MOED KATAN 19 (4 Elul) - dedicated l'Iluy Nishmas Chaim Yissachar (ben Yaakov) Smulewitz of Cleveland on his Yahrzeit, by his daughter and son in law, Jeri & Eli Turkel of Raanana, Israel.

[19a - 29 lines; 19b - 38 lines]

1)[line 1]וטווה על יריכוTOVEH AL YEREICHO- one may spin [through rolling with one's hands] on his thigh (as opposed to between his fingers or with a spindle, which were the standard ways of doing so)

2)[line 3]תכלת לציציתוTECHELES L'TZITZISO- [wool into threads] for Tzitzis [some of which will be] dyed greenish-blue [with dye produced by a mollusk called the Chilazon (possibly the snail murex trunculus)]

3)[line 3]בטובהB'TOVAH- as a favor [without remuneration]

4a)[line 4]מעריםMA'ARIM- one may act deceptively

b)[line 4]ומוכר את שלוU'MOCHER ES SHELO- and [repeatedly] sell his own [Tefilin, etc.]

5)[line 6]כדי פרנסתוKEDEI PARNASASO- (a) enough to purchase even that which goes beyond his basic needs for the festival [such as meat and wine, for if he did not have enough even for his basic needs, then all Melachah would be permitted] (RASHI, ROSH, NIMUKEI YOSEF); (b) enough to cover only his most basic needs for the festival (second explanation of TOSFOS DH Rebbi Yosi)

6)[line 6]אוריORI- ruled

7)[line 10]באבןB'EVEN- with a stone [tied to the wool in order to stretch it taut while it is spun]

8)[line 12]משמוMI'SHMO- in the name of Rebbi Eliezer

9)[line 12]בפלךPELACH- spindle


(a)One who loses his father, mother, brother, sister, son, daughter, or spouse is obligated to bury his dead relative and then observe specific laws of mourning. Until the burial, one has the status of an Onen (see Background to Yoma 13:23). After the burial, his status changes to that of an Avel.

(b)For the following twelve months, an Avel may not buy new clothing nor attend weddings or other celebrations. For the first thirty days (Sheloshim), in addition to these restrictions, he may not receive a haircut nor iron his clothing. Additionally, for the first seven days (Shiv'ah), he must refrain from bathing, washing his clothing, anointing himself with oils, wearing leather shoes, and performing Melachah.

11)[line 17]שלשה ימיםSHELOSHAH YAMIM- The first three days of Shiv'ah constitute the main period of mourning.

12)[line 18]בטלה הימנו גזרת שבעהBATLAH HEIMENU GEZEIRAS SHIV'AH- he no longer observes the Shiv'ah period

13a)[line 19]שבת עולה ואינה מפסקתSHABBOS OLAH V'EINAH MAFSEKES- Shabbos counts [as one of the days of Aveilus], and does not interrupt [Shiv'ah or Sheloshim]

b)[line 20]רגלים מפסיקין ואינן עוליןREGALIM MAFSIKIN V'EINAM OLIM- festivals interrupt [Shiv'ah or Sheloshim], and do not count [toward the days of Aveilus] (see Insights)

14)[line 21]עצרתATZERES- the festival of Shavuos. The reason why Rebbi Eliezer differentiates between Shavuos during the times of the Beis ha'Mikdash and Shavuos after its destruction is that when the Beis ha'Mikdash was standing, one was able to offer his Olas Re'iyah on Shavuos as well as at any point over the following six days. Every Jewish male is required to offer this Korban on each of the three festivals. As such, Shavuos had the same seven-day status as Pesach and Sukos, and was able to interrupt Aveilus. When there are no Korbanos, Rebbi Eliezer rules that Shavuos has the same status as Shabbos, which is also one day.

15a)[line 25]גזרת בטלוGEZERAS BATLU- the prohibition of [Sheloshim] is annulled [during the festival]

b)[line 26]ימים לא בטלוYAMIM LO BATLU- the days [of Sheloshim] themselves are not annulled[; rather, they resume following the festival]

16)[line 28]מאי טעמה ימים לא בטלו?MAI TAIMA YAMIM LO BATLU?- regarding what laws are the days [of Sheloshim] not annulled?

