1)

STANDING FOR CHACHAMIM Yerushalmi Bikurim Perek 3 Halachah 3 Daf 11a)

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(a)

Question: (The Mishnah said that the leaders... go out to greet them, according to the honor of those who enter.) Is there small and big in Yisrael?! (Anyone doing a Mitzvah should be honored!)

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(b)

Answer: Our Mishnah refer to multitudes. According to the number of those who enter, so people go out [to greet them].

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(c)

Question: (Why do the craftsmen desist from work?) Was it not taught "Takum v'Hadarta" - just like there is no monetary loss in rising [for a Chacham], also the honor [one must show] is without monetary loss!

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(d)

Answer: Here is different, for it is once in a while.

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(e)

(R. Yosi bei R. Bun citing Rav Huna bar Chiya): See how great is the power of those who do Mitzvos! [Craftsmen] do not rise for Chachamim, but they rise for those who do Mitzvos!

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(f)

(R. Yosi bei R. Bun): These people who rise in front of a Mes [being brought for burial] - they do not rise for the Mes, rather, for these who bestow Chesed with [the Mes]!

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(g)

Question: Until how much must one rise for a Chacham?

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(h)

Answer #1 (Shimon bar Ba citing R. Yochanan): It is twice a day.

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(i)

Answer #2 (R. Lazar): It is once a day.

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(j)

Question (Beraisa - R. Shimon ben Elazar): What is the source that a Zaken should not burden (cause that people must rise for him)? "Zaken v'Yaresa me'Elokecha Ani Hash-m";

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1.

According to R. Yirmeyah, this is fine (if one already rose today, the Chacham should not cause him to rise again). According to R. Lazar, will he never rise?!

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(k)

Answer (R. Yakov bar Acha citing R. Lazar): [A Chacham] may not see a group of elders and pass by, so they will stand for him.

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(l)

Just like they argue here [about rising for a Chacham], so they argue about [how often one] greets him with Shalom.

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(m)

(R. Chizkiyah citing R. Chanina brei d'R. Avahu citing Rav Avduma of Chaifa): For a Chacham, [the Shi'ur to stand is when he is] four Amos [away]. If he passed, he may sit;

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1.

The Nasi, [one must stand] from when he sees him until he is covered from him (out of sight. We explained this like SHA'AREI TORAS ERETZ YISRAEL.)

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2.

What is the source? "V'Hayah k'Tzeis Moshe El ha'Ohel Yakumu Kol ha'Am..."

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3.

Two Amora'im [argued about this]. One explained for praise - [they said] 'see this Tzadik brings merit [to others]!'

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4.

The one who explained for detriment - see [the thickness of] his thighs and his feet! He ate from the Yehudim (their donations for the Mishkan), he drank from the Yehudim. All his [property] is from the Yehudim!

i.

Note: Every Yisrael left Mitzrayim with 90 donkeys of silver, gold and clothing. That would suffice to eat constantly, without taking from Yisrael! However, when others were taking from the Mitzriyim, Moshe went to get Yosef's bones. I have no source whether or not Moshe took booty after Keri'as Yam Suf, but he forced Yisrael [who already took more than they took from Mitzrayim] to leave.

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(n)

The Aron [in the Mikdash] faces the people. The Kohanim (when they give Birkas Kohanim) face the people, and Yisrael face the [Aron] Kodesh. (MEICHAL HA'MAYIM - presumably, this belongs above, to show that a Chacham should not cause others to rise for him. We find that honor of the Rabim is so great that Kohanim turn their backs to the Aron, in order to honor the Tzibur and face them!)

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(o)

(R. Lazar): Torah (one who is learning) does not stand for its son (a Chacham).

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(p)

(Shmuel): One does not stand for a colleague [who is not a Chacham].

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1.

R. Heila and R. Yakov bar Idi were sitting [and learning]; Shmuel bar Ba passed, and they stood in front of him;

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2.

Shmuel bar Ba: There are two reasons [you did improperly]. Firstly, I am not a Chacham. Secondly, Torah does not stand in front of its son!

(q)

R. Ze'ira: R. Acha would interrupt [learning] and stand [for a Chachamim], for he was concerned for [the latter opinion in] the following Beraisa;

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1.

