1)

FROM WHICH CAMPS IS A BA'AL KERI SENT?

(a)

Question (Seifa): A Bo'el Nidah is like a Tamei Mes.

1.

Question: In what way are they the same?

2.

Answer #1: This refers to his Tum'ah.

3.

Rejection: Verses explicitly Metamei both of them for seven days!

4.

Answer #2: It refers to which Machanos he must leave.

5.

Summation of question: Since the Seifa refers to Machanos, also the Reisha!

(b)

Answer: No - the Seifa refers to Machanos, but the Reisha refers to Tum'ah.

(c)

Question (Beraisa): A Metzora is more stringent than a Zav, and a Zav is more stringent than a Tamei Mes - this excludes a Ba'al Keri, who is more lenient than a Tamei Mes (this will be explained).

1.

Suggestion: This means, we exclude a Ba'al Keri from being [sent out of two camps] like a Zav, and he is like a Tamei Mes, since even a Tamei Mes, who is more stringent, [is sent out of only one, and] is permitted in Machaneh Levi!

(d)

Answer: No - he leaves the camp [restrictions] of a Tamei Mes, and enters the camp of a Zav;

1.

Even though a Tamei Mes, who is more stringent, is permitted in Machaneh Levi, a Ba'al Keri is like a Zav (their Tum'ah came from their bodies, therefore they are the same regarding Machanos).

(e)

(A recitor of Beraisos): [Regarding a Ba'al Keri it says] "Va'Yatza El mi'Chutz la'Machaneh" - this refers to Machaneh Shechinah; "Lo Yavo El Toch ha'Machaneh" - this refers to Machaneh Levi;

1.

This teaches that a Ba'al Keri is expelled from two camps.

(f)

Version #1 Question (R. Yitzchak bar Avodimi): [Your Beraisa expounds that] he may not enter [Machaneh Levi] - he is not yet outside [the verse only expelled him from Machaneh Shechinah so far]!

(g)

Version #2 Question (R. Yitzchak bar Avodimi): [It expounds that] he may not enter [Machaneh Levi] before teaching that he must leave! (end of Version #2)

(h)

Correction (R. Yitzchak bar Avodimi): Rather, it should say "[V'Yatza El] mi'Chutz la'Machaneh" - this is Machaneh Levi; [when he leaves,] "Lo Yavo El Toch ha'Machaneh" - Machaneh Shechinah.

(i)

Question (Ravina): We should say that both of them refer to Machaneh Shechinah - the verse teaches that he transgresses a Lav and an Ase for entering!

(j)

Answer: If so, it would have said only "Va'Yatza El mi'Chutz la'Machaneh v'Lo Yavo El Toch"; "ha'Machaneh" is extra, to forbid another Machaneh.

2)

MICHUY OF THE INNARDS

(a)

(Mishnah): Michuy of the innards [is not Docheh Shabbos].

(b)

Question: What does this mean?

(c)

Answer #1 (Rav Huna): It is piercing them with a knife [to allow the excrement to leave].

(d)

Answer #2 (Chiya bar Rav): It is foul liquid stuck to them that is scraped off with a knife.

(e)

Question: What is Chiya's source?

(f)

(R. Elazar): He learns from "V'Charvos Mechim Garim Yochelu."

(g)

Question: How do we learn this from the verse?

(h)

Answer (Rav Yosef): Tzadikim will inherit the property of Resha'im (this teaches that Mechim refers to something detested).

3)

SOURCES FOR REVIVAL OF THE DEAD

(a)

(Menasiya bar Yirmeyah): "V'Ra'u Kevasim k'DaVRaM" - k'MeDuBaR BaM (like was said about them).

(b)

Question: What was said about them?

(c)

Answer #1 (Abaye): [The end of the verse,] "V'Charvos Mechim Garim Yochelu" (Tzadikim will inherit their property).

(d)

Objection (Rava): Had it said 'Charvos', I would agree - but "V'Charvos" discusses a new matter!

