WHY SHMUEL DISCUSSES BLOOD ON THE GROUND
Question: According to Rav Ashi we understand why Shmuel discusses a woman who found blood on the ground. (The ground is not Mekabel Tum'ah. She is totally Tehorah.) However, according to R. Yirmeyah, he should have discussed (the usual case,) a woman who found blood on her garment!
Answer: Shmuel teaches a greater Chidush;
Not only are we Metaher (mid'Oraisa) when it is found on her garment, which cannot be checked so well. It is possible that the blood came from elsewhere. Rather, even when it is found on the ground, which can be checked well, and surely it is from her, we are Metaher!
PLACES WHERE WE ARE CONCERNED FOR BLOOD
(Mishnah): If it is on her heel or big toe, she is Teme'ah...
Question: We understand how blood could get (from the place) to her heel -- it touches there (when she squats);
However, how could blood get to her big toe?
Suggestion: We are concerned lest blood came to her heel, and from her heel to her toe.
Rejection: We are not concerned lest Tum'ah changed places!
(Beraisa): If she (found blood near the place, and) had a cut on her neck, a place where she can be Toleh (that the blood fell from there), she is Toleh. if she had a cut on her shoulder, a place where she cannot be Toleh, she is not Toleh.
We do not say that the blood came on her hand, and from there to the place! (Tosfos - since Tum'as Kesamim is mid'Rabanan, if we are not Toleh to be lenient, we are not Toleh to be stringent.)
Answer: When she walks, her big toe often comes directly under the place.
Question: (Sometimes) we are concerned lest Tum'ah changed places!
(Beraisa): If she found blood on (Rashi - the back of her hand, i.e. above) the knuckles, she is Teme'ah, for hands engage in many things.
Suggestion: (She does not check with her knuckles.) We are concerned lest she checked herself with one hand, and blood came from it to knuckles of the other hand!
Answer: No, the entire hand is prone to touch during Bedikah.
(Mishnah): If it is on the inside of her legs or feet...
Question: What is considered the inside?
Version #1 Answer (d'Vei R. Yanai): It is until the place of Chivuk (where the sinews clamp the thigh to the lower leg, or where the thigh covers the lower leg when squatting. Alternatively, it is where (garter) loops fasten to hold up socks).
Question: Is the place of Chivuk considered like inside or like outside?
Answer (Rav Katina): It is until and including the place of Chivuk.
Version #2 - R. Chiya brei d'Rav Avya - Answer (d'Vei R. Yanai): It is until and including the place of Chivuk. (end of Version #2)
Questions (R. Yirmeyah): If the blood has one of the following shapes, what is the law? It is a ring, there are many drops, or it is across the width of her thigh.
Answer (Beraisa): If she found a Kesem on her body, Safek Tahor, Safek Tamei, she is Teme'ah.
Suggestion: (Surely, the Chidush of the Beraisa (or of the extra words Safek Tahor, Safek Tamei) is) even if it is one of these shapes!
Rejection: No, it is in a strip. (Rashi - it is the way blood would drip from the place. Rashba - we would not expect blood to drip this way. It is a Chidush that she is Teme'ah.)
A case occurred in which a woman found blood on her frame. (She was walking carrying a frame with threads arranged for weaving.)
R. Yanai: Go walk the same way you walked before! If the frame passes under the place, you are Teme'ah.
Question: We do not repeat (simulate) an incident (and assume that it will resemble what happened) regarding Taharos!
Answer: We do not simulate to be lenient, but we do simulate to be stringent.
WHEN SHE MAY BE TOLEH
(Mishnah): If she took off her garment (and covered herself with it, she is Teme'ah).
(Beraisa - R. Eliezer b'Rebbi Yosi): In Romi I ruled that she is Teme'ah. When I came to Chachamim of the south (in Eretz Yisrael), they approved.
(Beraisa): If a tall woman and a short woman exchanged garments, and a Kesem was found:
If the place of blood comes in line with the place of both women, both are (Safek) Teme'os;
If it comes in line only with the place of the short woman, she is Teme'ah, and the other is Tehorah.
(Beraisa): If Leah checked a garment and lent it to Rachel, and Rachel found a Kesem, she is Toleh on Leah. (She assumes that Leah did not check well.)
(Rav Sheshes): This refers to the toil of laundering the stain (Rachel is exempt). However, Leah is Tehorah, and Rachel is Teme'ah.
Question: What is the difference between this and the following?
(Beraisa): If two women were dealing with a bird that had blood the size of a Sela, and each found a Kesem of this size, both are Teme'os. (Tosfos - this is even if one woman found her Kesem before the other. We do not (retroactively) attribute her Kesem to the bird.)
Answer: There is different, for there is an extra Sela of blood. (There is no reason to attribute it to one woman more than the other.)
(Beraisa): If a woman wore three layers of checked garments and found a Kesem, if she has a Teliyah (something to attribute the blood to) she is Toleh, even if it is on the inner garment. If she has no Teliyah, she is not Toleh, even if it is on the outer garment;
If she passed through a meat market she is Toleh even for the inner garment. If she did not pass through a meat market (or deal with blood in any other way), she is not Toleh, even for the outer garment.
ON WHAT ARE WE TOLEH
(Mishnah): She may be Toleh on anything possible, e.g.:
If she slaughtered a Chayah, Behemah or bird;
If she was engaged in Kesamim or sat near people engaging in them.
