1)

(a)Abaye used to chase away the flies when he performed Tashmish, Rava (or Rav Papa), the mosquitoes. Why did they do that?

(b)Rabah bar Rav Huna did not go quite as far as that. What did he used to do?

(c)What does Rebbi Shimon ben Yochai declare regarding somebody who eats peeled garlic, onions or eggs that were left overnight?

(d)What else does he include in this list?

(e)The third (of five things) in his overall list is someone who stays overnight in a cemetery, and the fourth, someone who cuts his nails ... and does what with them?

1)

(a)Abaye used to chase away the flies when he performed Tashmish, Rava (or Rav Papa), the mosquitoes - in order not to be Meshamesh in front of any creature (like Rav Yehudah initially understood Shmuel).

(b)Rabah Bar Rav Huna did not go quite as afar as that. He used to hang bells around his canopy during Tashmish, to warn the members of his household to keep away (see Tosfos DH 'Mekarkesh').

(c)Rebbi Shimon ben Yochai declared that somebody who eats peeled garlic, onions or eggs that were left overnight - takes his life into his own hands, and will be taken to task for having done so in the World to Come.

(d)He also includes to this list - diluted beverages (which include water).

(e)The third (of five things) in his overall list is someone who stays overnight in a cemetery, and the fourth, someone who cuts his nails - and throws them into the street.

2)

(a)The fifth thing is someone who lets blood. What must he then do to qualify for insertion in this list?

(b)Why is eating peeled garlic, onions or egg that have been left overnight so dangerous? What if they are lying in a basket, wrapped and sealed?

(c)On what condition will it be safe to ...

1. ... do so?

2. ... to drink diluted beverages that have been left overnight, according to Rav Yehudah Amar Shmuel?

(d)And we support him with a Beraisa. What does the Tana add in support of a qualifying statement issued by Rav Papa?

(e)Why is it dangerous ...

1. ... to stay overnight in a cemetery? What must one have to be doing there?

2. ... to throw one's cut nails into the street?

2)

(a)The fifth thing is someone who lets blood - and then performs Tashmish.

(b)Eating peeled garlic, onions or egg that have been left overnight is dangerous (even if they are lying in a basket, wrapped and sealed) - because they are possessed by an evil spirit.

(c)It will be safe do so however -

1. ... if one leaves the roots or the peels together with the each item.

2. ... to drink diluted beverages that have been left overnight, according to Rav Yehudah Amar Shmuel - if they were left overnight in a receptacle which is not made of metal.

(d)And we support him with a Beraisa, which adds (in support of a statement issued by Rav Papa) - that Neser (alum crystals) has the Din of metal in this regard.

(e)It is dangerous ...

1. ... to stay overnight in a cemetery with the intention of getting a spirit to possess oneself - because the spirits cause him harm.

2. ... to throw one's cut nails into the street - because a pregnant woman might walk over them and miscarry her baby.

3)

(a)What do we initially think the Din will be if one cuts one's nails using something other than scissors or cuts either one's finger-nails or one's toe-nails with scissors (but not both)?

(b)What do we conclude in this regard?

(c)And what will be the Din if he cuts something else after the nails?

(d)The Beraisa lists three levels with regard to nail-cutting. Someone who burns them is a Chasid. What does the Tana say about someone who ...

1. ... buries them? Why the difference?

2. ... throws them out?

3)

(a)We initially think that if one cuts one's nails using something other than scissors or one's finger-nails or toe-nails with scissors (but not both) - no harm will ensue.

(b)We conclude however - that these are all included in the initial danger list.

(c)If however, one cuts something else after his nails - the danger will be eliminated.

(d)The Beraisa lists three levels with regard to nail-cutting. Someone who burns them is a Chasid; someone who ...

1. ... buries them is - only a Tzadik (due to the possibility of their being dug up [see also Tosfos ha'Rosh]).

2. ... throws them out is - a Rasha.

4)

(a)What danger is involved in performing Tashmish after letting blood, if ...

1. ... one of the partners does it?

2. ... both of them do it?

(b)How is it possible to circumvent this danger?

(c)Rav Chisda forbids Tashmish by day, based on the Pasuk in Kedoshim "ve'Ahavta le'Re'acha Kamocha". How does Abaye explain that?