17)[last line]גילחGILACH- cut his hair


18)[line 1]והתניאVEHA'TANYA- This Beraisa is offered as proof of the Gemara's thesis.

19)[line 6]שמצות שלשהMITZVAS SHELOSHAH- [that which one has] observed [the Shiv'ah period for at least] three [days]

20)[line 15]כיון שעמדו מנחמין מאצלוKEIVAN SHE'AMDU MENACHAMIN ME'ETZLO- once those who have come to comfort him have left [partway into the seventh day]

21)[line 24]יליף פרע פרעYALIF PERA PERA (GEZEIRAH SHAVAH)

(a)In a Beraisa found in the introduction to the Sifra (the Halachic Midrash on Vayikra), Rebbi Yishmael lists the thirteen methodologies employed by Chazal when determining Halachah from the verses of the Torah. One of these is Gezeirah Shavah, through which two identical words (or two words that share the same root) appearing in two different sections of the Torah teach us that Halachos of one apply to the other and vice versa.

(b)One may apply a Gezeirah Shavah only if he has received a tradition from his teachers that the connection between the two words exists. Once the connection is established, however, then one may apply it to derive Halachos for which one did not necessarily receive a tradition.

(c)A Gezeirah Shavah is unlimited; one may not pick and choose which Halachos he would like to apply to the other connected subject. This facet of a Gezeirah Shavah is termed "Ein Gezeirah Shavah l'Mechetzah." This rule is waived in the case of an explicit teaching that precludes the application of a specific Halachah.

(d)There are three possible configurations for a Gezeirah Shavah:

1.MUFNEH MI'SHNEI TZEDADIM - If both words are seemingly unnecessary and are not used in the derivation of any other teaching, then all of the rules described above apply.

2.MUFNEH MI'TZAD ECHAD - If the word in only one of the sections is available, some maintain that such a Gezeirah Shavah is no more limited than one that is Mufneh mi'Shnei Tzedadim. Others rule that Halachos may be derived from such a Gezeirah Shavah only if there is no argument against them. This status is known as "Lemedin u'Meshivin."

3.EINO MUFNEH KOL IKAR - If neither word is free, then those opinions who maintain that a Gezeirah Shavah that is Mufneh mi'Tzad Echad is unlimited grant such a Gezeirah Shavah the status of Lemedin u'Meshivin. Those who applied Lemedin u'Meshivin to a Gezeirah Shavah that is Mufneh mi'Shnei Tzedadim rule that this one may not be used to determine any Halachos whatsoever.

22)[line 24]מנזירNAZIR

See Background to 13:53.

23)[line 24]"ראשיכם אל תפרעו...""ROSHEICHEM AL TIFRA'U..."- "[And Moshe said to Aharon and his sons Elazar and Isamar,] 'Do not let your hair grow long [nor rend your clothing...']." (Vayikra 10:6) - This verse follows the death of Nadav and Avihu (see Background to Sukah 25:20). Since HaSh-m needed to specify that they should not take these actions, it is apparent that other mourners should do them.

24)[line 25]"קדש יהיה גדל פרע שער ראשו""[KADOSH YIHEYEH,] GADEL PERA SE'AR ROSHO"- "[... he shall be holy,] and he shall grow the hair of his hair long." (Bamidbar 6:5) - This verse describes a Nazir.

25)[line 26]סתם נזירות שלשים יוםSTAM NEZIRUS SHELOSHIM YOM- one who vows to become a Nazir for an unspecified length of time is a Nazir for thirty days

26)[line 27]תלתיןTELASIN- thirty

27)[line 33]קברוKAVRO- if [one's relative] was buried

28)[line 35]דקא נהגא מצות שלשיםD'KA NAHAGA MITZVAS SHELOSHIM- for that which is forbidden during the period of Sheloshim (e.g., taking a haircut and washing clothing) is also forbidden [on Chol ha'Mo'ed]

29)[last line]בצינעאB'TZIN'A- in private

30)[last line]ואין רבים מתעסקין עמוEIN RABIM MIS'ASKIM IMO- there is no obligation upon others to comfort him