(e)

Answer #2 (Rava): It teaches like Rav Chananel:

1.

(Rav Chananel): In the future, Tzadikim will revive the dead - it says "V'Ra'u Kevasim k'Davram," and it says "Yir'u Vashan v'Gil'ad ki'Mei Olam" (alluding to people who revived the dead):

i.

"Vashan" refers to Elisha, who was from Bashan - it says "V'Yanai v'Shofot ba'Bashan" and "...Po Elisha ben Shofot";

ii.

"V'Gil'ad" refers to Eliyahu - "Eliyahu ha'Tishbi mi'Yoshvei Gil'ad."

(f)

(R. Shmuel bar Nachmani): In the future, Tzadikim will revive the dead - it says "...Od Yeshvu Zekenim...v'Ish Mish'anto b'Yado," like it says "V'Somti Mish'anti Al Pnei ha'Na'ar" (to revive him).

(g)

Contradiction (Ula): It says "Bila ha'Maves la'Netzach," and it says "Ha'Na'ar Ben Me'ah Shanah Yamus"!

(h)

Resolution: Death will cease from Yisrael, Nochrim will live long lives [but not forever].

(i)

Question: Will Nochrim be in the world to come?!

(j)

Answer: Yes, They will be there to serve us - "V'Omdu Zarim v'Ra'u Tzonchem...."

(k)

Contradiction (Rav Chisda): It says "V'Chofrah ha'Levanah u'Voshah ha'Chamah" (they will not illuminate; Rashi in Sanhedrin - they will be dim), and it says "V'Hayah Or ha'Levanah k'Or ha'Chamah...Shiv'asayim k'Or Shiv'as ha'Yomim"!

(l)

Resolution #1: In the Messianic period they will be bright, but not in the world to come (the radiance of the Shechinah will illuminate).

(m)

Question: According to Shmuel, who says that the only difference between this world and Yemos ha'Moshi'ach is that the kingdoms will cease to rule over Yisrael, how can we answer?

(n)

Resolution #2: Both refer to the world to come - in the place of Tzadikim they will be bright, but not in the place of the Shechinah.

(o)

Question (Rava): It says "Ani Amis va'Achayeh" and it "says Machatzti va'Ani Erpa" - since Hash-m can revive the dead, it need not say that He can heal!

(p)

Answer #1: It teaches that just like the same people who were struck are healed, the same people who died come back to life.

1.

(Beraisa) Suggestion: "Ani Amis va'Achayeh" - perhaps this is as we find in this world, people die and others are sustained!

2.

Rejection "Machatzti va'Ani Erpa" - just as the sick are cured, also the dead will be revived;

i.

This refutes those who say that there is no source in Torah for Techiyas ha'Mesim.

(q)

Answer #2: First Hash-m will revive people the way He killed them; then, He will heal what He struck.

68b----------------------------------------68b

4)

NEEDS OF AVODAH THAT OVERRIDE SHABBOS

(a)

(Mishnah): Haktaras ha'Chelev [is Docheh].

(b)

(Beraisa - R. Shimon): This shows the dearness of a Mitzvah in its time! Chelev and limbs of a Korban [whose blood was thrown during the day] may be offered all night, nevertheless [we offer them on Shabbos,] we do not wait for Motza'ei Shabbos.

(c)

(Mishnah): Carrying it and bringing it [...and cutting a wart off it are not Docheh].

(d)

Contradiction (Mishnah #2): [On Shabbos] one may cut off a wart [from a Kohen or Korban - it is a Mum until it is removed] in the Mikdash, but not outside the Mikdash.

(e)

Resolution #1 (R. Elazar or R. Yosi b'Rebbi Chanina): Both Mishnayos discuss cutting it off by hand - one may cut off a dry wart in the Mikdash, a wet one is forbidden. (Cutting by hand is a severe Shevus, it is forbidden even in the Mikdash, since it could have been done before Shabbos.)

