ROSH HASHANAH 26 (5 Sivan) - Dedicated l'Zecher Nishmas Reb Chaim Aryeh ben Aharon Stern Z'L by Shmuel Gut of Brooklyn, N.Y.

[26a - 51 lines; 26b - 47 lines]

1)[line 6]"ושפטו העדה... והצילו העדה...""V'SHAFTU HA'EDAH... V'HITZILU HA'EDAH..."- "And the committee shall judge... And the committee shall save..." (Bamidbar 35:24-25) - Chazal derive from these verses that Beis Din should always act leniently in matters relating to capital punishment, and that all possible ways of avoiding it should be considered.

2a)[line 6]דחזיוהו דקטל נפשאD'CHAZYUHU D'KATAL NAFSHA- that they have witnessed him kill someone

b)[line 7]לא מצו חזו ליה זכותאLO MATZU CHAZU LEI ZECHUSA- they are unable to view him as anything other than guilty

3)[line 9]מפני שהוא קרןMIPNEI SHE'HU KEREN- because it is a "Keren" [and not a "Shofar"; both mean "horn"]

4)[line 11]"במשך בקרן היובל""BI'MSHOCH B'KEREN HA'YOVEL" - "[And it shall be] when a long blast is blown with the ram's horn, [when you hear the sound of the Shofar, the entire nation should shout loudly and the wall of the city shall sink in its place, and each man in the nation shall enter opposite where he stands]" (Yehoshua 6:5) (THE CAPTURE OF YERICHO)

(a)Just after Klal Yisrael entered Kena'an under the leadership of Yehoshua, they encamped before the highly fortified city of Yericho.

(b)Yehoshua outlined the procedure for capturing the city. For six days, the army was to walk around the town once a day, led by seven Kohanim. The Kohanim walked in front of the Aron (Holy Ark), carrying seven ram's horns.

(c)On the seventh day, they were to walk around the city seven times, while the Kohanim blew their Shofaros. After the seven revolutions, the Kohanim were to blow an extended blast on the Shofaros.

5)[line 14]"בכור שורו הדר וקרני ראם קרניו""BECHOR SHORO HADAR LO, V'KARNEI RE'EM KARNAV" - "The majesty of the ox is given to him, and the horns of the Re'em are his horns; [with them nations shall gore each other until the ends of the earth; and they are the myriads of Efrayim, and they are the thousands of Menasheh" (Devarim 33:17) (MOSHE BLESSES SHEVET YOSEF)

The implication of this blessing is that Yosef should be as strong as an ox and yet as beautiful as a Re'em (probably an oryx). The end of the verse alludes to Yehoshua, who came from Efrayim and defeated tens of thousands of Kena'anim, and Gid'on, who came from Menasheh and killed thousands of Midyanim (see Background to 25:33).

6)[line 16]"ותיטב לה' משור פר [מקרן מפריס]""V'SITAV LA'SH-M MI'SHOR PAR [MAKRIN MAFRIS]"- "And it shall be more pleasing to HaSh-m than a [horned and hoofed] bull ox" (Tehilim 69:32) - In this verse, David ha'Melech expresses his confidence that his prayers will be acceptable to HaSh-m even more than if he had offered a Korban.

7)[line 19]שהוא גדול כפרSHE'HU GADOL K'FAR- [an ox, which is termed such even on the day that it is born] that is as large as a [three-year-old] bull. This refer to the first cow of creation, which was created fully developed (RASHI; see Daf 10a).

8)[line 22]בבגדי זהבBIGDEI ZAHAV (BIGDEI KEHUNAH)

(a)Every Kohen wears four white linen garments termed Bigdei Lavan (white vestments) while performing the Avodah. The Bigdei Kehunah are the Kutones (long shirt), Michnasayim (breeches), Avnet (belt), and Migba'as (hat).

(b)The Kohen Gadol wears an additional four garments whenever he performs the Avodah. Because each one is either made of gold or contains golden thread, they are referred to as the Bigdei Zahav (golden vestments). These are the Tzitz (a thin gold band upon which the words "Kodesh la'Shem" are inscribed, worn upon the forehead), Efod (apron), Choshen (breastplate), and Me'il (robe).

