The reference numbers below that appear in parentheses (e.g., TY #43) represent vessels or parts of the structure of the Beis ha'Mikdash. The labeling follows that of the diagram of the Tiferes Yisrael. This diagram, which has been included in a separate mailing and can also be found on our site (at, is printed both in the Tiferes Yisrael Mishnayos (Midos Chapter 2 or following Midos) and in Rav P. Kahati's Mishnayos (page 290, at the beginning of Midos).

[47a - 29 lines; 47b - 30 lines]

1)[line 4]HA'TARMODIS- from Tarmod (or Tadmor) = Palmyra, an oasis in the Syrian desert)

2a)[line 9] ACHAR MELOS- [becoming Tamei Mes] after the completion of his Nezirus

b)[line 9] SHIV'AH SOSER- cancels seven [days of Nezirus which must be made up]



The Torah forbids Kohanim (Vayikra 21:1-4) and Nezirim (Bamidbar 6:6-7) from coming into contact with corpses. An ordinary Kohen is concurrently commanded to handle the burial of his mother, father, son, daughter, brother, sister from his father (if she is an unmarried virgin), and wife (if the wife is permitted to be married to him). The Kohen Gadol, as well as Nezirim, however, may not even become Teme'im for these relatives.

4)[line 19] MES MITZVAH

(a)When a dead Jew is found unattended and an attempt to determine who his relatives are brings about no response, the dead body is called a Mes Mitzvah. The person who found the body is obligated to bury it. (RAMBAM Hilchos Avel 3:8)

(b)The body must be buried where it is found Mes Mitzvah Koneh Mekomo; i.e. it "acquires the place where it rests." Even if it is found in the middle of a field, it is buried there. However, if the body is found within 2000 Amos of a Jewish community, it must be buried in the community cemetery. (RAMBAM Hilchos Tum'as Mes 8:7)

5)[last line] MASHU'ACH B'SHEMEN HA'MISHCHAH- the Kohen Gadol who is anointed with the Shemen ha'Mishchah (see next entry)



(a)A Kohen who becomes the Kohen Gadol must wear the eight vestments of the Kohen Gadol and do the Avodah for seven consecutive days to indicate his consecration, as stated in Shemos 29:30, "Shiv'as Yamim...." (RAMBAM Hilchos Klei ha'Mikdash 4:13)

(b)The eight vestments are 1. Tzitz (forehead-plate), 2. Efod (apron), 3. Choshen (breastplate), 4. Me'il (robe), 5. Kutones (long shirt), 6. Michnasayim (breeches), 7. Avnet (belt), 8. Mitznefes (turban).

(c)The vestments of the ordinary Kohanim are 1. Kutones (long shirt), 2. Michnasayim (breeches), 3. Avnet (belt), 4. Migba'as (hat).

(d)The Kohen Gadol is also known as the Kohen Mashi'ach since he was anointed with the Shemen ha'Mishchah (Shemos 30:22-33), the oil made by Moshe Rabeinu for anointing the Mishkan and its vessels, the Kohanim Gedolim, and the kings of the Davidic dynasty.

(e)Before the destruction of the first Beis Ha'Mikdash, King Yoshiyahu ordered the Aron to be hidden to prevent its capture (Divrei ha'Yamim II 35:3). The jar of Manna (Shemos 16:32-34), Aharon's staff (Bamidbar 16:16-26), and the Shemen ha'Mishchah were also hidden together with the Aron (Yoma 52b). As a result, there was no Shemen ha'Mishchah with which to anoint the Kohanim Gedolim during the final years of the first Beis ha'Mikdash and all of the years of the second Beis Ha'Mikdash. The Kohanim Gedolim at the time of the second Beis ha'Mikdash are called Merubeh Begadim because they were consecrated solely by wearing the Bigdei Kehunah for seven days.


(a)The Par Kohen Mashi'ach is the young bull brought as a Korban Chatas by a Kohen Gadol who transgresses an Isur Kares thinking that the Torah did not prohibit such an act. (The bull is brought by a Kohen Gadol for the same sins that a Par He'elem Davar is brought when the people commit transgressions upon being misled by Beis Din in a Halachic matter.)

