ROSH HASHANAH 21-25 - Dedicated in memory of Max (Meir Menachem ben Shlomo ha'Levi) Turkel, by his children Eddie and Lawrence and his wife Jean Turkel/Rafalowicz. Max was a warm and loving husband and father and is missed dearly by his family and friends. His Yahrzeit is 5 Teves.

[24a - 46 lines; 24b - 41 lines]

1)[line 1]גירי קא משדייאGIREI KA MESHADYA- it is shooting its arrows [against those who do not worship it, like an archer who holds the arc of his bow facing away from his body]

2)[line 5]כאן בימות החמהKAN BI'YEMOS HA'CHAMAH- [the moon is to the south of the sun] in the summer [since the moon is always in the southwest corner at the beginning of the month]

3)[line 5]כאן בימות הגשמיםKAN BI'YEMOS HA'GESHAMIM- [the moon is to the north of the sun] in the winter [since the moon is always in the southwest corner at the beginning of the month, and the sun sets in the far southwest corner on the winter solstice] (see Insights)

4)[line 7]גבוה ב' מרדעותGAVO'AH SHNEI MARDE'OS- [the moon appeared to be at] the height of two plow handles [above the horizon]

5)[line 9]מצטרפין לעדות אחרתMITZTARFIM L'EDUS ACHERES- [either one of] them may join [with another who claims to have seen the moon as they did] to testify [regarding the new moon]

6a)[line 9]ראינוהו במיםRE'INUHU B'MAYIM- we saw [the new moon reflected in] water

b)[line 10]בעששיתB'ASHASHIS- through a [glass] lantern

c)[line 10]בעביםB'AVIM- through clouds

7)[line 16]כל הכי חזו לה ואזלי?KOL HACHI CHAZU LAH V'AZLEI?- must they keep track of it continuously?

8a)[line 17]מאלינוME'ELEINU- unintentionally

b)[line 18]מדעתנוMI'DAITENU- intentionally

9)[line 19]כוביתא דעיבא בעלמאKUBISA D'EIVA B'ALMA- merely the curved edge of a [white] cloud

10)[line 35]פלימוPLIMO- the name of a Tana

11)[line 38]"וקדשתם את שנת החמשים"V'KIDASHTEM ES SHNAS HA'CHAMISHIM..."- "And you shall sanctify the fiftieth year..." (Vayikra 25:10) - This verse refers to Yovel (see Background to 7:41).

12)[line 43]איפרסמאIFARSEMA- [that which the new moon was seen on the night following the twenty-ninth day] became publicized

13)[line 43]דמות צורות לבנהDEMUS TZUROS HA'LAVANAH- engraved forms of the moon

14)[line 44]בטבלא ובכותל בעלייתו(B'TAVLA UV'KOSEL) B'ALIYASO [AL HA'TAVLA B'KOSEL]- on a tablet [hanging] on the wall of his attic

15)[line 44]ההדיוטותHEDYOTOS- simple-minded people

16)[line 45]ומי שרי?U'MI SHARI?- is it indeed permitted [to make etched forms of the moon]?

17)[line 45]"לא תעשון אתי אלקי כסף ואלקי זהב לא תעשו לכם""LO SA'ASUN ITI; [ELOHEI CHESEF VE'LOHEI ZAHAV, LO SA'ASU LACHEM]"- "Do not fashion [forms to worship] with me; [do not fashion gods of silver and gold for yourselves.]" (Shemos 20:20)

18)[line 46]שמשייSHAMASHAI- My servants. This term ostensibly includes both heavenly servants as well as any object used in the service of HaSh-m.

19)[line 46]תבנית היכלTAVNIS HEICHAL- the form of the Sanctuary, which housed the Menorah, the Shulchan, and the Mizbe'ach for the Ketores

20)[line 47]אכסדרהACHSADRAH- a covered porch (open on at least one side)

21)[last line]אולםULAM- the roofed hallway in front of the Sanctuary (Heichal); the largest and most ornate structure in the Beis ha'Mikdash, its roof is seventeen stories above the ground.

