12TH CYCLE DEDICATION
NEDARIM 2-5 - Two weeks of study material have been dedicated by Mrs. Estanne Abraham Fawer to honor the eighth Yahrzeit of her father, Rav Mordechai ben Eliezer Zvi (Rabbi Morton Weiner) Z'L, who passed away on 18 Teves 5760. May the merit of supporting and advancing Dafyomi study -- which was so important to him -- during the weeks of his Yahrzeit serve as an Iluy for his Neshamah.

2b----------------------------------------2b

1)

WHAT MAY A WOMAN WEAR OUTSIDE ON SHABBOS? [Shabbos:carrying:decrees]

(a)

Gemara

1.

(Mishnah) Question: What may a woman wear outside (on Shabbos), and what is forbidden?

2.

Shabbos 57a - Answer: She may not go out with Totefes (the ornaments will be explained below) if they are not sewn (into a cap that covers her hair). She may not go out to Reshus ha'Rabim with Ir Shel Zahav.

3.

If she went out with any of these, she is exempt.

4.

(Rav Yehudah): Totefes is an ornament worn on the forehead.

5.

(R. Avahu): Totefes goes from one ear to the other.

6.

(Rav Huna): Poor girls make them from colored strings, rich girls make them from silver or gold.

7.

(Rabah bar bar Chanah): Ir Shel Zahav is an ornament on which Yerushalayim is depicted, like R. Akiva made for his wife.

8.

(Beraisa - R. Meir): A woman may not go out with Ir Shel Zahav. If she did, she is Chayav Chatas;

9.

Chachamim say, she may not go out with it. If she did, she is exempt;

10.

R. Eliezer permits her to go out with it.

11.

R. Meir holds that it is a load. Chachamim forbid it like other ornaments, lest she take it off to show others. R. Eliezer permits, for only very esteemed women wear it, and they do not take off ornaments to show others.

12.

(Rav): A woman may not go out with Kalila.

13.

(Shmuel): She may go out with it.

14.

Version #1: All forbid Kalila of Niska (entirely of gold and silver). They argue about Aruksa (a band with gold and gems);

i.

Rav considers the gold and gems to be primary. Shmuel considers the band to be primary.

15.

Version #2 (Rav Ashi): All permit Kalila of Aruksa. They argue about Niska;

i.

Rav is concerned lest she show it to friends. Shmuel is not concerned. Since esteemed women wear it; they will not show it to friends.

16.

Rav Shmuel bar bar Chanah (to Rav Yosef): You taught us that Rav permits Kalila!

17.

Levi expounded in Neharda'a that Kalila is permitted. Twenty-four women went out with Kalilos in the city.

18.

Rabah bar Avuha expounded in Mechuza that Kalila is permitted. Eighteen women went out with Kalilos in one alleyway.

19.

46b (Beraisa): Bracelets, nose-rings and rings are like regular Kelim. One may move them in a Chatzer.

20.

Sotah 49a (Mishnah): During Titus' siege, they decreed against brides' crowns.

21.

49b (Rabah bar Rav Huna): This is Ir Shel Zahav.

(b)

Rishonim

1.

Rif and Rosh (Shabbos 26b and 6:4): Ir Shel Zahav depicts Yerushalayim. It is what R. Akiva made for his wife. Rav forbids Kalila. Shmuel permits: All forbid Kalila of Niska. They argue about Ruksa. Rav considers the gold and gems to be primary. Shmuel considers the band to be primary (therefore she will not show it - Rosh). Rav Ashi says that all permit Kalila of Aruksa. They argue about Niska: Rav forbids lest she show it to friends. Shmuel is not concerned, since it is worn by esteemed women, who will not show it. Rav Shmuel bar bar Chanah said that Rav Yosef taught that Rav permits Kalila. Levi expounded that Kalila is permitted. This is the Halachah. Niska is a string, i.e. punctured pieces on a cloth held in place by a thread. Ruksa is a cloth on which pieces are fixed.

2.

Rosh: Rashi says that Ir Shel Zahav is a round ornament with a city depicted on it. It has a strip in the middle, used to attach it to a garment. R. Tam says that it is like a crown for the head, like it says in Sotah.

i.

Hagahos Ashri: The decree (during Titus' siege) was only against Kalos' crowns. Other women may wear them on weekdays.

3.

Rosh: Shmuel permits only Kalila, and R. Eliezer permits only Ir Shel Zahav. Only distinguished women wear them, therefore it is permitted for them. Other ornaments are forbidden even to distinguished women. Chachamim do not argue. Ula (46b) permits moving bracelets and rings on Shabbos because they are considered Kelim. If distinguished women may wear them in a Chatzer, he would not need to say that they are considered Kelim! Rav Yosef had taught that Rav permits Kalila. This is like the lenient version of Rav Ashi: Rav permits Aruksa, and forbids Niska. The Halachah follows Rav, who forbids Kalila (Niska).

i.

Ba'al ha'Ma'or: The Rif did not explain the Halachah. We learn that a woman may go out with gold or silver ornaments in which the pieces are inserted in or attached to a garment and spread out, like Aruksa. Ornaments entirely of gold or silver are forbidden, like Niska and Ir Shel Zahav. Both of them are permitted for men, who do not take off things to show them. The only concern is lest they drop, and he come to carry them. Women may wear in a Chatzer something for which she would be liable in Reshus ha'Rabim. We forbid in a Chatzer only what is forbidden in Reshus ha'Rabim only mid'Rabanan, lest she take it to Reshus ha'Rabim.

4.

Rambam (Hilchos Shabbos 19:6): A woman may not go out with a plate between her eyes, nor with a crown of gold on her head.

5.

Rambam (10): She may go out with a golden Kalila on her head, for only distinguished women wear them, and they do not normally remove ornaments to show them. She may go out with a golden plate if it is sewn in her cap.

(c)

Poskim

1.

Shulchan Aruch (303:4): A woman may not go out with Ir Shel Zahav. Rashi says that it is a round ornament with a city depicted on it. It has a strip in the middle, used to attach it to a garment. R. Tam says that it is like a crown for the head.

i.

Mishnah Berurah (14,15): Even though only distinguished women wear it, we are concerned lest she show it off, for it is more important than Kalila. It can be removed, even according to Rashi, who says that it is attached by a strap.

2.

Shulchan Aruch (5): Kalila is an ornament on the forehead from ear to ear. She ties it with hanging straps. She may go out with it, whether it is made of pieces of gold threaded on a string, or pieces fixed on a cloth.

i.

Beis Yosef (DH Kalila): This is unlike Totefes, which is not tied, rather, it rests on her forehead. If she wants to tie it, she ties it to her cap. Kalila is always tied, through hanging straps, but not to her cap. The Rosh rules like Rav according to Rav Ashi, so Niska is forbidden. It seems that the Rif and Rambam permit even Niska, because Levi permitted Kalila without distinction.

ii.

Gra: This is unlike Rashi, who says that Levi permitted Aruksa, and does not argue with Rav.

iii.

Mishnah Berurah (16): The Poskim say that other ornaments, which all women normally wear, are forbidden even to distinguished women. Chachamim made a uniform decree.

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