SOME BAD OR DANGEROUS PRACTICES
(R. Shimon): Hash-m hates four, and I do not love them:
One who enters his own house suddenly, all the more so another's house;
One who holds his Ever while urinating;
One who urinates in front of his bed while he is naked;
One who has Bi'ah in front of anything alive.
Question (Rav Yehudah): Does R. Shimon scorn Bi'ah in front of mice?
Answer (Shmuel): No. He refers to people who have Bi'ah in front of their slaves.
Question: How do those people justify themselves?
Answer: They expound "Shevu Lachem Po Im ha'Chamor" as if it said "Am ha'Chamor," i.e. slaves are like donkeys.
Rabah bar Rav Huna would ring a bell (Rashi - so people would go away and he could have Bi'ah in private; Tosfos - he would chase flies away);
(Also) Abaye and Rava would chase away flies and mosquitoes.
(R. Shimon): If one does any of the following five things, he is liable for endangering his own (in case 4, another's) life:
One who eats one of the following that was left overnight -- a peeled garlic, onion or egg;
One who drinks a mixed drink left overnight;
One who stays overnight in a cemetery;
One who cuts his nails and casts them into Reshus ha'Rabim;
One who has Bi'ah after bloodletting.
(R. Shimon): One who eats a peeled garlic, (onion or egg, endangers himself).
Even if it is in a sealed Kli, Ru'ach Ra comes upon it.
If any of the strands at the top (of a garlic or onion) or any part of the peel remains, there is no problem.
(R. Shimon): One who drinks a mixed drink left overnight...
(Rav Yehudah (and R. Yochanan)): This is only if it was in a metal Kli.
Regarding this, natron (alum) is like metal.
(R. Shimon): One who stays overnight in a cemetery...
He wants a Ru'ach of Tum'ah to come upon him. This is dangerous.
(R. Shimon): One who cuts his nails and casts them into Reshus ha'Rabim...
We are concerned lest a pregnant woman walk over them and miscarry.
Suggestion: This is only if he cut with scissors both his fingernails and toenails, and if he did not cut anything afterwards.
Rejection: This is wrong. We are concerned in all cases.
(Beraisa): One who burns his nails is a Chasid. (It is harmful to burn something from one's body. Nevertheless, he does so to ensure that no damage will come to others.) One who buries them is a Tzadik. One who simply drops them is a Rasha.
(R. Shimon): One who has Bi'ah after bloodletting...
It was taught that if one has Bi'ah after bloodletting, the resulting children will be weak;
If he and his wife have Bi'ah after both let blood, the children will have Ra'asan. (This is a Sheretz in the brain that causes great weakness.)
(Rav): This is only if he did not eat anything in between. If he did, there is no problem.
BI'AH DURING THE DAY
(Rav Chisda): One may not have Bi'ah during the day -- "v'Ahavta l'Re'acha Kamocha."
Question: How do we learn this from the verse?
Answer (Abaye): Perhaps he will see something repulsive in her, and he will despise her.
(Rav Huna): Yisraelim are holy. They have Bi'ah only at night.
(Rava): In a dark house, it is permitted during the day.
A Chacham is always permitted. He covers with his garment in order that it will be dark.
Question (Mishnah - Beis Shamai): Or they have Bi'ah in front of a lamp...
Correction: It means 'or she checks the Edim by a lamp.'
Question (Beraisa - Beis Shamai): Even though Chachamim disparage Bi'ah in front of a lamp... (or they may have Bi'ah in front of a lamp).
Correction: It means, even though Chachamim disparage checking an Ed in front of a lamp (sunlight is much better)...
Question (Beraisa): Chachamim praised the household of Munbaz ha'Melech for three things. They would have Bi'ah during the day, they did Bedikos using cotton (some say - soft wool), and they considered snow to be able to become Tamei.
Correction: They praised them for checking Edim during the day.
Support: Presumably, this is correct. Even if Bi'ah during the day is permitted, it is not praiseworthy!
Rejection: It is praiseworthy (if done for the right reason). At night, perhaps he will be sleepy, so she will not be appealing to him. (One of the nine Midos of despicable Bi'ah is when he despises her.)