(f)

Resolution #2 (The other of R. Elazar and R. Yosi b'Rebbi Chanina): Both discuss moist warts - one may cut it off by hand (this is only Shevus, for is an unskillful way to cut it), but it is forbidden with a Keli;

(g)

Question: Why didn't the second opinion answer like the first?

(h)

Answer: He holds that Mishnah #2 cannot discuss a dry wart, for it merely crumbles (Rashi - the Tana would not call it 'cutting'; Tosfos - it does not resemble Melachah, surely it would be permitted even with a Keli).

(i)

Question: Why didn't the first opinion answer like the second?

(j)

Answer: Mishnah #2 already forbids with a Keli everywhere (it need not be repeated in our Mishnah)!

(k)

The first opinion holds that it was repeated here to teach that R. Eliezer permits even with a Keli.

(l)

(Mishnah - R. Eliezer): Slaughtering [...all the more so Shevusim are Docheh Shabbos! R. Yehoshua says, Yom Tov disproves this - Melachah is permitted, nevertheless Shevus is forbidden!]

(m)

This is as R. Yehoshua holds elsewhere, that Simchah [of eating] on Yom Tov is a Mitzvah [mid'Oraisa]:

1.

(Beraisa - R. Eliezer): On Yom Tov a person must eat and drink, or learn;

2.

R. Yehoshua says, one should divide the day - half to eat and drink, and half to learn.

(n)

(R. Yochanan): Both of them learn from the same verses:

1.

Contradiction: It says "Atzeres la'Shem Elokecha," and it says "Atzeres Tihyeh Lachem"! (Maharsha - even though one discusses the last day of Pesach and the other Shemini Atzeres, surely the same law applies to both.)

2.

Resolution #1 (R. Eliezer): It must be all for Hash-m (learning), or all for you (eating and drinking)'

3.

Resolution #2 (R. Yehoshua): One must divide the day - half for Hash-m, and half for you.

5)

DAYS ON WHICH ONE MUST EAT

(a)

(R. Elazar): All agree that on Shavu'os [at least] part of the day must be for you.

(b)

Question: What is the reason?

(c)

Answer: This is when the Torah was given (see note in Appendix).

(d)

(Rabah): All agree that on Shabbos [at least] part of the day must be for you.

(e)

Question: What is the reason?

(f)

Answer: "V'Korosa la'Shabos Oneg."

(g)

(Rav Yosef): All agree that on Purim [at least] part of the day must be for you.

(h)

Question: What is the reason?

(i)

Answer: It says "Yemei Mishteh v'Simchah."

(j)

Mar brei d'Ravina used to fast every day (he would eat at night), except for Shavu'os, Purim and Erev Yom Kipur:

1.

[He ate on] Shavu'os, for this is when Torah was given; regarding Purim it says "Yemei Simchah u'Mishteh;" and it is a Mitzvah to eat on Erev Yom Kipur:

i.

(Chiya bar Rav mi'Difti - Beraisa) Question: "V'Inisem Es Nafshoseichem b'Sish'ah la'Chodesh ba'Erev" - the fast of Yom Kipur is on the 10th, not on the ninth!

ii.

Answer: This teaches that anyone who eats on the ninth is considered as if he fasted on the ninth and 10th (Sha'arei Teshuvah 4:8 - he shows joy that the time for atonement is coming, testifying to his anxiety over his sins).

(k)

Rav Yosef would ask that a third born [or grown] calf be prepared for him on Shavu'os - 'if not for Matan Torah, I would be like a common person.'

(l)

Rav Sheshes would review his learning every 30 days and lean on the door bolt - 'Rejoice my soul - I learned for you!'

(m)

Question: But R. Elazar taught that if not for the Torah, Heaven and earth would not endure (learning benefits everyone) - "Im Lo Vrisi Yomam va'Laylah Chukos Shomayim va'Aretz Lo Samti"!

(n)

Answer: Indeed, people learn for themselves [and this makes the world endure].

OTHER D.A.F. RESOURCES
ON THIS DAF