NIDAH 10 (10 Sivan) - dedicated by Mrs. Rita Grunberger of Queens, N.Y., in loving memory of her husband, Reb Yitzchok Yakov ben Eliyahu Grunberger. Irving Grunberger helped many people quietly in an unassuming manner and he is dearly missed by all who knew him. His Yahrzeit is 10 Sivan.

[10a - 18 lines; 10b - 51 lines]

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We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara and Rashi

[1] Gemara 10b [line 9]:

"Nechusei Yama"

The word "Yama" should be removed, as in Sukah 43b (see Rashash to Chulin 124a)

[2] Rashi 10b DH Maskif " :

The words "Higi'a Zemanah l'Lo Higi'a"

should be "Higi'a Zemanah v'Lo Higi'a"


1)[line 1] HADAR KA'CHAZYA B'ONOS- if, after having an initial break of three months, she experienced bleeding again at the time of the monthly period (that was set when she first experienced bleeding for three months in a row)

2)[line 1]MAI?- what is the ruling in a case similar to that of the Beraisa, where she experienced bleeding three times in three months (the word "month" is not literal; it is being used for convenience), then experienced no bleeding for the next three months, and then experienced bleeding in the next month (as opposed to the actual case of the Beraisa, where the three-month gap was repeated two more times)


Rebbi is of the opinion that after an event occurs two times, we can presume that it will happen again under the same conditions until there is evidence of a change. Raban Shimon Ben Gamliel argues and maintains that we make this presumption only after the event occurs three times (Nidah 64a, Kesuvos 43b).


One of the most confusing aspects of the subject of "Chazakah" is that the term "Chazakah" is used to describe so many unrelated laws. Just about any logical clarification of a doubt (and more) is referred to by this name. In our Sugya, it is referring to the rule that when doubt arises as to whether the status of a certain person or object has changed, we assume that is has not changed.

1.Such a "Chazakah" may be used in regard to a purely Halachic status (such as Tamei/Tahor or Mutar/Asur), or in regards to a physical status that affects the Halachah (such as a woman being Tehorah, or a Mikvah not lacking the necessary amount of water). In our Sugya, the Chazakah tells us that the woman who has experienced bleeding on two occasions has a Chazakah to the extent that the next time that she experiences bleeding she will be Metamei me'Es l'Es or mi'Pekidah li'Pekidah.

2.A Chazakah may work forward in time (Chazakah D'Ikara), proving what will be, or backward in time (Chazakah D'Hashta), proving what was.

5)[line 13]KESEM

See Background to Nidah 3:13.

6)[line 15] , ILU CHAZYA, METAM'AH- if she would experienced bleeding [a third time], then she would become Teme'ah [retroactively (Me'es l'Es)]


7)[line 2] SIRFAH MATZUY- the Dam Besulim (lit. sap) of a Besulah flows often (at the beginning of her marriage)


See Background to Nidah 7:20.


See Background to Nidah 5:8.

10)[line 9] ()KOL NECHUSEI (YAMA)- all [the groups of scholars] who "went down" [from Eretz Yisrael to Bavel]

11a)[line 11]SHOFA'AS- if she has a continuous flow of blood

b)[line 13]POSEKES- if her flow of blood is intermittent

12)[line 16]MEDALEFES- the blood drips out drop by drop

13)[line 18] KI NAHARA- like a river

14)[line 20] HIGI'U L'FIRKAN- they have reached the age of puberty

15)[line 24] SHE'ME'AVSOS OSAN- they [potentially] "corrupt" them (by wounding them internally, thereby causing blood to flow)


Rebbi Yosi rules that a pregnant or nursing woman must go three Onos (thirty-day periods) during which she experiences no bleeding before we can assume that she will no longer bleed over the course of her pregnancy / nursing. If a woman does not experience bleeding while nursing and continues not to experience bleeding when she stops nursing and becomes pregnant, those months while nursing combine with the months when she is pregnant to create a three-Onah gap, after which bleeding is no longer expected and she receives the ruling of Dayah Sha'atah (i.e. the next time she experiences bleeding, she is only Teme'ah from then on, and not retroactively).

17)[line 42] LEIDAH YEVEISHTAH- a birth during which she experiences no bleeding