(c)The head-covering of the Kohen Gadol is referred to as a "Mitznefes" by the Torah; some Rishonim understand that the head-coverings of the Kohen Gadol and Kohen Hedyot differed in appearance (see TOSFOS 25a DH Notel).

(d)If a Kohen performs the Divine Service while not wearing the Bigdei Kehunah, he receives Misah b'Yedei Shamayim. The Gemara (Sanhedrin 83b) derives from a verse (Shemos 29:9) that they are considered Zarim (non-Kohanim; see Background to Sanhedrin 83:1) while in this state.

(e)On Yom ha'Kipurim, the Kohen Gadol wears Bigdei Lavan when performing the special Yom Kippur service (Vayikra 16:4). The Bigdei Lavan of the Kohen Gadol are identical to the four white linen garments worn by a Kohen Hedyot. The Kohen Gadol wears the Bigdei Lavan while performing the Avodas Penim (the parts of the service which include entering the Heichal and the Kodesh ha'Kodashim; see Background to Yoma 44:2). He changed his garments from Bigdei Zahav to Bigdei Lavan and back again five times over the course of the day.

9)[line 22]לפני ולפניםLIFNAI V'LIFNIM- inside the Kodesh ha'Kodashim

10)[line 23]שאין קטיגור נעשה סניגורEIN KATEIGOR NA'ASEH SANEIGOR

(a)That which serves as a reminder of one's past sins cannot be used in his defense. This rule is known as "Ein Kateigor Na'aseh Saneigor" - "the prosecutor cannot act as the defense."

(b)Based upon this logic, anything golden or reminiscent of a cow should not be present when the Kohen Gadol attempts to effect atonement for Klal Yisrael on Yom ha'Kipurim. Since Yom ha'Kipurim is necessary only due to the sin of the Egel ha'Zahav (golden calf) - indeed, the very first Yom ha'Kipurim was the one upon which the nation was forgiven for that blunder - such items would be reminiscent of that time, thereby undermining the purpose of the service.

11)[line 24]דם פרDAM PAR (PAR SHEL YOM HA'KIPURIM)

(a)Among the Korbanos offered by the Kohen Gadol on Yom ha'Kipurim is a bull purchased with his personal funds (Vayikra 16:3-6). The Kohen Gadol performs Semichah (the placement of both hands upon the head of the animal and leaning on it with all of one's might) on his bull while reciting Viduy (the confession of sins) on behalf of himself and his immediate household (Vayikra 1:4). After drawing the lots for the two identical goats, offering one as a Chatas, and sending the other to Azazel, he again recites Viduy on the bull - this time on behalf of all Kohanim.

(b)He then slaughters it, collects its blood, and sprinkles the blood in the Kodesh ha'Kodashim (Vayikra 16:14), and then again in the Heichal toward the Paroches (the curtain separating the Heichal from the Kodesh ha'Kodashim; ibid. 16:16). He then applies it to the Mizbach ha'Ketores in the Heichal (ibid. 16:18). The remainder of its blood is then poured on the western Yesod (base) of the Mizbe'ach ha'Chitzon. The carcass of the bull is burned in its entirety outside of Yerushalayim in the same place that the ashes removed from the Mizbe'ach are deposited (the Beis ha'Deshen). The clothing of those who are involved with the burning of the carcass becomes Tamei (Metamei Begadim).

(c)The Mishnah (Shevuos 2a) states that the service of this Par atones for sins of the Kohanim. The Tana'im disagree as to what sins are atoned for:

1.Rebbi Yehudah is of the opinion that the Par of the Kohen Gadol atones for sins of Tum'as Mikdash v'Kodashav (see Background to Yoma 18:19).

2.Rebbi Shimon maintains that atonement for Tum'as Mikdash v'Kodashav is provided by the sprinkling of the bull's blood. The Viduy of the Kohen Gadol atones for all other sins of the Kohanim.