If she killed a louse, she may be Toleh on it.
Question: How much may she be Toleh?
Answer (R. Chanina ben Antignos): She may be Toleh up to a Gris (bean), and even if she did not kill a louse.
She may be Toleh on her son or husband (if he has a wound, or he was dealing with blood);
If she has a wound (even if it has a scab on it) that can open up and emit blood, she is Toleh on it.
A case occurred in which a woman found a Kesem and came in front of R. Akiva. He asked if she had a wound.
The woman: I had a wound, but it healed.
R. Akiva: Perhaps it could open up and emit blood!
She said yes. R. Akiva was Metaher her. His Talmidim looked bewildered.
R. Akiva: Chachamim enacted to be Metamei women due to Kesamim, but to be lenient (whenever we can be Toleh);
The Torah says "v'Ishah Ki Siheyeh Zavah Dam Yihyeh Zovah bi'Vesarah" -- (she is Tamei due to) blood, but not due to a Kesem.
R. Eliezer bar Tzadok says, if an Ed was under a pillow and blood was found on it in a round shape, she is Tehorah. If it is a streak, she is Teme'ah.
(Gemara): Our Mishnah teaches like the following Beraisa:
(Beraisa): Cases occurred in which R. Meir was Toleh on a bandage, and Rebbi was Toleh on sycamore sap.
(Mishnah):... Or if she sat (near people involved with Kesamim).
Inference: She may be Toleh only if she surely sat there. If she in unsure, she may not.
Our Mishnah teaches like the following Beraisa:
(Beraisa): If she passed through a meat market and is unsure whether or not blood splashed on her, she may be Toleh (a Kesem) on it;
If she is unsure whether or not she passed through a meat market, she is Teme'ah.
TELIYAH ON LICE
(Mishnah): If she killed a louse...
Inference: She may be Toleh only if she killed a louse. Our Mishnah is like R. Shimon ben Gamliel:
(Beraisa - R. Shimon ben Gamliel): She may be Toleh only if she killed a louse;
Chachamim say, she may be Toleh whether or not she killed a louse.
R. Shimon ben Gamliel: According to me, there is no end (to the stringencies of Kesamim). It is very hard for a woman to remain permitted to her husband. Beds always have many drops of blood from lice!
According to Chachamim, there is no limit (to how much blood we are Toleh on a louse, even if she did not kill one). A woman is always Tehorah (even if the blood was from her. They are Toleh, for even men's) sheets always have many drops of blood from lice!
Rather, R. Chanina ben Antignos' opinion is proper, that she may be Toleh up to the size of a Gris.
Question: Do Chachamim allow her to be Toleh a massive Kesem on a louse?!
Answer (Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak): She is Toleh up to a Tormus (lupine, a legume) on a Pishpesh (bedbug).
(Beraisa): A Pishpesh is as wide as it is long. It tastes like it smells. Hash-m made a covenant with it, that whoever squashes it in his hand will smell it. (Everything was created with its consent. We read "va'Yechulu ha'Shamayim veha'Aretz v'Chol Tzeva'am" like "Tzivyonam" (the form they chose - Chulin 60a). Presumably, the Pishpesh requested this covenant so that people will be loathe to kill it - PF.)
'It is as wide as it is long' teaches about Kesamim. (Rashi - we may be Toleh such a Kesem on a Pishpesh; Rashba - this helps identify a Pishpesh. Where such bugs are found, we may be Toleh a Kesem of any shape on them);
'It tastes like it smells' teaches about Terumah;
(Mishnah): If one had Terumah in his mouth and tasted a Pishpesh, he may spit out the Terumah.
Question: How would someone know the taste of Pishpesh?
Answer: It tastes like it smells.
Question: How would someone know its smell?
Answer: There is a covenant that whoever squashes it smells it.
(Rav Ashi): We are not concerned for Kesamim in a city with pigs. (They eat vermin and strew blood.)
(Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak): Dedokeres (a certain city that had many butchers and vermin-infested waste heaps) is like a city with pigs.
(Mishnah): How much may she be Toleh? (R. Chanina ben Antignos says, up to a Gris... )
(Rav Huna): She may be Toleh up to a Gris, but not a full Gris.
(Rav Chisda): She may be Toleh a full Gris, but not more.
Version #1 - Suggestion: They argue about Ad v'Ad Bichlal (whether or not "Ad" (until) connotes "up to and including"):
Rav Chisda holds that Ad v'Ad Bichlal, and Rav Huna holds that Ad v'Lo Ad Bichlal (up to but not including).
Rejection: Rav Huna sometimes holds Ad v'Ad Bichlal, and sometimes Ad v'Lo Ad Bichlal, whichever is more stringent (in the particular case);
Rav Chisda agrees that normally, we follow whichever is more stringent. Kesamim are different due to R. Avahu's teaching;
(R. Avahu): Whenever Chachamim gave a Shi'ur, we are always stringent about the exact amount (regarding Ad v'Ad Bichlal), except for a Kesem the size of a Gris. We are lenisent about this.
Version #2: They argue about whether or not Ad v'Ad Bichlal regarding Kesamim. (Rashba - the two versions do not argue. One should teach the exact words he heard. Alternatively, they argue about the (coming) case in which Ad v'Ad Bichlal is a stringency, to be Toleh a Kesem below the belt on a Kesem above.)