(Beraisa): People who write Seforim, Tefilin and Mezuzos interrupt for Keri'as Shma, and they do not interrupt for Tefilah;

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2.

R. Chananyah ben Akavyah says, just like they interrupt for Keri'as Shma, so they interrupt for Tefilah, Tefilin and other Torah Mitzvos.

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3.

Chizkiyah b'Ribi Chiya Rabah, when he was too weary to learn Torah, he would sit in front of the Beis Midrash in order to see Chachamim and stand in front of them.

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(r)

Yehudah bar Chiyah was learning. He would leave to greet R. Yanai his father-in-law every Erev Shabbos. [R. Yanai] sat in a high place, to see him [from afar] and rise in front of him;

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1.

Question (R. Yanai's Talmidim): Did not Rebbi (you) not teach us that for a Chacham, [the Shi'ur to stand is when he is] four Amos [away]?

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2.

Answer (R. Yanai): One does not sit in front of Sinai (an exceptional Chacham).

i.

Note: Since Yehudah was going to greet R. Yanai, it seems that R. Yanai sat in a high place in order to stand for him. If so, R. Yanai considered Yehudah greater than himself. Erchei Tana'im v'Amora'im (Yehudah, Beno Shel R. Chiya) explains like this, but points out that Chulin 20a connotes that R. Yanai was greater than him. (Perhaps that was in Yehudah's youth, and afterwards, he became greater than R. Yanai - PF.)

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(s)

Once, [Yehudah] delayed coming. [R. Yanai] said, is it possible that Yehudah my son[-in-law] deviates from his custom?! It is not possible that afflictions did not come upon that righteous body? Presumably, we do not have Yehudah bar Rebbi [Chiya, i.e. he died. The Bavli says that b'Shogeg, his words helped cause his death.]

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(t)

R. Meir would see even an old Am ha'Aretz and stand for him. He said, not for naught did he live so long!

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(u)

R. Chanina would hit one who did not stand for him. He would tell him, do you want to nullify a Torah Mitzvah?!

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(v)

(R. Simon): Ha'Kadosh Baruch Hu said "Mipnei Seivah Takum v'Hadarta Pnei Zaken v'Yaresa me'Elokecha Ani Hash-m" - I (Hash-m) am the One who first fulfilled standing in front of a Chacham (Avraham)!

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(w)

When the Nasi enters, everyone stands in front of him, and no one may sit until he tells them 'sit';

" ( ) [" - " " "]

(x)

When the Av Beis Din enters, they make one rows for him here and one here. He enters between them [and everyone not in the two rows may sit - HA'GAON RAV C. KANIEVSKY, SHLITA] until he reaches his place. We explained this like GRA.)

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(y)

When a Chacham enters, one stands (when he comes within his four Amos) and one sits (when he leaves his four Amos - MEROMEI SADEH Horiyos 13b), one stands and one sits, until he reaches his place and sits in his place.

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(z)

R. Meir would go to the Beis Midrash, and everyone who saw him stood in front of him. When they heard this Beraisa [that when a Chacham enters, one stands and one sits], they wanted to do so for him. He was angry, and he left. He told them, I heard that we ascend in Kedushah, and do not descend (you may not show less honor for me than you used to)!

2)

APPOINTMENT OF CHACHAMIM (Yerushalmi Bikurim Perek 3 Halachah 3 Daf 11b)

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(a)

R. Ze'ira, they wanted to appoint him [to be a Chacham], and he did not want to accept on himself. When he heard a Tana teach that Beraisa [that a Chacham, Chasan and Nasi, greatness atones, he accepted the appointment.

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(b)

Source: A Chacham [gets atonement, for it says] "Mipnei Seivah Takum v'Hadarta Pnei Zaken." What does it say afterwards? "V'Chi Yagur Itcha Ger b'Artzechem Lo Sonu Oso" - just like a convert, all his Aveiros are pardoned, also a Chacham who is appointed, all his Aveiros are pardoned;

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1.

A Chasan [gets atonement, for it says] "va'Yelech Esav El va'Yikach Es Machalas Bas Yishmael" - was her name Machalas? Her name was Basmas! Rather, this teaches that all his Aveiros were pardoned.

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2.

