1)WHEN DOES THE VOW END?
(a)Answer #2 (Rav Ashi - Mishnah): If one said 'wine is forbidden to me this year', and the year was made a leap year, he is forbidden also in the added month.
1.Question: What is the case?
i.If it is like stated, this is obvious!
2.Answer: Rather, the case must be, he said 'a year'.
3.Inference: Saying 'a year' is like saying 'this year'. Likewise, saying 'a day' is like saying 'today'!
(b)Rejection: No. Really, he said 'this year';
1.One might have thought that we follow most years, which are not leap years. The Mishnah teaches that this is not so.
(c)Question: If one said 'wine is forbidden to me for this Yovel (cycle of seven Shemitos)' what is the law?
1.Does the 50th year count like part of this Yovel, or like part of the next?
(d)Answer (Beraisa): "You will sanctify the 50th year" - it is counted like the 50th year, but it does not count like the first year of the coming Shemitah cycle;
1.R. Yehudah says, it also counts like the first year of the coming Shemitah.
2.Objection (Chachamim): It says "six years you will sow your field." According to you, there are only five years of planting between Yovel and the next Shemitah!
i.Counter-objection (R. Yehudah): It says, "The land will produce for three years." Also according to you, when Yovel follows Shemitah, the land must produce (in the year before Shemitah) for four years!
ii.Answer: You must say that the verse discusses Erev Shemitah when Shemitah is not followed by Yovel.
3.Answer (R. Yehudah): Also "six years..." discusses the years after a Shemitah not followed by Yovel.
2)DOES A PERSON ENTER A DOUBT?
(a)(Mishnah): If he said... (R. Meir says...'until Lifnei Pesach' forbids until it comes. R. Yosi forbids until the end of Pesach.)
(b)Inference: R. Meir holds that a person does not enter a doubt (i.e. he intends only for what his words surely connote), and R. Yosi holds that a person enters a doubt!
(c)Contradiction (Mishnah - R. Meir): Reuven has (at least two) daughters from each of two wives. He said 'I was Mekadesh my big daughter to a man. I don't remember if it was the oldest daughter from my first wife, or the oldest from my second wife, or the youngest from my first wife, who is older than all my daughters from my second wife.' Each of his daughters is Safek Mekudeshes, except for the youngest from the second wife;
1.R. Yosi says, he surely was Mekadesh the oldest from the first wife.
(d)Answer (R. Chanina ben Avdimi): The opinions of R. Meir and R. Yosi in our Mishnah should be switched.
(e)Support (Beraisa - R. Meir): Regarding anything with a fixed time, if a person said 'Ad Lifnei (until before)', he is forbidden until the end;
1.R. Yosi forbids until it starts.
3)UNTIL THE HARVEST
(a)(Mishnah): If one said 'until the harvest', 'until the grape harvest', or 'until the olive harvest', he is forbidden only until it begins;
1.The rule is, regarding anything with a fixed time, if he said 'until it comes', he is forbidden until the start. If he said 'until it will be', he is forbidden until the end;
2.Regarding anything without a fixed time, whether he said 'until it comes' or 'until it will be', he is forbidden only until the start.
(b)If one said 'until the Kayitz (cutting, i.e. summer)' or 'until it will be Kayitz', he is forbidden until people start to gather in baskets;
1.If he said 'until Kayitz passes', he is forbidden until people store away the knives used to cut figs.
(c)(Gemara - Beraisa): The Mishnah refers to a basket for figs, not for grapes.
(d)(Beraisa): If one vowed not to eat summer Peros, only figs are forbidden;
(e)R. Shimon ben Gamliel says, this includes grapes.
(f)Question: Why does the first Tana only forbid figs?
(g)Answer: He holds that figs are plucked by hand, but grapes are not.
1.R. Shimon ben Gamliel includes grapes, for these are also plucked by hand when the stems dry out.
(h)(Mishnah): If he said 'until Kayitz passes', he is forbidden until people store away the knives used to cut figs.
(i)(Beraisa): It is until most of these knives are stored away.