PERMITING VOWS ON SHABBOS
(Mishnah): Vows may be annulled on Shabbos. One may ask a Chacham to permit vows on Shabbos. This is if they are for the need of Shabbos.
Question: Does the Seifa 'if they are for the need of Shabbos' also apply to annulment of vows?
Or, may vows be annulled (on Shabbos) even if it is not a need of Shabbos?
Answer (Rav Zuti d'Vei Rav Papi): Vows may be annulled only for the need of Shabbos.
Objection (Rav Ashi - Mishnah): If she vowed shortly before nightfall, he can only annul until nightfall.
If he can annul only for the need of Shabbos, even before nightfall he cannot annul!
Answer: Tana'im argue about whether or not vows may be annulled not for the need of Shabbos.
(Beraisa): Vows can be annulled the entire day;
R. Yosi b'Rebbi Yehudah and R. Eliezer b'Rebbi Shimon allow 24 hours.
The first Tana does not allow annulment on the next day. He permits annulment, even if it is not a need of Shabbos;
R. Yosi b'Rebbi Yehudah and R. Eliezer b'Rebbi Shimon allow 24 hours. They permit only for a need of Shabbos.
(Mishnah): One may ask a Chacham to permit vows on Shabbos, if they are for the need of Shabbos.
Question: Is this only when the one who vowed did not have time to ask a Chacham before Shabbos, or is it even if he had time?
Answer: Chachamim once permitted a vow for the son of Rav Zutra, even though he had time before Shabbos.
(Rav Yosef): One Chacham may permit vows on Shabbos, but (a Beis Din of) three commoners may not, for this looks like judging a case.
Objection (Abaye): We allow permitting vows even when (the judges are) standing, even by (judges who are) relatives (to the one who vowed), and even at night. Therefore, it does not look like judgment.
(R. Aba, citing Rav Huna, citing Rav): Vows may be annulled at night.
Objection: We know this from our Mishnah! 'If she vowed on Shabbos night...'!
Correction: Rather, Rav taught that vows may be permitted at night.
R. Aba (to Rav Huna): Did Rav really say that?
Rav Huna: He was silent (when I said this in front of him).
R. Aba: Was his silence because he disagreed, or because he agreed?
Answer: Rav permitted a vow for Rabah in a room of the Beis Medrash, alone, at night.
(Rav Nachman): The Halachah is, we can permit vows while standing, alone, at night, of relatives, and on Shabbos.
They may be permitted on Shabbos even if there was time to permit them before Shabbos.
Question (Beraisa): R. Gamliel descended from a donkey, donned a cloak and sat down to permit a vow. (Rabah allows permitting vows while standing!)
Version #1 (our text, and that of Rashi) Answer: R. Gamliel holds that we are Pose'ach with regret (the Chacham must think hard, to help the person find a reason to regret it);
Rav Nachman holds that we are not Pose'ach with regret. (There is not much to think about. If the person does not regret himself, we do not permit the vow.)
Version #2 (the text of Tosfos, Rosh, Ran) Answer: R. Gamliel holds that we may not permit a vow with regret (alone. Rather, we must find that the vow was a mistake from the beginning. This requires much thought);
Rav Nachman allows permitting a vow with regret (alone). (end of Version #2)
IT IS A SIN TO VOW
Rava (to Rav Nachman): A Chacham came from Eretz Yisrael, and said that Chachamim permitted a vow for the son of Rav Huna bar Avin.
They told him to pray for forgiveness for having vowed.
(Rav Dimi, brother of Rav Safra): If one vowed, even if he fulfills it, he is called a sinner.
(Rav Zvid): We learn from "When you will refrain from vowing, you will not have sin." This implies that if you will vow, you will have sin.
EXPRESSIONS OF ANNULMENT
(Beraisa): If a man told his wife (after she vowed) 'I do not want all vows you will take' or 'this is not a vow', this has no effect;
If he said 'you did nicely', 'you are unequaled', or 'had you not vowed I would have imposed the vow on you', this is affirmation.
(Beraisa): One may not say to his wife on Shabbos '(your vow is) annulled for you' or 'void for you' like he says during the week. Rather, he tells her 'go eat (what she forbade)' or 'go drink', and the vow is void.
(R. Yochanan): He must be Mevatel (nullify) the vow in his heart.
(Beraisa - Beis Shamai): On Shabbos, a man is Mevatel his wife's vow in his heart. During the week, he must say it;
Beis Hillel say, even during the week it suffices to be Mevatel the vow in his heart.
(R. Yochanan): If a Chacham said 'Your vow is annulled', or if a husband said 'Your vow is permitted', this has no effect:
(Beraisa): "This is the Davar (word)" - a Chacham permits, a husband does not permit.
Suggestion: We should learn from a Kal v'Chomer! A Chacham cannot annul, but he can permit. A husband can annul, all the more so he can permit!
Rejection: "This is the word" teaches that a Chacham can permit, but a husband cannot.