[48a - 30 lines; 48b - 37 lines]

1)[line 3]NIG'AM

See Background to Nazir 43:11.


See Background to Nazir 43:13.

3)[line 10]MUFNEH

(a)MUFNEH MI'SHENEI TZEDADIM - If two similar words in the Torah are free of any Derashah, they may be used unconditionally for the inference of a Gezeirah Shavah between the two topics.

(b)MUFNEH MI'TZAD ECHAD - If only one of the words is free, there is a Machlokes whether they may be used unconditionally for the inference of a Gezeirah Shavah (Lemedin v'Ein Meshivin), or if they can only be used for a Gezeirah Shavah if we have no logical argument against learning the Gezeirah Shavah (Lemedin u'Meshivin).

(c)EINO MUFNEH KOL IKAR - If both words are used for another Derashah, there is a Machlokes whether they can only be used for a Gezeirah Shavah if we have no logical argument not to learn the Gezeirah Shavah, or if they cannot be used at all for a Gezeirah Shavah.

4)[line 18]"[] [ ] ""[U']MAKEH NEFESH BEHEMAH [YESHALMENAH; NEFESH TACHAS NAFESH.]"- "And he who strikes mortally the life of a beast [shall make restitution; a life for a life.]" (Vayikra 24:18) - i.e. he must pay its market value

5a)[line 21] HA'METAM'OS B'VI'AH- that make a person Tamei when he comes into the same room or house where their dead bodies lay, as opposed to the carcasses of animals that are Tamei with Tum'as Neveilah (see next entry, (f) and (g)) and not Tum'as Ohel


(a)TUM'AS OHEL - A k'Zayis of the flesh of a Mes (corpse) is an "Avi Avos ha'Tumah" and is Metamei through Maga (contact), Masa (carrying), and Ohel (being in the same room (lit. tent); an Ohel is defined as a covered space that is at least one Tefach in length, width and height). If a person becomes Tamei by touching a Mes, he must wait seven days to go to the Mikvah. Furthermore, on the third and seventh days he must have Mei Chatas (water mixed with ashes of the Parah Adumah) sprinkled on him.

(b)In an Ohel ha'Mes, the house or room becomes Tamei even if the Mes is passing through it and does not stop moving. A person who enters an Ohel ha'Mes becomes Tamei even if only a bit of his body enters, even when entering backwards. A Mechitzah (partition) in an Ohel ha'Mes only prevents the spread of Tum'ah if it reaches the ceiling. (RASH to Keilim 1:4)

(c)The bones of a Mes are only Metamei through Ohel under one of three conditions: 1. They constitute a quarter of a Kav (Rova ha'Kav); 2. They are the majority of the human body (whether they are the majority of the build (Rov Binyano) of the body or the majority of the number (Rov Minyano) of 248 bones; 3. The bone is a complete skull or a complete spinal column. In order to be Metamei through Maga and Masa, it is enough for the bone to be the size of a Se'orah (a grain of barley).

(d)When an object that can be Metamei b'Ohel is located in an Ohel, the Ohel makes everything in it Tamei and protects anything that is above it from becoming Tamei. That is, an Ohel is Mevi Tum'ah (spreads Tum'ah inside of it) and is Chotzetz from Tum'ah (intervenes between the Tum'ah and the space above the Ohel, preventing Tum'ah from spreading above it).

(e)However, not all objects that cover Tum'ah are Mevi and Chotzetz. There are objects that are Mevi and not Chotzetz and other objects that are Chotzetz and not Mevi and even others that are neither Mevi nor Chotzetz (Ohalos 8:5). An object that is flying through the air, such as a bird or a Talis that is carried or caught up by the wind, is not an Ohel and is not Mevi or Chotzetz, even if it is one Tefach wide.

(f)TUM'AS NEVEILAH - A Neveilah is a carcass of an animal that died without a Halachic slaughtering. A k'Zayis or more of a Neveilah makes an object Tamei through Maga (contact) and Masa (carrying). At the time that a person is carrying a Neveilah, any clothing or utensils (besides earthenware) that he is touching become Tamei as if the Neveilah itself had touched the clothing or utensil.

(g)If a person becomes Tamei by touching a Neveilah he can immediately go to the Mikvah. He becomes Tahor at nightfall and may eat Terumah or Kodshim.

6a)[line 23] AD SHE'LO YOMAR- before you say [that you must learn from a verse that a Nazir may become Tamei for a Mes Mitzvah - TOSFOS]

b)[line 23] YESH LI B'DIN- I could learn it from a Kal va'Chomer


7)[line 3]KELALOS- general prohibitions

8)[line 7] O KALECH L'DERECH ZU- or perhaps turn this way, i.e. argue the following