22)[last line]עזרהAZARAH- the courtyard of the Beis ha'Mikdash

23)[last line]שלחןSHULCHAN- the Golden Table upon which the Lechem ha'Panim were arranged (see Background to Beitzah 22:30)

24)[last line]מנורהMENORAH- the golden seven-branched candelabra in the Beis ha'Mikdash (see Background to Yoma 31:27)


25)[line 1]של חמשהSHEL CHAMISHAH- [a] five-branched [candelabra]

26)[line 2]שאר מיני מתכותSHE'AR MINEI MATCHOS- types of metal other [than gold, since the Menorah may be fashioned of any type of metal when gold is not available]

27)[line 4]מלכי בית חשמונאיMALCHEI BEIS CHASHMONA'I

(a)When the Syrian-Greeks (Yevanim) infiltrated Eretz Yisrael and attempted to defile all that was holy, the members of a family of Kohanim, named the Chashmona'im (Hasmoneans), were prepared to sacrifice their lives and fight for the honor of HaSh-m. In response, HaSh-m fought their battles and miraculously saved them from their enemies.

(b)The Yevanim had succeeded in breaching the Beis ha'Mikdash and wreaking havoc. When the Chashmona'im returned to this holiest of places, they found that the Mizbe'ach had been made Tamei, and that all of the pure olive oil stored for lighting the Menorah had been defiled. Miraculously, one sealed jar of oil was discovered. Although eight days were required to manufacture new olive oil and the oil found was enough for only one day, it was decided to light the Menorah for that one day. HaSh-m responded with yet another miracle, and the oil burned for eight full days. These events resulted in the institution of the holiday of Chanukah.

(c)Following the period of Chanukah, the members of this priestly family ruled the nation, taking for themselves the title of "prince." This was because only members of the Shevet of Yehudah may rule as "kings." Eventually, descendants of the Chashmona'im who were not as fiercely loyal to HaSh-m as their ancestors seized the kingship. Before the destruction of the second Beis ha'Mikdash, Herod, slave of the Chashmona'im, rebelled. He murdered every member of the family and declared himself king. Thus the Chashmona'i family no longer has any living members.

28)[line 5]משם ראייה?MI'SHAM RE'AYAH?- from [the Chashmona'im] you bring a proof [that the Menorah may be made of wood]? [This is untrue; the Menorah may not be made of wood!]

29a)[line 5]שפודין של ברזל היוSHEFUDIN SHEL BARZEL HAYU- the [Menorah of the Chashmona'im] was [fashioned from undecorated] iron rods

b)[line 6]וחיפום בבעץV'CHIFUM B'VA'ATZ- they covered them with tin (O.F. estain)

30)[line 6]העשירוHE'ESHIRU- when they became wealthier

31)[line 10]במרוםBA'MAROM- on high

32)[line 11]ארבעה פנים בהדי הדדיARBA'AH PANIM B'HADEI HADADI- those who have four faces at once. This refers to a type of angel known as Chayos ha'Kodesh, who support the Heavenly Throne. Yechezkel describes them as: "And each one had four faces; one face was that of a Kruv, the second face that of a man, the third face that of a lion, and the fourth face that of an eagle" (Yechezkel 10:14). The first time that Yechezkel saw this vision, the first face of each Chayah was that of an ox. At Yechezkel's behest, HaSh-m changed it to that of a Kruv (Chagigah 13b).

33)[line 12]הפרצופותPARTZUF- the face of

34)[line 15]מפרקיהMI'PIRKEI- from the lessons of

35)[line 16]לא תעשון אתיLO SA'ASUN OSI- do not make my form. This refers to the form of a person, since (a) people are created in the image of HaSh-m (Bereishis 9:6); (b) that is the form sometimes taken by HaSh-m when he reveals Himself to a prophet (e.g. Yechezkel 1:26) (SIFSEI CHACHAMIM)

