WHY IS THERE A LAV?
Answer (Rav Chisda): The Beraisa is R. Yehudah:
(Beraisa): "...Sharu'a v'Kalut Nedavah Ta'aseh Oso" - you may Makdish a blemished animal to Bedek ha'Bayis, but not a Tam; one who is Makdish a Tam to Bedek ha'Bayis transgresses an Ase.
Question: What is the source that he transgresses a Lav?
Answer (R. Yehudah): "Va'Ydaber Hash-m El Moshe Leimor" - this teaches that a Lav applies to the entire Parashah. (Likewise, the Parashah of Pesach begins "Va'Yomer Hash-m...Leimor.")
Question (Rebbi): How do we learn this from the verse?
Answer #1 (Bar Kapara): "Leimor" - we read this 'Lo Ne'emar' (a Lav was said) regarding thee matters. (Tosfos - [only] when there is a Lav derived from an Ase, we expound this to consider it a Lav.)
Answer #2 (Bei Rav): We read this 'Lav Emor' (tell Yisrael that there is a Lav).
SAFEGUARDS AGAINST CHIMUTZ
(Mishnah): The water that a baker uses [must be spilled out, for it becomes Chametz].
(Beraisa #1): One spills it on an incline, not in a place [with crevices] where it will collect [and become Chametz].
Contradiction (Beraisa #2): One may spill it on in a place where it will collect.
Resolution: When there is much water, it will not be absorbed quickly [so it must be spilled on an incline]; when there is little water, it will be absorbed quickly [so it need not be spilled on an incline].
(Rav Yehudah): A woman should knead only with water she'Lanu (was overnight out of the ground, for it is cooler and does not hasten Chimutz; water in the ground is cold during the day and warm at night - 94B).
Rav Masnah expounded this [in Hebrew] in Papanoi; the next day, everyone brought Kelim and asked for some of his water (they understood 'Shelanu', our water); he explained his intent.
(Rava): A woman should not knead in the sun, or with water heated by the sun or removed from a kettle;
She should work with the dough constantly (this impedes Chimutz) until it is baked.
She must have two Kelim [of water], one to smear on the dough, and the other to cool her hands (so her hands will not hasten Chimutz; the smearing water gets warm, so it may not be used to cool her hands).
Question: If one transgressed and kneaded [with warm water], what is the law?
Answer #1 (Mar Zutra): The bread is permitted.
Answer #2 (Rav Ashi): It is forbidden.
Support (Mar Zutra, for himself - Beraisa): One may not Loses barley during Pesach; if one did, it is forbidden only if the kernels split. (Likewise, if we do not see signs of Chimutz in a dough kneaded with warm water, it is permitted.)
Rejection (Rav Ashi): Not everything follows the same rules! There, it was taught that b'Di'eved, it is permitted - here, it was not taught! (Rashi - one may eat Nochri dough if it does not have signs of Chimutz, even though warm water might have been used - but we cannot learn from there to where a Yisrael transgressed.)
MIXTURES OF CHAMETZ
(Mishnah): If one owns any of the following during Pesach, he transgresses [Bal Yera'eh and Bal Yimatzei - Rashi; Tosfos - the following may not be eaten on Pesach]:
Kutach of Bavel (a dip made with stale bread and whey), beer of Madai, vinegar of Edom, Zeisum ha'Mitzri, Zuman of dyers, Ameilan of butchers, and Kolan of Sofrim (the Gemara will explain them);
R. Eliezer adds women's cosmetics.
The general rule is - during Pesach, one transgresses for (Tosfos - may not eat) anything from grain; there is a Lav for it but not Kares (this will be explained).
(Gemara - Beraisa): Three things were taught about Kutach of Bavel - it blunts the heart, blinds the eyes, and weakens the body;
The whey in it blunts the heart, the salt blinds the eyes, and the mold of the bread weakens the body.
(Beraisa): Three things increase excrement, bend a person's stature (weaken him) and remove one part in 500 of his eyesight - coarse bread, new beer and raw vegetables [if he regularly eats much of them].