12)[line 24]ואשתניISHTANI- it was changed [from being part of the bull to blood]

13)[line 25]ארוןARON- the Holy Ark

14)[line 25]וכפורתKAPORES- the cover of the Aron

15)[line 25]וכרובKRUV (KERUVIM)

(a)In both the Mishkan in the desert and the Beis ha'Mikdash in Yerushalayim, Keruvim joined the Aron ha'Kodesh (Holy Ark) and Kapores (cover of the Ark) in the Kodesh ha'Kodashim. The Keruvim, child-faced winged figures fashioned from solid gold, were attached to the Kapores and stood ten-Tefachim tall with their wings extended over their heads toward each other (Shemos 25:18-21). They symbolized the relationship between HaSh-m and His nation. When Klal Yisrael fulfilled the will of their Father in Heaven, the Keruvim faced each other. When, G-d forbid, they did not, then the Keruvim turned away from one another (Yoma 54a-b).

(b)Aside from the Keruvim of the Kapores, an additional pair of Keruvim adorned the Kodesh ha'Kodashim of the Beis ha'Mikdash. These were ten Amos tall, and they stood upon the ground to either side of the Aron. They were fashioned out of olive wood and plated with gold. They heads were positioned at an angle facing slightly eastward of each other, towards the entrance of the Heichal (Bava Basra 99a), and their wings were spread to either side. Their combined wing-span reached diagonally across the entire Kodesh ha'Kodashim and their wings met over the center of the Kapores (Melachim I 6:23-29).

(c)The Aron, Kapores, and Keruvim were among those items missing in the second Beis ha'Mikdash.

16)[line 25]חוטא בל יקריבCHOTEI BAL YAKRIV- [that] he who has sinned (in this case, the Kohen Gadol representing all of Klal Yisrael and their sins) shall neither offer [nor use in the Divine service an item reminiscent of the Egel ha'Zahav]

17)[line 26]כף ומחתהKAF U'MACHTAH (CHAFINAH)

(a)Chafinah, performed once a year on Yom ha'Kipurim by the Kohen Gadol, is one of the most difficult Avodos performed in the Beis ha'Mikdash (Yoma 47b, Menachos 11a). The Kohen Gadol enters the Kodesh ha'Kodashim for the first time in order to place Ketores (incense) over burning coals there. He takes with him a golden Kaf (a bowl with a handle) of Ketores in his left hand and a golden Machtah (pan) of burning coals in his right. He then places the pan of coals on the floor, empties the double-handful (Melo Chafnav) of Ketores in the Kaf into his hands, and covers the coals with Ketores (Vayikra 16:12-13).

(b)The Kohen Gadol holds the Kaf in his hands and uses his thumbs to slide the handle of the Kaf back toward his body until it was positioned between his elbows, with the edge of the bowl in his fingertips (and the bottom of it resting on the fleshy part of his palm). Then, with the help of his elbows, he rotates the bowl above his hands and empties the Ketores into his palms, all the while being careful not to spill any of it (RASHI, as explained by the ME'IRI to the Mishnah on Yoma 49b).

(c)According to the RAMBAM (Hilchos Avodas Yom ha'Kipurim 4:1), who has a slightly different text in Yoma 49b, the Kohen Gadol tilts the Kaf at an angle such that he is able to sweep the Ketores into his palms with his thumbs. He accomplishes this using his fingertips or by holding the handle of the Kaf in his teeth. (See Insights to Yoma 49b for other possible ways in which the Kohen Gadol performs Chafinah.)

18)[line 27]יתנאהYISNA'EH- adorn [himself]

19)[line 29]דלזכרון הואL'ZIKARON HU- it is [through the sounding of the Shofar that the favorable] remembrance [of Klal Yisrael comes about on Rosh Hashanah, day of judgment]

20)[line 37]דקאי גילדי גילדיKA'I GILDEI GILDEI- it is formed through discernible multiple layers

21)[line 37]מיתחזיMISCHAZI- it appears

22)[line 44]דדכראDICHRA- a ram

23)[line 45]לערביאARAVYA- Arabia

24)[line 46]לגליאGALYA- (a) Gallia or Galatia in Asia Minor; (b) France (Gaul)

25)[line 46]לנדהNIDAH

(a)By Torah Law, a woman is a Nidah for seven days following her period. It makes no difference whether she saw blood only one time or for the entire seven days. At the end of seven days, after nightfall, she may immerse in a Mikvah to become Tehorah.