(d)Rav Huna claims that Yisrael would not do such a thing anyway, because they are holy. In which case, does ...

1. ... Rava permit it?

2. ... the Beraisa permit it, even in a room which has not been darkened?

4)

(a)The danger involved in performing Tashmish after letting blood, if ...

1. ... one of the partners does is - that the baby that is subsequently born from this union will be weak.

2. ... both of them do it is - that the baby will be extremely weak (because it has a Sheretz in its brain).

(b)It is possible to circumvent this danger - by eating in between the blood-letting and the Tashmish.

(c)Abaye explains that when Rav Chisda forbids Tashmish by day, based on the Pasuk in Kedoshim "ve'Ahavta le'Re'acha Kamocha", he means - that he may see something about his wife that he does not like, and come to hate her (thereby contravening that Mitzvah).

(d)Rav Huna claims that Yisrael would not do such a thing anyway, because they are holy.

1. Rava permits it - in a dark room.

2. The Beraisa permits it even in a room which has not been darkened - in the case of a Talmid-Chacham, who knows how to behave modestly anyway.

5)

(a)In light of Rav Huna's statement, how do we amend the Beraisa (that we cited on the previous Amud) ...

1. ... ' ... O Teshamesh le'Or ha'Ner'?

2. ... 'af-al-Pi she'Amru ha'Meshamesh le'Or ha'Ner, Harei Zeh Meguneh ... '?

(b)We query this however, from a Beraisa which discusses three praiseworthy things that the family of King Munbaz used to do. He performed Tashmish by day, and he made Bedikah with Miyla Farhaba. What is 'Miyla Farhaba'?

(c)What is the third thing that he did?

(d)Here too, we amend the first praiseworthy thing to 'Bodkin Mitoseihen ba'Yom. How do we prove that this amendment is in any case, necessary?

5)

(a)In light of Rav Huna's statement, we amend the Beraisa (that we cited on the previous Amud) ...

1. ... ' ... O Teshamesh le'Or ha'Ner'- to read ' ... O Tivdok le'Or ha'Ner'.

2. ... 'af-al-Pi she'Amru ha'Meshamesh le'Or ha'Ner, Harei Zeh Meguneh ... ', to read - 'ha'Bodek'.

(b)We query this however, from a Beraisa which discusses three praiseworthy things that the family of King Munbaz used to do. He performed Tashmish by day and he made Bedikah with Miyla Farhaba - which means either cotton or clean soft wool.

(c)The third thing he did - was to apply the Dinim of Tum'ah and Taharah with regard to snow (which will be explained shortly).

(d)Here too, we amend the first praiseworthy thing to 'Bodkin Mitoseihen ba'Yom', which is in any case, necessary - because otherwise, why would the Chachamim have considered performing Tashmish by day, praiseworthy?

6)

(a)The second praiseworthy thing that King Munbaz did supports a statement of Shmuel. Which two things does Shmuel require for Bedikah?

(b)Upon hearing Shmuel's ruling, Rav understood retroactively what the salesmen in Eretz Yisrael meant, when he heard them announce 'Who wants bread with cotton!' When did they announce this?

(c)What did they mean?

6)

(a)The second praiseworthy that King Munbaz did supports a statement of Shmuel - who requires a cotton cloth or one of clean, soft wool.

(b)Upon hearing Shmuel's ruling, Rav understood retroactively what the salesmen in Eretz Yisrael meant, when he heard them announce - on Erev Shabbos 'Who wants bread with cotton!' ...

(c)... by which they meant 'Who wants a cotton cloth for Tashmish' (as bread often serves as a euphemism for Tashmish).

7)

(a)What did Rava say about old worn-out linen clothes?

(b)We query this from a Beraisa cited by bei-Menasheh, who insisted on a cotton cloth or one of clean and soft wool. What did he disqualify, besides a red or black cloth?

(c)We reconcile Rava with the Beraisa by establishing the latter, by plain linen, which is not even white (and on which blood-spots are unlikely to show up), and the former, by linen garments. How else might we differentiate between them?

7)

(a)Rava recommended old worn-out linen clothes - for Bedikas Tashmish.

(b)We query this from a Beraisa cited by bei-Menasheh, which insisted on a cotton cloth or one of clean and soft wool, disqualifying, a red or black cloth - as well as linen.

