PESACHIM 94 (18 Tishrei) - dedicated by Reb Tuvya Marcus and family (Baltimore/Yerushalayim) in honor of the Yahrzeit of his father, Binyomin Leib ben Aharon Marcus.

[45a - 45 lines; 45b - 40 lines]

1)[line 9]וקרונותKERONOS- wagons

2)[line 12]וסומכא דרקיעאSUMCHA D'REKI'A- the "thickness" of the firmament, through which the sun travels between 1. Alos ha'Shachar (Halachic dawn) and Netz ha'Chamah (sunrise) and 2. Sheki'as ha'Chamah (sunset) and Tzeis ha'Kochavim (nightfall)

3)[line 27]דקדמא וחשוכאD'KADMA V'CHASHOCHA- [the time during which people travel] before dawn and after Tzeis ha'Kochavim

4)[line 30]וכושKUSH- Ethiopia (JOSEPHUS) or Arabia (TARGUM YONASAN to Bereishis 10:6, Divrei ha'Yamim I 1:8-9; the name Arabia in this context appears to refer to an area in Africa on the upper Nile [as described by HERODOTUS, cited by Rabbi Aryeh Kaplan in Bereishis 10:6] or the entire Nile area. (Egypt and Ethiopia were once a joint kingdom.))

5)[line 32]בעדןEDEN- the region containing Gan Eden (the Garden of Eden)

6)[line 38]עגלהAGALAH- (a) the constellation of Ursa Major (the Big Dipper) (TOSFOS 94b DH me'Olam, RABEINU YONASAN MI'LUNIL to Eruvin 56a), a circumpolar constellation near the celestial north pole; (b) EGLAH - Taurus, the northernmost of the signs of the zodiac (RASHI)

7)[line 39]וכל הישוב כולו אינו הוה אלא שעה אחת ביוםV'CHOL HA'YISHUV KULO EINO HOVEH ELA SHA'AH ACHAS BA'YOM- the sun traverses the entire settled area of the earth within one hour (from half an hour before noon until half an hour after noon when the sun is overhead)

8)[last line]"אעלה על במתי עב אדמה לעליון""E'ELEH AL BAMASEI AV, EDAMEH L'ELYON"- "I will ascend above the heights of the clouds; I will be like He who is highest" (Yeshayah 14:14).


9)[line 9]"אך אל שאול תורד אל ירכתי בור""ACH EL SHE'OL TURAD, EL YARKESEI VOR"- "Yet you shall be brought down to She'ol, to the depth of the pit" (Yeshayah 14:15).

10)[line 10]גלגל קבוע ומזלות חוזריןGALGAL KAVU'A U'MAZALOS CHOZRIN- the heavenly sphere to which the constellations are attached is fixed, and the constellations move upon it. Rashi explains that at this point the Gemara assumes that each constellation which "serves" the sun travels with the sun slightly until it reaches the next constellation, and then returns to its original place. (Since this movement of the Mazal relative to the other Mazalos occurs during the day, it cannot be seen.) The Gemara is assuming that the sun does not have its own "sphere" - i.e., wheel - to move it, but is moved only via the Mazalos. (The Gemara here is referring only to the movement of the Mazalos within their sphere, that is, north and south along their sphere. It is obvious that the sphere of the Mazalos does move, though, in an east-west motion relative to the earth, since one sees them crossing the heavens through the night.)

11)[line 11]גלגל חוזר ומזלות קבועיןGALGAL CHOZER U'MAZALOS KEVU'IN- the heavenly sphere to which the constellations are attached moves, and the constellations are fixed. (The Gemara assumes at this point that these constellations are moving the sun along with them, and that it does not have its own sphere to move it.)

12)[line 13]לא מצינו עגלה בדרום ועקרב בצפוןLO MATZINU AGALAH BA'DAROM V'AKRAV BA'TZAFON- that is, in the summer the sun follows a northerly route as it proceeds from one Mazal to the next, and in the winter a more southerly route. Each Mazal, on the other hand, always follows the same route, and remains in its own part of the heavens. If the sun does not have its own sphere to move it, and the Mazalos do not move the sun along their sphere, then it must be attached to one of the Mazalos. In that case the sun must always remain in that Mazal, and not fluctuate between north or south (RASHI).

13a)[line 14]ודילמא כבוצינא דריחיא א''נ כצינורא דדשאV'DILMA K'VUTZINA D'REICHAYA IY NAMI K'TZINORA D'DASHA- perhaps the sun is being moved by its own heavenly sphere while the constellations remain fixed in another heavenly sphere.

b)[line 15]כבוצינא דריחיאK'VUTZINA D'REICHAYA- (a) like the iron pivot of a millstone (RASHI); (b) like the hole (socket) of the lower millstone (ARUCH)

c)[line 15]כצינורא דדשאK'TZINORA D'DASHA- like a door in its socket. (Each of these metaphors describes one object revolving around an axis, which, in turn, may rotate inside an outer object.)

14)[line 22]בגובה של רקיעB'GOVAH SHEL RAKI'A- farther north and higher overhead (see Graphic to Eruvin 56a)

15)[line 25]בארבעה שבילין חמה מהלכתB'ARBA'AH SHEVILIN CHAMAH MEHALECHES- that is, during each of the four seasons of the year, the sun follows different paths. Sometimes it rises directly overhead at noon, and during other seasons it remains closer to the southern horizon. (During spring and fall, the sun actually follows paths that are more or less at the same distance from the horizon, but the Gemara here considers them to be two different paths since they occur during two different seasons.)

16)[line 27]לפשרL'FASHER- to melt