(b)One may not have relations nor engage in intimate contact with his wife while she is a Nidah. The Chachamim enacted many far-ranging additional ways in which one must keep his distance from his wife when she is Teme'ah.

26)[line 46]גמולה דא מבעלהGEMULAH DA MI'BA'ALAH- this one is separated from her husband

27)[line 46]לאפריקיAFRIKI- (a) Phrygia, in Asia Minor; (b) Africa, esp. Northern Africa (Africa Propria; or Vera of the Roman Empire)

28)[line 46]למעהME'AH (Currency of the Talmud: Me'ah)

(a)The relationship between the various coins mentioned in the Talmud is as follows:

1.1 Sela = 2 Shekel

2.1 Shekel = 2 Dinar

3.1 Dinar = 6 Me'ah

4.1 Rova Shekel (or Sela Medinah) = 3 Me'ah

5.1 Me'ah = 2 Pundeyon

6.1 Pundeyon = 2 Isar

7.1 Isar = 8 Perutah (or sometimes 6 Perutah - see Kidushin 12a)

(b)Another name for a Dinar is a Zuz. All of the coins listed above are silver, except for the Perutos, which are copper.

(c)Our Gemara concludes that a Kesitah is a coin equivalent to a Me'ah, one-sixth of a Dinar.

29)[line 47]"ויקן את חלקת השדה אשר נטה שם אהלו מיד בני חמור אבי שכם במאה קשיטה""VA'YIKEN ES CHELKAS HA'SADEH ASHER NATAH SHAM OHALO MI'YAD BNEI CHAMOR AVI SHECHEM B'ME'AH KESITAH" - "And Yaakov acquired the portion of the field in which he had set up his tent from the sons of Chamor, father of Shechem, for one hundred Kesitah" (Bereishis 33:19) (YAAKOV PURCHASES LAND IN ERETZ YISRAEL)

(a)When Yaakov parted company from his brother, Esav, he entered Eretz Yisrael for the first time in twenty-two years. He pitched his tents in Shechem, making a point to acquire that area for one hundred Kesitah (which is equivalent to one hundred Me'ah).

(b)After the Me'aras ha'Machpelah, which Avraham Avinu purchased from Efron ha'Chiti, this is the next area in Eretz Yisrael purchased by the Avos.

30)[line 47]דנקיDANKI- Me'ah (lit. sixths; see above, entry # 28)

31)[line 47]לכרכי היםKERAKEI HA'YAM- [fortified] port cities

32)[line 48]"... אשר כריתי לי [בארץ כנען]""... ASHER KARISI LI [B'ERETZ KENA'AN...]" - "[My father made me swear, saying, 'I am about to die. In the grave] that I have purchased for myself [in the land of Kena'an, there should you bury me....']" (Bereishis 50:5) (YAAKOV'S RIGHTS TO THE ME'ARAS HA'MACHPELAH)

(a)Before he died, Yaakov made Yosef promise that he would transport his bones back to Kena'an and bury them there in the Me'aras ha'Machpelah.

(b)Anticipating trouble from Esav, who might claim that he was the true Bechor and therefore entitled to be buried in the Me'aras ha'Machpelah (and not Yaakov), he purchased those rights from Esav, paying for them in full. This did not deter Esav from making trouble anyhow and trying to prevent Yaakov from being buried in the Me'aras ha'Machpelah. As a result, they sent Naftali (the fastest runner) back to Egypt to fetch the relevant papers of sale to refute Esav's claim.

