[57a - 35 lines; 57b - 52 lines]
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara and Rashi)
 Rashi 57a DH Pera'os ד"ה פרעות:
The words "Tachas Eizehu Mehen" תחת איזהו מהן
should be "Tachas Eizeh Mehen" תחת איזה מהן
1)[line 1]"לא תסיג גבול רעך אשר גבלו ראשונים בנחלתך אשר תנחל בארץ""LO SASIG GEVUL RE'ACHA ASHER GAVLU RISHONIM B'NACHALASCHA ASHER TINCHAL BA'ARETZ..."- "Do not move your neighbor's boundary (marker) which was set in place by the first settlers, in your inheritance that you will inherit in the land..." (Devarim 19:14) - The Sifrei (Shoftim 86) interprets this verse as also referring to selling one's ancestral burial plot (the words "in the land" can also be interpreted as "in the earth," i.e. a grave — MALBIM). The Kusim took this verse to mean that anyone who receives an inheritance is eligible for a gravesite, which excluded Nefalim (stillbirths), since they do not receive an inheritance.
2)[line 4]"ולפני עור לא תתן מכשול""V'LIFNEI IVER LO SITEN MICHSHOL."- "Do not place a stumbling block before the blind." (Vayikra 19:14) - We learn from this verse that it is forbidden to cause another person to sin by giving him bad advice or by placing before him the opportunity to sin. (Some Rishonim explain that this is only an Isur mid'Rabanan (a Rabbinic prohibition) and is not implicit in the verse.)
3)[line 5]בכהן עומד שםB'CHOHEN OMED SHAM- that is, a non-Kusi Kohen, who has associated with the Kusim and acts as they do, is standing there. (Kusim themselves are Geirim and cannot be Kohanim. TOSFOS YOM TOV writes that it is possible that this Kohen was a descendant of the Kohen sent by the king of Ashur to teach the Kusim the laws of Eretz Yisrael, when they first came under attack from the lions — Melachim II 17:27-28; see Background to Nidah 56:12.)
4)[line 8]לא בקיאי ביצירהLO BEKI'EI B'YETZIRAH- when they bury a fetus that was miscarried, they do not know whether it is a forty-day-old fetus (which is Metamei) or a less-than-forty-day-old fetus (which is not Metamei). They assume that it is not Metamei.
5)[line 11]גוזז ועובדGOZEZ V'OVED (BECHOR: GIZAH V'AVODAH)
(a)The Kedushah of Bechor rests on every first-born male of cattle, goats or sheep when it comes out of its mother's womb. Nevertheless, there is a Mitzvah for a person to sanctify it himself (Erchin 29a, based on Devarim 15:19). He must then give it to a Kohen; it may not be redeemed.
(b)If the animal has no Mum (blemish), the Kohen must bring it as a Korban during its first year. Only a Mumcheh (an expert) has the authority to pronounce that a Bechor has a Mum (Bechoros 28a). After its blood and Eimurim (see Background to Menachos 74:20) are offered on the Mizbe'ach, its meat is eaten in Yerushalayim during the following two days and the intervening night.
(c)If the animal has or develops a Mum, it becomes the property of the Kohen. It must be slaughtered and eaten (anywhere) during its first year. If it develops a Mum after the first year, it must be slaughtered and eaten within thirty days. The Kohen can give it away or sell it, even to a non-Kohen. However, it may not be sold in a meat market or weighed in the usual manner. It may not be redeemed with money.
(d)Intentionally inflicting a Mum in a Bechor is prohibited, as in all animals of Kodshim, as the verse states, "Tamim Yiheyeh l'Ratzon, Kol Mum Lo Yiheyeh Vo" - "it shall be complete (unblemished) to find favor, no blemish shall be in it" (Vayikra 22:21). RASHI (to Menachos 56a DH Lo Yiheyeh and to Bechoros 33b DH Kol Mum) teaches that the intention of Chazal is that the verse is read, "Lo Yehayeh Vo" - "do not cause [a blemish] in it." A person who inflicts a blemish in an animal of Kodshim (or its Temurah, with the exception of the Temurah of a Bechor and Ma'aser Behemah,) receives Malkus. (See SEFER HA'CHINUCH #287.)