THE MATERIAL TO USE FOR EDIM
(Beraisa): They did Bedikos using cotton.
This supports Shmuel.
(Shmuel): Only cotton or clean soft wool may be used for Bedikos.
(Rav): When I was in Eretz Yisrael, on Erev Shabbos I would hear people selling "cotton for bread" (a euphemism for Bi'ah, which Chachamim perform on Shabbos). Now, I understand.
(Rava): Worn linen garments are good for Bedikah.
Question (d'Vei Menasheh - Beraisa): We do not check with a red or black Ed, nor with linen, only with cotton or clean soft wool.
Answer #1: We may not use flax, but garments made from it are permitted.
Answer #2: D'Vei Menasheh forbids new linen garments. Rava permits old ones.
(Beraisa): They considered snow to be Mekabel Tum'ah. (This is from Tosefta Taharos 2:3, according to the text of the Gra and others.)
(Mishnah): Snow is not a food or drink. (Without intent, it is Tahor);
If one intended to eat it, it is not (our text; Me'iri - is) Mekabel Tum'ah like a food;
If one intended to drink it, it is Mekabel Tum'ah like a drink.
If Tum'ah touches it, only the place (surface) it touches becomes Tamei. If part of it becomes Tahor (through touching it to a Mikveh), all of it becomes Tahor.
Question: If only the surface becomes Tamei, why does it say that if part becomes Tahor, all becomes Tahor? This implies that all of if was Tamei. How can all of it become Tamei?
Answer (Abaye): The case is, it was in an earthenware Kli that was Tamei. The Torah says that the entire interior becomes Tamei, even if it is full of mustard seeds. (If contact were needed to transfer Tum'ah, the seeds that touch the Kli would be Rishonim (l'Tum'ah), those that touch them Sheniyim, and those in the middle would be Tehorim!)
THE TWO SOURCES OF DAM NIDAH
(Mishnah): Chachamim compared the interior of a woman to a Cheder (room), Prozdor (corridor) and Aliyah (second story);
Blood of the Cheder is Tamei. Blood of the Aliyah is Tahor;
If blood is found in the Prozdor, the Safek (where it came from) is considered Tamei, for the Chazakah is that it came from the Makor (Cheder. more blood comes from there.)
(Gemara - Rami bar Shmuel and R. Yitzchak brei d'Rav Yehudah, citing Rav Huna): The Cheder is more internal, and the Prozdor is more external. The Aliyah is on top of them. A Lul (conduit) is open from the Aliyah to the Prozdor;
If blood is found further inside than the Lul, the Safek (where it came from) is considered Tamei;
If blood is found outside of the Lul, the Safek is considered Tahor. (Tosfos - we discuss blood found on the ceiling of the Prozdor.)
Rabah bar Rav Huna (to his father): Did you indeed teach (that inside the Lul is) Safek Tamei? The Mishnah says that it is Muchzak to be Tamei!
Rav Huna: I meant that further in than the Lul is definitely Tamei. Further out than the Lul is Safek Tamei.
Objection (Abaye): Further out than the Lul is Safek Tamei, because we are concerned lest she bent over, and blood from the Cheder spurted to there;
Likewise, further in than the Lul should be (only) Safek Tamei. We should be concerned lest she leaned back, and blood from the Aliyah spurted to there!
(Abaye): Rather, there are two possibilities:
Possibility #1: If we are concerned lest blood spurted due to unusual postures, in both cases, she should be Safek Tamei;
Possibility #2: If we are not concerned, inside should be (definitely) Tamei, and outside should be Tahor!
(R. Chiya): If blood was found in the Prozdor and afterwards she entered the Mikdash (b'Shogeg), she is liable (to bring a Korban), and we burn Terumah (that she touched).
(Rav Katina): She is exempt for entering the Mikdash, and we do not burn Terumah.
Possibility #1 of Abaye is like Rav Katina. It argues with R. Chiya. Possibility #2 is like R. Chiya. It argues with Rav Katina.