33)[line 48]לתחום קן נשרייאTECHUM KAN NISHRAYA- the border of Kennesrin (lit. eagles' nest), a city on the Euphrates River

34)[line 49]"יפה נוף משוש כל הארץ...""YEFEH NOF, MESOS KOL HA'ARETZ..."- "Beautiful of foliage, joy of the world...." (Tehilim 48:3) - This verse refers to Yerushalayim. Our Gemara interprets it to mean, "Beautiful as an adorned bride...."

35)[line 50]"מי שת בטוחות חכמה או מי נתן לשכוי בינה""MI SHAS BA'TUCHOS CHOCHMAH, O MI NASAN LA'SECHVI VINAH?"- "Who has placed wisdom in those [organs] that are sealed away, or Who has granted understanding to the heart?" (Iyov 38:36; see Ibn Ezra)

36)[last line]כליותKELAYOS- kidneys

37)[last line]זה תרנגולZEH TARNEGOL- this refers to the rooster [who knows to crow at daybreak every morning]

38)[last line]איקלעIKLA- went

39)[last line]אתראASRA- land


40)[line 1]קבען פלניאKAV'AN PELANYA- that person has robbed me

41)[line 3]"היקבע אדם א-לקים [כי אתם קבעים אתי, ואמרתם במה קבענוך; המעשר והתרומה!]""HA'YIKBA ADAM EL-KIM? [KI ATEM KOV'IM OSI, VA'AMARTEM, 'BA'MEH KEVA'ANUCHA?' HA'MA'ASER VEHA'TERUMAH!]"- "Does a man steal from G-d? [For you have stolen from Me. Yet you say, 'What have we stolen from You?' Ma'aser and Terumah!]" (Mal'achi 3:8) - One who withholds that which is due the Kohen and Levi is considered to have stolen from HaSh-m Himself.

42)[line 4]אי הואי התםIY HAVA'I HASAM- had I been there [in Levi's place]

43)[line 7]מילתא דאיסורא קאמר ליהMILSA D'ISURA KA'AMAR LEI- that the man was claiming to have been sodomized

44)[line 8]סירוגיןSEIRUGIN- [that which the Mishnah (Megilah 17a) describes the reading of the Megilah in] "Serugin" [as acceptable b'Di'eved]

45)[line 8]לאמתא דבי רביAMASA D'BEI REBBI- the maidservant in the house of Rebbi

46)[line 9]דחזתנהוCHAZASANHU- she saw

47)[line 9]עיילי פסקי פסקיAILEI PISKEI PISKEI- arriving intermittently, in fits and starts

48)[line 13]מבדר פרפחיניהMEVADER PARPECHINEI- scattering his purslane plants (a yellow-flowered herb whose fleshy leaves are used in salads or in seasoning)

49)[line 14]מפזרMEFAZER- scatter

50)[line 15]"סלסלה ותרוממך [תכבדך כי תחבקנה]""SALSELEHAH U'SEROMEMEKA; [TECHABEDCHA KI SECHABKENAH]"- "Caress it and it will uplift you; [it will honor you when you embrace it]" (Mishlei 4:8) - Based on our Gemara, RASHI explains that this verse instructs us to delve into and unearth the hidden treasures of the Torah.

51)[line 17]מהפך בשעריהMEHAPECH B'SA'AREI- styling his hair

52)[line 19]"ושמתיה למורש קפד ואגמי מים וטאטאתיה במטאטא השמד נאם ה' צבקות""V'SAMTIHA L'MORASH KIPOD V'AGMEI MAYIM V'TE'ATE'OSIHA B'MATATEI HASHMED, NE'UM HASH-M TZEVAKOS"- "And I will turn it (Bavel) into a place inherited by the Kipod (a species of owl) and into pools of water, and I will sweep it with a broom of destruction, says the Lord of Hosts" (Yeshayah 14:23) - The chapter describes Nevuchadnetzar's self-delusion that he was a god, and how HaSh-m planned to put him in his place, and then to destroy Bavel.