(e)Whether or not it has a Mum, it is forbidden to shear a Bechor (Gizah) or to work with it (Avodah) (Devarim 15:19). Any fleece that is removed from a Bechor, even if it came off on its own, is Asur b'Hana'ah. Therefore, if the Kusi is shearing or working with the animal, we can be sure that it is not a Bechor.
(f)Now that there is no Beis ha'Mikdash, a Kohen must care for a Bechor until it develops a Mum. Alternatively, he can sell it, even if it has no Mum, to a non-Kohen, who may eat it after it develops a Mum. It may not be bought, however, in order to be sold for a profit (SEFER HA'CHINUCH #393, #445).
When a Behemah Dakah (sheep or goat) has a discharge composed of dissolved particles of blood, the discharge is actually a disintegrated fetus. Therefore, the animals' next offspring is not a Bechor.
b)[line 12]לא בקיאי בטינוףLO BEKI'EI B'TINUF- they do not know which type of discharge is a disintegrated fetus
7)[line 15]"... וראה עצם אדם ובנה אצלו ציון ...""...V'RA'AH ETZEM ADAM U'VANAH ETZLO TZIYUN..."- "[And the travelers who pass through the land,] when any of them sees a human bone, he shall set up a sign by it, [until the grave diggers have buried it in the valley of Hamon-Gog.]" (Yechezkel 39:15)
8)[line 17]אילן המיסך עלהארץI LAN HA'MEISACH AL HA'ARETZ- a tree that hangs over the ground
9)[line 18]פרעותPERA'OS- jutting (lit. wild) stones
10)[line 20]מנפח אדםMENAPE'ACH ADAM- a person blows
11)[line 22]נידשNIDASH- it was trampled
12)[line 24]מלא מענהMELO MA'ANAH- a furrow-length
13)[line 32]רצועה נפקאRETZU'AH NAFKA- that is, there is one thin stretch of the field that extends from the main field (of which most people are not aware), and the Kusi did not tread upon that small stretch of land. Therefore the Kusi really did not become Tamei for certain.
14)[last line]תחומיןTECHUMIN (TECHUM SHABBOS)
(a)Techum Shabbos is a city's limits, a radius of 2000 Amos (approximately 960 meters (3147 feet) or 1,152 meters (3774 feet), depending upon the differing Halachic opinions), from the city walls. A person is allowed to walk only up until the Techum Shabbos (or dwelling place if he is not in a city) on Shabbos or Yom Tov. If he wants to walk another 2000 Amos, he must make an Eruv Techumin.
(b)This is accomplished by placing an amount of any food that would be used for two meals nearly 2000 Amos away from his present location, in the direction in which he wishes to walk. The location where his food is placed is considered his new dwelling or place of Shevisah for that Shabbos or Yom Tov, and he may walk 2000 Amos in any direction from there.
(c)A Kusi is not believed to identify the Techum Shabbos of a city since this is a Halachah mid'Rabanan, of which they take no regard.
15)[last line]יין נסךYAYIN NESECH
(a)Wine that was poured as an idolatrous libation is Asur b'Hana'ah. This is derived from the verse, "Asher Chelev Zevacheimo Yochelu, Yishtu Yein Nesicham" - "Those who ate the fat of their sacrifices, and drank the wine of their drink-offerings" (Devarim 32:38), which compares the wine of libations to an animal sacrificed for idolatrous purposes.
(b)The Chachamim prohibited the wine of a Nochri that was not poured as a libation ("Stam Yeinam") out of fear that drinking wine together would lead to intermarriage. In order to avoid confusion between Yayin Nesech and Stam Yeinam, the Chachamim instituted that Stam Yeinam is also Asur b'Hana'ah (one of the "Eighteen Decrees" — Shabbos 17b). Although this is only an Isur mid'Rabanan, it is a very severe prohibition (see CHOCHMAS ADAM 75:1).