(c)We reconcile Rava with the Beraisa by establishing the latter, by plain linen, which is not even white (and on which blood-spots are unlikely to show up), and the former, by linen garments. Alternatively - we might establish the latter by new linen garments, and the former, by old worn-out ones, which are whiter than new ones.

8)

(a)What does the Beraisa say about the status of snow regarding Tum'as Ochlin? Is it considered food or drink?

(b)What will be the Din if one has in mind to ...

1. ... eat it?

2. ... drink it?

(c)The Tana states 'Nitma Miktzaso, Lo Nitma Kulo'. Why not?

(d)What does the Tana mean when he continues 'Nit'har Miktzaso Nit'har Kulo'. What exactly, is he talking about?

8)

(a)The Beraisa rules - that snow is considered neither food nor drink (and is not therefore subject to Tum'as Ochlin).

(b)If one has in mind to ...

1. ... eat it - it still does not become a food.

2. ... drink it - it becomes a beverage (since it is closer to a liquid that to a solid).

(c)The Tana states 'Nitma Miktzaso, Lo Nitma Kulo' - because the snowflakes are not joined (so it is only the flakes that actually come into contact with the Tum'ah that become Tamei).

(d)However, when the Tana continues 'Nit'har Miktzaso Nit'har Kulo', he is referring to - 'Hashakah' (meaning that if one dips a receptacle containing snow into the Mikvah until the water touches the snow, all the snow in the receptacle becomes Tahor (because of a Halachah pertaining only to water, which considers Hashakah as if the water has been planted in the Mikvah.

9)

(a)What is the discrepancy between the last two statements in the Beraisa?

(b)How does Abaye reconcile them?

(c)What does he mean when he concludes that the Torah declares whatever is inside an earthenware oven Tamei, even if it is full of mustard-seeds (see Tosfos Afilu')? What does that prove?

9)

(a)The discrepancy between the last two statements in the Beraisa is - that if Tum'ah only renders Tamei the flakes that it touched (as we learned in the former case), how is it possible for all the snow in the receptacle to be Tamei (in the latter one)?

(b)Abaye reconciles the two statements - by establishing the latter case where the snow had been placed inside a Tamei earthenware vessel, which renders everything inside it Tamei (whether it is touching it or not).

(c)And he concludes that the Torah declares whatever is inside an earthenware oven Tamei, even if it is full of mustard-seeds (see Tosfos Afilu') - a proof that the oven renders Tamei via its air (and not via physical contact, since it is obvious that not all the mustard-seeds are touching the sides of the oven (yet they all become Tamei).

17b----------------------------------------17b

10)

10)

(a)Our Mishnah cites a Mashal, which refers to the Cheder (the room), the Prozdor (the corridor [see Tosfos DH 'Prozdor']) and the Aliyah (the attic). The blood in the Cheder (the Makor) is Tamei, the blood in

1. ... the Aliyah - is Tahor (see Tosfos DH 've'Dam').

2. ... the P'rozdor - 'S'feiko Tamei'.

(b)Rabah bar Rav Huna found Rami bar Shmuel and Rav Yitzchak b'rei de'Rav Yehudah (Talmidim of Rav Huna) discussing our Mishnah. They described the Cheder as being on the inside, the P'rozdor on the outside, and the Aliyah above both of them.

(c)The P'rozdor is connected to the Aliyah - via a passage.

(d)They described the blood that is found in the P'rozdor ...

1. ... on the inside (behind the connecting Lul as - 'S'feiko Tamei'.

2. ... on the outside (in front of the connecting Lul) as - 'S'feiko Tahor'.

(a)Our Mishnah cites a Mashal, which refers to the Cheder (the room), the P'rozdor (the corridor [see Tosfos DH 'P'rozdor'] and the Aliyah (attic). The blood in the Cheder (the Makor) is Tamei. What about the blood in ...

1. ... the Aliyah?

2. ... the P'rozdor?

(b)Rabah bar Rav Huna found Rami bar Shmuel and Rav Yitzchak b'rei de'Rav Yehudah (Talmidim of Rav Huna) discussing our Mishnah. How did they describe the Cheder, the P'rozdor and the Aliyah (location-wise)?

