THE CHIYUV OF TERUMAH AND CHALAH NOWADAYS
Support (Beraisa - R. Meir and R. Yehudah): If a dough became Dimu'a (mixed with Terumah) or was fermented with Se'or of Terumah, one must take Chalah from it. If a Tevul Yom touches it, he does not disqualify it;
R. Yosi and R. Shimon exempt it from Chalah.
We are thinking that Terumah and Chalah have the same law. Whoever says that one is mid'Oraisa says that both are.
We understand if (R. Yosi holds that) Chalah is mid'Rabanan. Even though the Torah permits Dimu'a (the Terumah is Batel) like Chulin, mid'Rabanan it is like Terumah, and this uproots the obligation mid'Rabanan to take Chalah;
However, if Chalah were mid'Oraisa, since Dimu'a is like Terumah mid'Rabanan, it could not uproot the Torah obligation to separate Chalah!
Answer: Perhaps he holds like Rav Huna brei d'Rav Yehoshua, that nowadays Terumah is mid'Oraisa, and Chalah is mid'Rabanan;
(Rabanan): Even according to the opinion that nowadays Terumah is mid'Rabanan, Chalah is mid'Oraisa;
We find that during the 14 years of conquering and dividing, Bnei Yisrael were obligated to take Chalah, but not Terumah!
Rejection (Rav Huna brei d'Rav Yehoshua): No. Rather, even according to the opinion that nowadays Terumah is mid'Oraisa, Chalah is mid'Rabanan;
(Beraisa) Suggestion: Perhaps "(you will take Chalah) b'Vo'achem" obligates separating Chalah once two or three spies of Yisrael enter Eretz Yisrael!
Rejection: "B'Vo'achem" (plural) discusses when all (i.e. the majority) enter, but not when the minority enters;
When Ezra brought exiles back to Eretz Yisrael (to build the second Beis ha'Mikdash), the majority stayed in Bavel.
UPPER SIMANIM IN A WOMAN
(Mishnah): The three stages of female maturity parallel ripening fruit -- Pagah, Bochel and Tzemel:
Pagah (unripe fruit) corresponds to a woman without any Siman. She is a minor in every respect;
Bochel (partially grown fruit) corresponds to a Na'arah;
In both of these stages, her father receives what she finds or earns, and he can annul her vows.
Tzemel refers to full maturity, i.e. a Bogeres. Her father has no jurisdiction over her.
Tana'im give different Simanim (Rashi - of Bagrus; Tosfos - of Na'arus) based on how developed the breasts are.
(Gemara): Pagah corresponds to a minor -- "ha'Te'enah Chantah Fageha" (it budded, which is the beginning of fruit);
Bochel corresponds to a Na'arah;
(Mishnah): After figs Yivchelu (mature), they must be tithed;
(Rabah bar bar Chanah): This is when the ends become white.
Tzemel is an acronym for Yatz'ah Mele'ah (full maturity).
(Mishnah - R. Yosi ha'Gelili): The Siman...
Shmuel had an idea regarding R. Yosi's Siman. He tested it on his Shifchah (Kena'anis), and paid her four Zuz compensation for embarrassment.
(Shmuel): "L'Olam Bahem Ta'avodu" teaches that slaves are for labor. One may not embarrass them.
Shmuel would designate one slave to be a "husband" for each Shifchah, to spare his Shifchos from embarrassment;
Rav Nachman would switch their marital partners. He was not concerned for their embarrassment;
Rav Sheshes gave them over to an Aravi (who would have Bi'ah freely with them), and told them not to have Bi'ah with Yisraelim.
A Beraisa gives other opinions about Simanim of Bagrus.
(Beraisa - R. Shimon): Chachamim gave three Simanim below in a woman, and three above;
If above is Pagah (undeveloped), surely she did not bring hairs below;
If above is Bochel (partially developed), surely she brought hairs below;
If above is Tzemel (fully developed), surely the Kaf is leveled.
Question: What is the Kaf?
Answer (Rav Huna): It is a protrusion above the Ervah. When she matures, it gets smaller and goes away.
Question: Whom does the Halachah follow?
Answer (Rebbi): We are stringent like all of the opinions. (After she has one of these Simanim, she is a Safek Bogeres. She is not Vadai until she has all of them.)
Rav Papa or R. Chinena brei d'Rav Ika taught that Rebbi gave this answer. The other of these two Amora'im taught that Rebbi said 'we are stringent like all of the opinions' regarding the following Mishnah about Ma'aser.