PEREK #8 HA'RO'EH KESEM
16)[line 1]בית התורפהBEIS HA'TURFAH- vagina
17)[line 3]עקבהAKEVAH- her heel
18)[line 3]ראש גודלהROSH GUDLAH- the tip of her big toe
19)[line 4]שוקהSHOKAH- her calf
20)[line 4]פרסותיהPARSOSEHA- feet
21)[line 4]מבפניםMIBI'FNIM- the interior side that is between the legs
22)[line 5]מבחוץMIBA'CHUTZ- the exterior side of the legs
23)[line 5]הצדדיןTZEDADIN- the front and back of the legs
24)[line 6]חלוקהCHALUKAH- her undershirt or shirt
25)[line 6]חגורCHAGOR- belt
26)[line 8]בית ידBEIS YAD- sleeve
27)[line 10]היתה פושטתוHAYESAH POSHATETO- she would take it off [each night]
28)[line 11]מפני שהוא חוזרMIPNEI SHE'HU CHOZER- since it gets flipped up
29)[line 12]פוליוסPULYOS- (O.F. orel) a sheet worn as a cloak and used as a bed-cover
30)[line 13]קרקע עולםKARKA OLAM- natural ground
31)[line 14]"[דם יהיה זבה] בבשרה""[DAM YIHEYEH ZOVAH] BI'VSARAH"- "[blood will be her flow] from her flesh" (Vayikra 15:19)
32)[line 14]עד שתרגיש בבשרהAD SHE'TARGISH BI'VSARAH- until she feels [blood flowing] from her flesh (see EIZEHU MEKOMAN DH she'Ne'emar... "Kovetz He'aros b'Inyan Hargashah")
33a)[line 18]לא בשפירLO B'SHEFIR- and not in the outer skin of an embryo before any sinews, bones, or flesh form
b)[line 18]לא בחתיכהLO B'CHATICHAH- and not in a piece of flesh [that comes out of a woman's womb]
34)[line 20]שהיא עושה צרכיהSHE'HI OSAH TZERACHEHA- who was urinating
35)[line 24]מי רגליםMEI RAGLAYIM- urine
36)[line 25]הדורHADUR- they went back
37)[line 25]מקורMAKOR- the womb
38)[line 26]עדED- a cloth used for a Bedikah
39)[line 26]הכרH A'KAR- the mattress
40a)[line 27]עגולAGOL- round
b)[line 27]משוךMASHUCH- stretched out, smeared
41)[line 32]חייבין בקרבןCHAYAVIN B'KORBAN- and they are obligated to bring a Korban (since this is proof that she was bleeding during relations, which obligates them to offer a Korban Chatas for the unintentional transgression of having relations with a Nidah — Vayikra 18:19, 20:18, as is the case in all unintentional transgressions of prohibitions that are liable to the Kares punishment for intentional transgression)
42)[line 32]אתיוםOSYOM- immediately
43)[line 33]פטורין מן הקרבןPETURIM MIN HA'KORBAN- they are exempt from a Korban Chatas, but perhaps obligated in an Asham Taluy (Nidah 14b; TOSFOS ibid. DH Ba'inan)
44)[line 35]אימא הרגשת שמש הוהEIMA HARGASHAS SHAMASH HAVAH- (The Gemara did not answer here that she felt the Bedikah after Tashmish, for then the husband should not have had to bring a Korban.)
45)[line 37]במגעותB'MAGA'OS- with objects that she touches [when she expects to experience bleeding at any time]
46)[line 38]בהיסטותB'HESETOS- with objects that she moves [when she expects to experience bleeding at any time]
47)[line 38]הלך אחר הרובHALECH ACHAR HA'ROV- follow the majority [of her days; if she experiences bleeding on the majority of her days, her Maga and Heset will be Tamei]
48)[line 47]אזדקרהIZDAKRA- she bent over backwards