53)[line 21]שקוליSHEKULI- take

54)[line 22]"השלך על ה' יהבך והוא יכלכלך""HASHLECH AL HASH-M YEHAVCHA, V'HU YECHALKELECHA"- "Cast your burden upon HaSh-m, and He will sustain you..." (Tehilim 55:23)

55)[line 25]טייעאTAY'A- an Arab merchant

56)[line 25]הוה דרינא טונאHAVAH DARINA TUNA- I was carrying a burden

57a)[line 25]שקול יהביךSHEKOL YAHAVICH- take your burden

b)[line 26]ושדי אגמלאיV'SHADI A'GAMLAI- and throw it upon my camel

58a)[line 27]יעלYA'EL- (O.F. estainboc) an ibex

b)[line 27]פשוטPASHUT- [relatively] straight

59)[line 27]מצופהMETZUPAH- covered

60)[line 28]חצוצרותCHATZOTZROS- trumpets

61)[line 28]מאריךMA'ARICH- [blows an] extended [blast]

62a)[line 30]זכריםZECHARIM- rams

b)[line 30]כפופיןKEFUFIN- curved

63)[line 30]באמצעB'EMTZA- in the middle [of two Shofaros]

64)[line 33]היובלYOVEL

(a)The year after seven Shemitah cycles of seven years each is called the Yovel year. Tana'im disagree (Nedarim 61a) as to whether the fiftieth year follows those of the Shemitah cycle and does not count toward the next cycle, or whether it is both the Yovel year as well as the first year of the next Shemitah cycle.

(b)The Halachos of the Shemitah year that prohibit working the land and invest the produce that grows during that year with sanctity apply to the year of Yovel as well. In addition, at the start of the Yovel year, all Eved Ivrim (Jewish slaves; see Background to Erchin 25:10 and 29:2) are set free, and all properties sold since the previous Yovel return to their original owners. On Yom ha'Kipurim of the Yovel Year, a member of the Beis Din blows a Shofar to denote that the time has arrived to set the Avadim free (Vayikra 25:9). Our Mishnah discusses the Shofar blasts of Yom ha'Kipurim of a Yovel year, which follow the same pattern and Halachos as those of Rosh Hashanah.


(a)Every weekday Shemoneh Esreh prayer contains nineteen blessings. As the name implies, it originally contained eighteen, but one was added at a later point. In the first three we praise HaSh-m, and in the last three we offer our thanks to HaSh-m. These blessings always remain the same. The middle thirteen contain requests for the gamut of our personal and communal needs.

(b)Shabbos and Yom Tov prayers contain seven Berachos. The first and last three remain constant, while the middle one, called Kedushas ha'Yom, expounds upon the holiness of that individual day.

(c)The only exceptions to these guidelines are the Musaf prayers of Rosh Hashanah and Yom ha'Kipurim of the Yovel year. These prayers consist of nine Berachos. Instead of only one middle Berachah, there are three. The first is Malchuyos, which deals with the kingship of HaSh-m. The theme of the second is Zichronos, in which we beseech HaSh-m to remember us only for the good on the day of judgment. The final one is Shofaros, in which we ask HaSh-m to hearken to the sound of our Shofar blasts. In each of these three middle blessings, we include ten verses that correspond to the theme of the Berachah. The first three are from the Torah, the next three from Kesuvim, the next three from Nevi'im, and the final one is again taken from the Torah.

66)[line 36]כל השנהKOL HA'SHANAH- used on Ta'aniyos

67)[line 43]במאי קמיפלגיB'MAI KA'MIPALGI?- what is the basis of the disagreement [between Rebbi Yehudah and the Tana Kama in our Mishnah]?

68a)[line 44]כמה דכייף איניש דעתיהKAMAH D'KAYIF INISH DA'ATEI- the more one humbles himself. The Girsa found in certain manuscripts and that of Rashi, Tosfos, the Rosh, and the Ritva does not include the word "Da'atei." According to this Girsa, this phrase means "the more one bends over [while praying]."

b)[line 45]כמה דפשיט איניש דעתיהKAMAH D'FASHEIT INISH DA'ATEI- the more one straightens his mind. According the Girsa mentioned above, this phrase means, "the more one holds himself straight [while praying]."

69)[line 45]טפי מעליTEFEI MA'ALEI- it is better