(c)How is the P'rozdor connected to the Aliyah?

(d)How did they describe the blood that is found in the P'rozdor ...

1. ... on the inside (behind the connecting Lul?

2. ... on the outside (in front of the connecting Lul)?

11)

(a)Why did Rabah bar Rav Huna go to his father to query the Talmidim's ruling? What is wrong with saying 'min ha'Lul ve'Lifenim, S'feiko Tamei'?

(b)Why did he not query their ruling 'min ha'Lul ve'Lachutz S'feiko Tahor', from there too?

(c)What did Rav Huna reply. What had he really said with regard to ...

1. ... min ha'Lul ve'Lifenim?

2. ... min ha'Lul ve'Lachutz?

(d)Why do we not say in the latter case that the blood must have come from the Aliyah, because if it had come from the Cheder, it would have flowed out via the exit of the P'rozdor without sticking to the walls and ceiling of the front of the P'rozdor?

11)

(a)Rabah bar Rav Huna went to his father to query the Talmidim's ruling - because he did not see why (based on our Mishnah 'L'fi she'Chezkaso min ha'Mekor') they said 'min ha'Lul ve'Lifenim, S'feiko Tamei', and not 'Vaday Tamei'.

(b)He did not, on the other hand, query their ruling 'min ha'Lul ve'Lachutz S'feiko Tahor', from there too - because it is undeniable that the blood probably came from the Aliyah (as we shall now see).

(c)Rav Huna replied - that what he had really said with regard to ...

1. ... min ha'Lul ve'Lifenim was - 'Vaday Tamei'.

2. ... min ha'Lul ve'Lachutz was - 'S'feiko Tamei'.

(d)We do not say in the latter case that the blood must have come from the Aliyah, because if it had come from the Cheder, it would have flowed out via the exit of the P'rozdor without sticking to the walls and ceiling of the front of the P'rozdor - due to the possibility that she stumbled and fell forward, causing the blood from the Cheder to pour into the P'rozdor and spatter all over its front.

12)

(a)How does this last fact prompt Abaye to question Rav Huna's ruling that 'min ha'Lul ve'Lifenim' is Vaday Tamei?

(b)What does Abaye therefore conclude? What will be the Din if we go after ...

1. ... the Chashash (the suspicion) that she may have fallen forward or lain down backwards?

2. ... the Chazakah, and ignore those possibilities?

12)

(a)This last fact prompts Abaye to question Rav Huna's ruling that 'min ha'Lul ve'Lifenim' is Vaday Tamei - because by the same token, it is possible that she lay on her back, causing the blood that had flowed from the Lul into the P'rozdor, to flow back into the Cheder, in which case the Din ought to be Tamei mi'Safek.

(b)Abaye therefore concludes that if we go after ...

1. ... the Chashash (the suspicion) that she may have fallen forward or lain down backwards - then she will be Tamei mi'Safek and Tahor mi'Safek respectively.

2. ... the Chazakah, and ignore those possibilities - she will be Vaday Tamei in the case of min ha'Lul ve'Lifenim, and Vaday Tahor in the case of min ha'Lul ve'Lachutz.

13)

(a)Rebbi Chiya cites a Beraisa which obligates a woman to bring a Korban for entering the Beis-Hamikdash after blood has been found on the walls of the P'rozdor. What does he rule with regard to Terumah that she touches?

(b)What does Rav Ketina say?

(c)What do we suggest, according to the Lashon of Abaye that goes after ...

1. ... the Chashash?

2. ... the Chazakah?

13)

(a)Rebbi Chiya cites a Beraisa which obligates a woman to bring a Korban for entering the Beis-Hamikdash after blood has been found on the walls of the P'rozdor. Similarly, he rules that Terumah that she touches - must be burned.

(b)Rav Ketina rules - that she is not Chayav for entering the Beis-Hamikdash, nor is the Terumah that she touches burned.

(c)We suggest, that the Lashon of Abaye that goes after ...

1. ... the Chashash - bears out Rav Ketina (that wherever in the P'rozdor the blood is found, she is always Tamei mi'Safek).

2. ... the Chazakah - bears out Rebbi Chiya, who is speaking about min ha'Lul ve'Lifenim (but in a case of min ha'Lul ve'Lachutz, she will be Tahor).

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