PESACHIM 54 (7 Elul) - Dedicated in memory of Esther Miryam bas Harav Chaim Zev and her husband Harav Refael Yisrael ben Harav Moshe (Snow), whose Yahrzeits are 7 Elul and 8 Elul respectively. Sponsored by their son and daughter in law, Moshe and Rivka Snow.

1)

BLESSING ON FIRE ON MOTZA'EI YOM KIPUR

(a)

Question: Like whom do they (Ula and Rabah, who disagree with R. Aba) hold?

(b)

Answer: They hold like R. Binyamin bar Yefes:

1.

(R. Binyamin bar Yefes citing R. Yochanan): We bless on fire on Motza'ei Shabbos and on Motza'ei Yom Kipur.

(c)

People follow this opinion.

(d)

Question (Beraisa): We bless on fire only on Motza'ei Shabbos, for, that is when it was created; one blesses immediately upon seeing it.

1.

R. Yehudah says, one says them (the Berachos on fire and fragrances) over a cup [of wine].

2.

(R. Yochanan): The Halachah follows R. Yehudah.

(e)

Answer: On Motza'ei Yom Kipur [which is not on Motza'ei Shabbos] one may bless on a fire that 'rested' [was burning on Yom Kipur, but was not used for Isur - we bless to distinguish that now one may use it], but not on a fire that was initiated on Motza'ei Yom Kipur through sticks and stones.

(f)

(Beraisa #1): One may bless on a fire initiated through sticks and stones.

(g)

Contradiction (Beraisa #2): One may not bless on it.

(h)

Resolution: One may bless on it on Motza'ei Shabbos, but not on Motza'ei Yom Kipur.

(i)

Rebbi used to scatter them (he would say the Berachos on fire and fragrances at the first opportunity for each); R. Chiya would gather them (say them together over a cup with the Berachah of Havdalah).

(j)

(R. Yitzchak bar Avdimi): Even though Rebbi used to scatter them, he would later say them all over a cup on behalf of his household.

2)

THINGS CREATED AT THE BEGINNING AND AT THE END

(a)

Question: Was fire really created on Motza'ei Shabbos?!

1.

(Beraisa): Ten things were created on Erev Shabbos Bein ha'Shemashos - the well (that accompanied Benei Yisrael in the Midbar), the manna, the rainbow, the [forms of the] letters [in the Luchos], the engraving [of the letters on the Luchos], the Luchos, the burial place of Moshe, the cave in which Moshe and Eliyahu stood [when Hash-m passed by], the opening of the mouth of Bil'am's donkey (Bartenura - the decree that it would talk), and the opening of the earth's mouth to swallow Resha'im (Korach's congregation - see note in Appendix);

2.

R. Nechemyah says, also fire and a mule [were created then - one cannot make a new species by crossbreeding - "V'Ein Kol Chadash Tachas ha'Shamesh." Seemingly, we could answer that the first Tana holds that fire was created on Motza'ei Shabbos - perhaps it was known that all agree to this!]

3.

R. Yoshiyah says, also the ram [offered in place of Yitzchak], the Shamir (a worm that can bore through anything hard, it was used to carve the names of the Shevatim on the stones of the Choshen).

4.

R. Yehudah says, also tongs - to make tongs, one needs tongs [to hold the metal while beating it] - only Hash-m could create the first pair!

5.

R. Yoshiyah: Perhaps tongs were made by man - molten metal was poured into a mold!

(b)

Answer #1: Earthly fire was created on Motza'ei Shabbos; fire of Gehinom was created on Erev Shabbos.

(c)

Objection: The fire of Gehinom was not created on Erev Shabbos!

1.

(Beraisa): Seven things were created before the world - Torah, repentance, Gan Eden, Gehinom, the Kisei ha'Kavod, the Beis ha'Mikdash, and the name of Moshi'ach;

i.

Torah - it says "Hash-m Konani Reishis [Darko Kedem Mif'alav me'Az ";

ii.

'Repentance - it says "B'Terem Harim Yuladu," and "Teshev Enosh Ad Daka va'Tomer Shuvu Venei Adam;"

iii.

Gan Eden - "Va'Yita Hash-m Elokim Gan b'Eden mi'Kedem";

iv.

Gehinom - "Ki Aruch me'Esmol Tafteh";

v.

The Kisei ha'Kavod and Beis ha'Mikdash - "Kisei Chavod Marom me'Rishon Mekom Mikdashenu";

vi.

