tana Kama and Rebbi Yehudah regarding the Shofar of Rosh Hashanah is - whether the order of the day is to bend oneself before Hash-m (Rebbi Yehudah) or simplicity (as we explained earlier [the Tana Kama]).

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