36a)[line 18]אופניםOFANIM- angels shaped like wheels. Ofanim are full of eyes, and they move together with the Chayos (see above, entry #32), rolling in whichever direction the Chayos turn without turning around. Additionally, when the Chayos flap their wings and rise into the air, the Ofanim rise with them. The RAMBAM explains that there are ten levels of angels. The most exalted of the angels are the Chayos, and directly below them are the Ofanim. "Mal'achim" refer to angels on the sixth level (see Hilchos Yesodei ha'Torah 2:7).

b)[line 19]ושרפיםSERAFIM- fiery angels

c)[line 19]וחיות הקודשCHAYOS HA'KODESH- see above, entry #32

37)[line 20]שבמדור העליוןMADOR HA'ELYON- the upper heavens (lit. abode)

38)[line 22]"[לא תעשה לך פסל וכל תמונה] אשר בשמים ממעל ואשר בארץ מתחת ואשר במים מתחת לארץ""[LO SA'ASEH LECHA FESEL V'CHOL TEMUNAH] ASHER BA'SHAMAYIM MI'MA'AL VA'ASHER BA'ARETZ MI'TACHAS VA'ASHER BA'MAYIM MI'TACHAS LA'ARETZ"- "[Do not fashion for yourself an idol or any other form] that exists in the heavens above or that exists on the earth below or that exists in the water below the earth." (Shemos 20:4) - This verse appears in the Ten Commandments.

39)[line 23]ומזלותMAZALOS- constellations

40)[line 24]שלשולSHILSHUL- a worm

41a)[line 26]וגבעותGEVA'OS- hills

b)[line 26]אפיקיםAFIKIM- (O.F. rivieres) streams

c)[line 27]וגאיותGE'AYOS- valleys

42)[line 31]דאחריםACHERIM- other [Nochrim]

43)[line 32]שיננא!SHINENA!- well-learned person!

44)[line 32]סמי עיניה דדין!SAMI EINEI D'DEIN!- blind this one's eye! Shmuel instructed Rav Yehudah to obliterate the form on his signet ring.

45)[line 33]חותמו בולט הוהCHOSAMO BOLET HAVAH- the form of the signet was protruding

46)[line 34]חשדאCHASHADA- suspicion [that it was worn in order to be worshipped]

47)[line 34]טבעתTABA'AS- a [signet] ring

48a)[line 34]אסור להניחהASUR L'HANICHAH- it is forbidden to wear it

b)[line 35]ומותר לחתום בהU'MUTAR LA'CHTOM BAH- and it is permitted to seal with it [since the resulting seal will be inverted]

49)[line 35]שוקעSHOKE'A- sunken

50)[line 36]בי כנישתא דשף ויתיב בנהרדעאBEI CHENISHTA D'SHAF V'YASIV B'NEHARDE'A- (a) the synagogue located in the Shaf v'Yasiv district of [the Babylonian city of] Neharde'a; (b) the synagogue that had been taken apart [in Eretz Yisrael] and then rebuilt [brick by brick] in Neharde'a [at the time of the destruction of the first Beis ha'Mikdash]; (c) the synagogue that had collapsed and was then rebuilt [a number of times] (RASHI to Avodah Zarah 43b, Megilah 29a)

51)[line 37]אנדרטאANDARTA- a statue of the king

52)[line 37]עייליAILI- entered

53)[line 38]ומצלוMATZLI- prayed

54)[line 39]דפרקים הוהD'FERAKIM HAVAH- [the forms of the moon] were made of interconnecting parts [in which case no one piece was shaped like the moon]

55)[line 40]להתלמד עבדL'HISLAMED AVAD- [the forms of the moon] were made for educational purposes

56)[line 40]"[כי אתה בא אל הארץ...] לא תלמד לעשות [כתועבת הגוים ההם]""[KI ATAH BA EL HA'ARETZ...] LO SILMAD LA'ASOS [K'SO'AVOS HA'GOYIM HA'HEM]"- "[When you come to the land...] do not learn in order to act [like the abominations of those nations.]" (Devarim 18:9)

57)[last line]ולהורותL'HOROS- to teach

58)[last line]ראינוהוRE'INUHU- we saw (a) the old moon (RASHI quoting his teachers); (b) the new moon (RASHI) (see Insights)