The name of Moshi'ach - "Yehi Shemo l'Olam Lifnei Shemesh Yinun Shemo" (his name (Yinun) existed before the sun).

(d)

Answer: The pit of Gehinom was created before the world, its fire was created on Erev Shabbos.

(e)

Objection: The fire of Gehinom was not created on Erev Shabbos!

1.

(Beraisa - R. Yosi): The fire Hash-m created on the second day will never be extinguished - "Ha'Anashim ha'Posh'im Bi...v'Isham Lo Sichbeh" (the most severe sinners are punished eternally - normally, punishment in Gehinom is at most 12 months - Rosh Hashanah 17A).

2.

(R. Bana'ah) Question: Why doesn't it say "Ki Tov" on the second day?

3.

Answer: The fire of Gehinom was created that day.

4.

(R. Elazar): Even though it doesn't say "Ki Tov" on the second day, the creations of that day are included in "Va'Yar Elokim Es Kol Asher Asah v'Hine Tov Me'od" (it is good that Resha'im be judged).

(f)

Answer #2: Rather, the pit of Gehinom was created before the world, its fire was created on Yom Sheni; Hash-m had intent to create earthly fire on Erev Shabbos, but He did not create it until Motza'ei Shabbos:

1.

(Beraisa - R. Yosi): Hash-m had intent to create two things on Erev Shabbos, but He did not create them until Motza'ei Shabbos;

2.

On Motza'ei Shabbos He gave to Adam a semblance of Divine wisdom, and brought two rocks to him - Adam rubbed them together and fire came out;

3.

He brought two animals to him - Adam mated them and a mule resulted;

4.

R. Shimon ben Gamliel says, mules arose in the days of Anah - "Hu Anah Asher Motzo Es ha'Yemim ba'Midbar."

5.

Expounders of secretive verses explain that Anah himself was a Mamzer, therefore he brought 'Mamzerim' (crossbred animals) to the world. (Even though the Isur of Mamzer does not apply to Benei Noach, there is a spiritual blemish.)

i.

Contradiction: It says "Eleh Benei Se'ir ha'Chori...v'Tziv'on v'Anah" (Tziv'on was his brother) - it also says "V'Eleh Venei Tziv'on v'Ayah v'Anah" (Tziv'on was his father)!

ii.

Resolution: Tziv'on had relations with his mother, and fathered Anah.

(g)

Question: Perhaps there were two people named Anah!

(h)

Answer (Rava or Rav Papa): "Hu Anah" - he is the same Anah mentioned previously ("Venei Tziv'on v'Ayah v'Anah").

(i)

(Beraisa): Ten things were created on Erev Shabbos Bein ha'Shemashos - the well, the Manna, the rainbow, the letters, the engraving, the Luchos, the burial place of Moshe, the cave in which Moshe and Eliyahu stood, the opening of Bil'am's donkey's mouth, and the opening of the earth's mouth to swallow Resha'im.

(j)

Some say, also Aharon's staff and its almonds and flowers [which sprouted after Korach's rebellion];

(k)

Some say, also Mazikim (harmful spirits);

(l)

Some say, also Adam ha'Rishon's garment [which later passed to Nimrod and Esav; perhaps it was the leather cloak Hash-m made for him].

54b----------------------------------------54b

(m)

(Beraisa): Seven things are hidden from a person - the day of death, the day of consolation [from his worries], the exactness of Din (judgment for seemingly miniscule misdeeds - Mesilas Yesharim Perek 4; alternatively, the profundity of monetary cases), what another person is thinking, how he will earn a living, when Malchus Beis David will return, and when the evil Malchus (Romi) will end.

(n)

(Beraisa - R. Yosi): There are three things for which Hash-m intended, and had He not intended, it would have been fitting for Him to intend:

1.

Corpses should rot (otherwise, people would leave dead relatives around and constantly feel sorrow).

2.

People should forget about one who died;

3.

Grain should rot (otherwise, farmers would hoard it, and others would be hungry).

3)

LENIENCIES OF TISH'AH B'AV

(a)

(Mishnah): In a locale where people work on the ninth of Av, we work; in a locale where people do not work, one may not work;

1.

In every place, Chachamim do not work.

2.