(Mishnah) Question: What kinds of Chatzer are Kove'a (mid'Rabanan? One may eat Tevel casually, until it is brought into the house, or something else that is Kove'a, i.e. forbids eating it until tithing it.)
Answer #1 (R. Shimon): A Chatzer Tzuris in which Kelim are guarded is Kove'a.
Question: What is a Chatzer Tzuris?
Answer (Rabah bar bar Chanah): In (the city) Tzur, a watchman sits at the entrance of the Chatzer.
Answer #2 (R. Akiva): If everyone opens and locks it himself, it is not Kove'a.
Answer #3 (R. Nechemyah): If people are not embarrassed to eat in it, it is Kove'a.
Answer #4 (R. Yosi): If people enter, and no one asks them why they came, it is not Kove'a.
Answer #5 (R. Yehudah): If one Chatzer is inside another, the inner one is Kove'a, and the outer one is not.
Question: Whom does the Halachah follow?
Answer (Rebbi): We are stringent like all of these opinions. (Each is Kove'a.)
AILONIS AND SERIS
(Mishnah - Beis Hillel): If a 20 year old girl did not grow two hairs, she must bring a proof that she is 20 (and has Simanei Ailonis), she is an Ailonis (a female who will never undergo normal female development). She is an adult, and she is exempt from Chalitzah and Yibum;
If a 20 year old man did not grow two hairs, if we have proof that he is 20 (and has Simanei Seris), he is a Seris (he will never have normal male development). He is an adult, and he is exempt from Chalitzah and Yibum.
Beis Shamai say, the age to become a Vadai Ailonis or Seris is 18.
R. Eliezer says, a boy becomes a Vadai Seris at 20, and a girl becomes a Vadai Ailonis at 18. This is because girls normally bring Simanim earlier than boys.
(Gemara) Contradiction (Mishnah): The law of a boy nine years old and a day is the same as that of a 20 year old who did not grow hairs.
Answer (Rav Shmuel bar Rav Yitzchak): The Mishnah says that he is an adult Seris if he has Simanim that he is a Seris.
Support (Rava - Mishnah): (We need proof that he is 20) and (that) he is a Seris.
Question: If he does not have Simanim, until when is he considered a minor?
Answer (Beraisa - R. Chiya): He is a minor until the majority of a normal lifetime (i.e. the start of his 36th year).
When people who had not yet brought Simanim would come in front of R. Chiya, if they were thin, he would tell them to become fatter. If they were fat, he would tell them to become thinner;
(R. Chiya): Sometimes obesity causes Simanim to come, and sometimes thinness does.
(Rav): All years mentioned in this Perek must be (full,) from day to day.
(Ula): If the Mishnah said that they must be full, they are full. If not, they need not be full. (One or 30 days suffice for the last year.)
Question #1: According to Ula, we understand why sometimes the Mishnah says that full years are needed, and sometimes it does not;
According to Rav, all of them should specify!
Question #2 (Beraisa - R. Yosi ben Kipar citing R. Eliezer): Once 30 days of the 20th year pass, this is like 20 full years.
Similarly, Rebbi ruled that 30 days of the 18th year is like 18 full years.
We can explain the difference between Rebbi and R. Yosi. Rebbi ruled like Beis Shamai, and R. Yosi ruled like Beis Hillel. (Maharsha - alternatively, both are like R. Eliezer. Rebbi discusses a girl, and R. Yosi discusses a boy.)
Both of them oppose Rav!
Answer: Tana'im argue about whether 30 days is like a year;
(Beraisa): All of the following must be full years -- the years specified for (certain) Korbanos, the year in which one may redeem a house sold in a walled city, the two years one must wait before redeeming a field that he sold, the six years that an Eved Ivri serves, and the years of a boy or girl (this will be explained).
Question: What is the source for the years of Korbanos?
Answer (Rav Acha bar Yakov):"Keves Ben Shenaso" teaches that it must be in its first year. (It need not be in the same calendar year, i.e. from Rosh Hashanah until Rosh Hashanah, as its birth.)
Question: What is the source for the year to redeem a house?
Answer: "Ad Tom Shenas Mimkaro" refers to the year of its sale.
Question: What is the source for the years before redeeming a field?
Answer: "B'Mispar Shenei Sevu'os Yimkar Lach" refers to all the harvests of the two years, even if there are three harvests. (I.e. he bought the field laden with produce, and twice he harvests what he himself grew.)
Question: What is the source for the six years of an Eved Ivri?
Answer: "Shesh Shanim Ya'avod uva'Shevi'is" teaches that he also works in the seventh (calendar) year (until the date of his sale, which was not Rosh Hashanah).