A Nasi [gets atonement, for it says] "Ben Shanah Sha'ul b'Malcho" - was he one year old?! Rather, all his Aveiros were pardoned, like a one year old baby. (R. AVRAHAM BEN HA'RAMBAM - the simple meaning is, he had been king for one year at the time.)

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(c)

R. Mana disgraced those who are appointed through money (bribes).

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(d)

R. Imi applied to them "Elohei Chesef vEi'lohei Zahav Lo Sa'asu Lachem." (The word Elohim can refer to judges, e.g. "v'Nikrav Ba'al ha'Bayis El ha'Elohim" - Shemos 22:7.)

[ ( )] " ' .

(e)

(R. Yoshiyah): The Talis on [such a person] is like a donkey's saddle. (A stain on it is a Chatzitzah only if it is on both sides, like an Am ha'Aretz' garment (Shabbos 114a), i.e. he is not dignified at all - MESHECH CHACHMAH Shemos 20:20.)

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(f)

(R. Shein): One who is appointed through money, we do not stand in front of him, and we do not call him Rebbi, and the Talis on him is like a donkey's saddle.

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(g)

R. Ze'ira and one of them Rabanan were sitting, and one of those appointed through money passed. The one of the Rabanan [with R. Ze'ira] said 'let us appear as if we are learning, and we will not stand in front of him!' (Presumably, he wanted to appear as if they were learning to avoid animosity - PF.)

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(h)

(An ignorant Nasi was appointed through money. He did not know what to tell the translator.) Yakov Ish Kefar Nevuriya 'translated' (expounded on his own) "Hoy Omer la'Etz Hakitzah Uri la'Even Domem Hu Yoreh" - does he know how to rule?! "Hu Tafus Zahav v'Chesef" - was he not appointed through money?! "V'Chol Ru'ach Ein b'Kirbo" - he is not a Chacham at all;

(' - " ) ' ' .

1.

You should have appointed "va'Shem b'Heichal Kodsho" - R. Yitzchak bar Lazar is in the Beis ha'Keneses of the gate of Kisarin!

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(i)

Question (R. Ami, to R. Simon): Did you hear that we appoint Chachamim in Chutz la'Aretz?

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(j)

Answer (R. Simon): I heard that we do not appoint Chachamim in Chutz la'Aretz.

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(k)

(R. Levi): Does not a verse explicitly teach this? "Ben Adam Beis Yisrael Yoshvim Al Admasam" - all your Yeshivah (appointment of Chachamim) is only in your land.

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(l)

(Rabanan of Kisarin): We appoint Chachamim in Chutz la'Aretz on condition to return [the Semichah to Eretz Yisrael, i.e. the Nismach can be Somech others only in Eretz Yisrael - MAHARA FULDA].

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(m)

R. Yitzchak bar Nachman was in Aza, and they appointed him on condition to return.

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(n)

R. Zamina was in Tzur, and they appointed him on condition to return.

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(o)

R. Yonah had a note [saying that he was worthy to be appointed], yet he did not accept appointment. He said, 'until my Rebbi (R. Ze'ira) will appoint me', and his Rebbi appointed him. (R. SHLOMO SIRILIYO)

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(p)

R. Chama: Yehudah ben Titus was in Romi, and they appointed him on condition to return.

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(q)

Shimon bar Va was in Damaskus (R. SHLOMO SIRILIYO). People smaller than himself were appointed, and he was not appointed.

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(r)

Shimon bar Va was expert in pearls and in every matter, and he did not have a loaf to eat. R. Yochanan applied to him "v'Gam Lo l'Chachamim Lechem."

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(s)

[R. Yochanan] said, one who does not recognize the deeds of Avraham (to which one should aspire), he should recognize the deeds of this one's (Shimon bar Va's) ancestors.

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(t)

Shimon bar Va was in Damaskus, and R. Avahu sent to him one letter, and he put in it from his white hair - due to this white hair (out of respect for my age), come to Eretz Yisrael (and help me run the Yeshivah - MAHARA FULDA)!

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1.

R. Avahu: Who will remove the earth from your eyes, R. Yochanan! Avahu, the less important was appointed, and Shimon, the greater Chacham, was not appointed! (Just like you attributed his poverty to his Mazal, also he was not appointed due to his Mazal. - PF)