A VOW FROM GRAIN
(Mishnah - R. Meir): If one vowed from 'Dagan', he may not have dry Mitzri beans;
Chachamim say, he is forbidden only the five species (of grain, i.e. wheat, barley, oats, spelt, and rye).
R. Meir: If one vowed from Tevu'ah, he is forbidden only the five species, but if he vowed from Dagan, all is forbidden. He is permitted fruit (of trees) and Yerek.
(Gemara): Inference: Dagan means anything which is NiDGaN (piled).
Question (Rav Yosef): "When the matter spread, Bnei Yisrael brought many tithes - Dagan, wine, oil, and all Tevu'ah of the field."
If Dagan means anything that is piled, this includes all Tevu'ah!
Answer: "All Tevu'ah" comes to include fruits and Yerek.
(Mishnah): R. Meir says, if one vowed from Tevu'ah...
(R. Yochanan): Both Tana'im agree that if one vowed from Tevu'ah, only the five grains are forbidden.
Support (Beraisa): They agree that if one vowed from Tevu'ah, only the five grains are forbidden.
Question: This is obvious!
Answer: One might have thought that 'Tevu'ah' includes everything. The Beraisa teaches that it does not.
Question (Rav Yosef): "When the matter spread, Bnei Yisrael brought many tithes: Dagan, wine, oil, and all Tevu'ah of the field." (Dagan includes the five grains. Tevu'ah must refer to other things!)
Answer (Rava): Tevu'ah is only the five grains. "Tevu'ah of the field" includes other things.
Shmuel's son commanded (before he died) to give 13,000 Zuz to Rava, from the Alalta (increase) of Nahar Panya.
Question (Rava): What is considered Alalta?
Answer (Rav Yosef - Beraisa): They agree that if one vowed from Tevu'ah, only the five grains are forbidden. (the Aramaic translation of Tevu'ah is Alalta.)
Objection (Abaye): This does not answer the question! Tevu'ah connotes only the five grains, but Alalta includes everything!
Rava (after hearing the answer): I knew that Alalta includes all that grows. My question was whether rental of houses and ships is included.
Perhaps since houses and ships depreciate, this is not considered increase;
Or, since the depreciation is not discernible (in the short run), it is considered increase.
Rav Yosef received Rava's clarification of his question; he was upset. 'If he knows himself, why did he ask us?'
Rava came to Rav Yosef on Erev Yom Kipur (to ask forgiveness). He found Rav Yosef's attendant mixing wine for Rav Yosef (who was blind), and volunteered to mix the wine himself.
Rav Yosef (after tasting the wine): This is how Rava mixes wine! (Most used to dilute one measure of wine with two measures of water. Rava added three measures of water.)
Rava: Yes, it is me.
Rav Yosef: Explain to me the verse "From Midbar (to) Matanah, and from Matanah (to) Nachli'el, and from Nachli'el (to) Bamos."
Rava: When a person makes himself Hefker to all, like a Midbar (wilderness), Torah is given to him for a Matanah (gift). When he receives a gift of Torah, it is like a Nachalah (inheritance) to him. Once it is like an inheritance to him, he rises to Bamos (a high position).
If he raises himself (becomes haughty), Hash-m lowers him - "And from Bamos (to) ha'Gai (the valley)"; further, he will be stuck in the ground - "v'Nishkafah (this is like Iskufa, a threshold that is trampled on) on the face of ha'Yeshimon";
If he repents (from his haughtiness), Hash-m raises him - "Every Gai will be raised."
IF ONE VOWED FROM PEROS
(Beraisa): If one vowed from Dagan, he is forbidden even dry Mitzri beans. Moist beans are permitted;
He is permitted rice, and wheat cut into two, three, or four pieces.
If one vowed from Peros of the year, he is forbidden all Peros that grow in the year. He is permitted kids, lambs, milk, eggs and chicks;
If he forbade 'growth of the year', all of these are forbidden.
If one vowed from Peros of the land, all that grows from the land is forbidden. Mushrooms and truffles are permitted;
If he said 'what grows from the ground', all of them (even mushrooms and truffles) are forbidden.
Contradiction (Mishnah): The Berachah on something that does not grow from the ground is 'sheha'Kol Nihyeh bi'Dvaro';
A Beraisa teaches that one blesses sheha'Kol on salt, brine, mushrooms and truffles!
Answer (Abaye): Mushrooms and truffles grow from the ground, but they nurture from the air, not from the ground.
Question: The Mishnah discusses 'something that does not grow from the ground'!
Answer: It means, something that does not nurture from the ground.
IF ONE VOWED FROM CLOTHING
(Mishnah): If one vowed from clothing, he is permitted sackcloth, a curtain, and a blanket;
If he said 'wool will not come on me', he may cover himself with tufts of wool;
If he said 'linen will not come on me', he may cover himself with tufts of flax;
R. Yehudah says, it depends on (the situation of) the one who vowed:
If he was carrying (wool and linen) and he was sweating and stinking, and said 'wool and linen will not come on me', he may wear them, but he may not carry them on his back.
(Gemara - Beraisa): If one vowed from clothing, he is permitted sackcloth, curtains and blankets; he is forbidden a hollow belt, a belt that goes around the legs, a Skortya, a leather overgarment, socks, an apron, pants, and a hat.
Question: What is Iskorti (Skortya)?
Answer (Rabah bar bar Chanah): It is a leather garment.
(Beraisa): To shield oneself from rain, one may wear (in a Reshus ha'Rabim on Shabbos) a garment thick like sackcloth, a curtain, or a blanket, but he may not go with a box or basket or mattress;
Shepherds may go in sackcloth;
Anyone is allowed. Chachamim discussed a typical case.
(Mishnah - R. Yehudah): It depends on the one who vowed...
(Beraisa - R. Yehudah): Everything depends on the one who vowed:
If he was suffering because he was wearing wool, and vowed 'Wool will not come upon me', he may not wear it, but he may carry it;
If he was carrying flax and sweating, and said 'flax will not come upon me', he may wear it, but he may not carry it.