R. Shimon ben Gamliel says, everyone should conduct himself like a Chacham.

(b)

(Gemara - Shmuel): (Maseches Ta'anis discusses different fasts we decree on account of a lack of rain.) In Bavel [which gets much rain], the only Ta'anis Tzibur [with all the stringencies, e.g. one may not eat the previous night] is Tish'ah b'Av.

1.

Inference: Shmuel holds that Bein ha'Shemashos of Tish'ah b'Av is forbidden [like a Ta'anis Tzibur].

(c)

Contradiction (Shmuel): Bein ha'Shemashos of Tish'ah b'Av is permitted.

(d)

Answer: He holds that Bein ha'Shemashos of every Ta'anis Tzibur is permitted.

(e)

Objection (Mishnah): One may eat and drink while it is still day [before a Ta'anis Tzibur].

1.

Suggestion: This forbids Bein ha'Shemashos!

(f)

Answer: No, it forbids the night.

(g)

Support (for Shmuel - Beraisa): The only difference between [what is permitted on Yom Kipur is that Safek Yom Kipur is forbidden, but Safek Tish'ah b'Av is permitted.

1.

Suggestion: The Safek discussed is Bein ha'Shemashos!

(h)

Rejection: No - the Safek is which day was fixed to be Rosh Chodesh, like Rav Shisha brei d'Rav Idi answered [a different question, below].

(i)

(Rava and R. Yochanan): Pregnant and nursing women fast and complete the fast [on Tish'ah b'Av], just like they do on Yom Kipur; Bein ha'Shemashos is forbidden.

(j)

Question: But R. Yochanan said that Tish'ah b'Av is unlike a Ta'anis Tzibur!

1.

Suggestion: It is unlike a Ta'anis Tzibur regarding Bein ha'Shemashos (it is permitted on Tish'ah b'Av)!

(k)

Answer #1: No, it is unlike a Ta'anis Tzibur regarding Melachah (Melachah is forbidden absolutely on a Ta'anis Tzibur).

(l)

Objection: He need not teach about Melachah - our Mishnah explicitly teaches about it!

1.

(Mishnah): In a locale where people work on the ninth of Av, we work; in a locale where people do not work, one may not work;

2.

In every place, Chachamim do not work.

3.

Even R. Shimon ben Gamliel only teaches that it is good to refrain [everywhere] and this is not haughtiness (he does not portray himself to be a Chacham - it looks like he has no work to do, like many other people) - he does not forbid Melachah!

(m)

Answer #2: It is unlike a Ta'anis Tzibur regarding Tefilas Ne'ilah (an extra Shemoneh Esre said towards the end of a Ta'anis Tzibur).

1.

Question: But R. Yochanan said that it would be great if people prayed all day!

2.

Answer: [It is always good to pray additional prayers if one has new requests, they are not unnecessary Berachos - nevertheless,] Ne'ilah is obligatory only on a Ta'anis Tzibur; it is optional on Tish'ah b'Av.

(n)

Answer #3: It is unlike a Ta'anis Tzibur regarding 24 Berachos (six Berachos are added to Shemoneh Esre on a Ta'anis Tzibur - Ta'anis 15A).

(o)

Answer #4 (Rav Papa): It is unlike the first fasts of the Tzibur [in which one may eat the previous night], rather, like the last ones.

(p)

Question (against Rava and R. Yochanan - Beraisa): The only difference between Tish'ah b'Av and Yom Kipur is that Safek Yom Kipur is forbidden, but Safek Tish'ah b'Av is permitted.

1.

Suggestion: The Safek discussed is Bein ha'Shemashos!

(q)

Answer (Rav Shisha brei d'Rav Idi): No - the Safek is which day was fixed to be Rosh Chodesh.

(r)

Inference: Regarding everything else they are the same - this supports R. Elazar:

1.

(R. Elazar): One may not put his finger in water on Tish'ah b'Av, just like it is forbidden on Yom Kipur.

(s)

Question (against R. Elazar - Beraisa): The only difference between Tish'ah b'Av and a Ta'anis Tzibur is Melachah - it is forbidden on a Ta'anis Tzibur, and permitted on Tish'ah b'Av, in a place where that is the custom.

1.

Inference: Regarding everything else they are the same.

2.

(Beraisa): The Isur to bathe [on a Ta'anis Tzibur] applies only to the entire body - one may wash his face, hands and feet.

(t)

Answer (Rav Papa): The Tana teaches leniencies [of Tish'ah b'Av - he does not discuss washing, for this is a stringency of Tish'ah b'Av].

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