(Beraisa): Three things decrease excrement, straighten stature and enlighten the eyes - clean bread, fatty meat and old wine;
This refers to clean bread made from Soles, fatty meat is of a goat (Aruch - or bird) that did not give birth, and very old wine (three years old).
Everything that helps [a sickness afflicting] one part of the body aggravates another part and vice-versa, except for wet ginger, long peppercorns, clean bread, fatty meat and old wine - these are good for the whole body.
(Mishnah): Beer of Madai.
They put barley in it.
(Mishnah): Vinegar of Edom.
They put barley in it.
(Rav Nachman): Earlier (when the Mikdash stood), Nesachim were brought from Yehudah - in this merit wine from Yehudah would not sour unless barley was added - such vinegar was called [plain] vinegar [since there was no vinegar from pure wine];
Nowadays, the wine of Edom does not sour unless barley is added - it is called vinegar of Edom;
This fulfills "Imal'ah ha'Charavah" - if Yisrael is full (thriving), Edom is destroyed, and vice-versa.
(Rav Nachman Bar Yitzchak): We learn this from "U'Le'om me'Le'om Ye'ematz."
(Beraisa - R. Yehudah): At first, one who bought vinegar from an Am ha'Aretz in Yehudah did not need to tithe it, for [since proper wine did not sour] it was Muchzak to come from Temed (water poured over grape pits - it ferments a bit. Rashash - above we said that [most] vinegar was made by putting barley in wine! Perhaps actually a minority came from Temed - since most Amei ha'Aretz tithe, and perhaps it is from Temed, we do not require tithing.)
Nowadays, one who buys vinegar from an Am ha'Aretz must tithe it, for it is Muchzak to come from wine.
Question: R. Yehudah does not exempt Temed from Ma'aser!
(Mishnah): If one put water on dregs, and the same volume exuded, it is exempt from tithes;
R. Yehudah obligates.
Answer #1: [He obligates tithing Temed that is Tevel - in the Beraisa,] he exempts only because Amei ha'Aretz are not suspected about it (it is unimportant, so they are not stingy about it).
Answer #2: Amei ha'Aretz are suspected about it - in the Beraisa he exempts Temed made from pits (it is not real fruit, it absorbs a mere acidity); in the Mishnah he obligates Temed made from dregs.
(Mishnah): Zeisum ha'Mitzri.
Question: What is this?
Answer #1 (Rav Yosef - Beraisa): It is a third barley, a third saffron, and a third salt;
Answer #2 (Rav Papa): Barley is not used, rather, wheat.
A way to remember the opinions - Sisni (or Samech-Samech - Rav Yosef, who has a Samech in his name, said barley, which begins with Sin, which is interchangeable with Samech).
These are soaked together, roasted, ground up, and [mixed into water;] one drinks it between Pesach and Shavu'os - it loosens one who is constipated, and constipates one who has diarrhea;
It is dangerous for a sick person or a pregnant woman to drink it.
CHAMETZ USED FOR CERTAIN PROFESSIONS
(Mishnah): Zomen of dyers.
(Chachamim of Bavel): This is water in which bran was soaked - it is used in dye.
(Mishnah): Ameilan of butchers.
This is bread made from grain that did not grow a third [of its ultimate size], it is put on the brim of pots to absorb froth.
(Mishnah): And Kolan of Sofrim.
Opinion #1 (Chachamim of Bavel): This is glue [made from water and rye flour; it is used to stick leather straps together];
Opinion #2 (Rav Simi of Chuzna'ah): Rich girls make a salve with fine flour [to remove hair] - they give leftovers to daughters of Sofrim (teachers of children, who are generally poor).
Question (against Rav Simi - R. Chiya's Beraisa): The Mishnah discusses four things called by the name of countries, and three things particular to certain professions (a salve is not particular to any profession)!
Counter-question: If it is glue [used for leather straps], why does it say 'of Sofrim' - it should say 'of strap makers'!
Answer (R. Oshaya): Really, it is glue - Sofrim (scribes) used it to stick parchments together.