(b)The blood of the bull is sprinkled seven times on the Paroches, and is applied to the Keranos (raised corners) of the Mizbe'ach ha'Ketores in the Heichal. The Sheyarei ha'Dam (the remainder of the blood) is poured on the Western Yesod (foundation) of the Mizbe'ach while the Eimurim are offered on the Mizbe'ach ha'Chitzon.

(c)The meat of the bull, together with the other parts that are not sacrificed, is burned outside of the city of Yerushalayim (Vayikra 4:3-12). Those who carry the carcass out of the Azarah are Metamei Begadim. (According to Rebbi Shimon, Yoma 67b, those who are involved in burning the meat are Metamei Begadim.)

8)[line 4] MASHU'ACH SHE'AVAR - The anointed Kohen Gadol who is removed

(a)When an incumbent Kohen Gadol becomes unfit to perform the Avodah in the Beis ha'Mikdash, another Kohen Gadol is appointed as a temporary replacement. After the reinstatement of the incumbent Kohen Gadol, his replacement becomes a Mashu'ach she'Avar and he is forced to step down.

(b)He no longer does the Avodah as a Kohen Gadol to prevent Eivah (enmity) of the present Kohen Gadol (until the present Kohen Gadol dies, when the Mashu'ach she'Avar may take his place). He also does not perform the Avodah as a Kohen Hedyot because Ma'alin b'Kodesh v'Lo Moridin (when a person or object receives a higher status of holiness, we do not lower its status at a later time; we may only raise it to a higher level). (If the period of replacement lasted for some years, the returning Kohen Gadol does not have the power to remove his replacement entirely; rather, both of them continue to serve as Kohanim Gedolim TOSFOS DH v'Chen.)

9a)[line 6] AVAR MACHMAS KEIRUYO- he stepped down temporarily because of Tum'as Keri


A man who has emitted Keri (semen) becomes a Rishon l'Tum'ah. He may not enter the Machaneh Leviyah (i.e. the Temple Mount), nor may he eat Ma'aser, Terumah, or Kodshim. After he immerses in a Mikvah during the day, he becomes Tahor and may eat Ma'aser and enter Machaneh Leviyah once again (mid'Oraisa the Rabanan however prohibited him from entering the Ezras Nashim (TY #10) until nightfall). He remains a "Tevul Yom" until nightfall, after which he may once again eat Terumah or Kodshim.

10)[line 7] MACHMAS MUMO

(a)It is forbidden for a Kohen who has a Mum (blemish) to do the Avodah in the Beis ha'Mikdash, whether the Mum is a Mum Kavu'a (a permanent blemish; e.g. an amputated hand or foot) or a Mum Over (a temporary blemish; e.g. boils). (According to the Rambam, this is counted as two Lavin (#70 and 71). According to the Ramban, they are counted as one Lav.)

(b)There are three types of blemishes (Bechoros 43a): 1. blemishes that invalidate a Kohen from doing the Avodah or invalidate an animal from being offered as a sacrifice on the Mizbe'ach; 2. blemishes that only invalidate a Kohen but not an animal; 3. blemishes that invalidate a Kohen and also an animal but only because of Mar'is ha'Ayin (for appearance sake).

(c)If a Kohen who had a Mum did the Avodah: 1. if he had a Mum that invalidates Kohanim and animals, his Avodah is Pesulah whether he did it b'Shogeg or b'Mezid, and he receives Malkos if he did it b'Mezid; 2. if he had a Mum that only invalidates Kohanim, his Avodah is Kesheirah (RAMBAM Hilchos Bi'as ha'Mikdash 6:6); 3. if he had a Mum that only invalidates him because of Mar'is ha'Ayin, he does not receive Malkos and his Avodah is Kesheirah. (Sefer ha'Chinuch #275, 276)

11)[line 10]SEGAN- the deputy Kohen Gadol, who has been prepared to officiate in place of the Kohen Gadol, should he become unfit to do the Avodah (RASHI to Sotah 40b). According to the Girsa in Yoma 39a, he always stays at the Kohen Gadol's right-hand side.

12)[line 17]HACHAYOSO- keeping him alive [if they are both in danger]