MENACHOS 96 - dedicated by Mrs. Rita Grunberger of Queens, N.Y., in loving memory of her husband, Reb Yitzchok Yakov ben Eliyahu Grunberger. Irving Grunberger helped many people quietly in an unassuming manner and he is dearly missed by all who knew him. His Yahrzeit is 10 Sivan.

[96a - 48 lines; 96b - 29 lines]

1)[line 1] MESUKAN HU- his life was in danger

2)[line 1] B'GEMARA PELIGEI- [and Rebbi Yehudah and Rebbi Shimon do not argue with regard to the explanation of the verses recorded in the previous Amud (95b), but actually] argue with regard to the tradition that each one received from his Rebbi. (Rebbi Yehudah was taught that the oven of Hekdesh consecrates the Lechem ha'Panim while Rebbi Shimon was taught that it does not; placing the Lechem ha'Panim on the Shulchan consecrates them.)


(a)The Minchas Chavitin is brought by the Kohen Gadol every day. It consists of 1/10 of an Eifah (approximately 2.16, 2.49 or 4.32 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) of wheat flour made into twelve wafers or rolls. They were fried in olive oil in a flat pan after being boiled and baked (this is the ruling of the RAMBAM, but see Menachos 50b). Next, the rolls are folded without breaking them (Pesisah). Levonah is added, and Hagashah and Haktarah are performed (see Background to Menachos 89:14:b:1).

(b)Half of the rolls were offered in the morning and half towards evening (Vayikra 6:13). They were completely burned on the Mizbe'ach. The Chavitin had to be brought from the money of the Kohen Gadol, but he did not personally have to offer them on the Mizbe'ach. The amount of oil that was used for each of the Chavitin rolls was one Revi'is (approximately 75, 86.4 or 150 cc, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions), a total of three Lugin for the entire Minchah.

(c)An ordinary Kohen, on the day that he begins his service in the Beis ha'Mikdash, must bring a Korban Minchah that is the same as the Minchas Chavitin that the Kohen Gadol brings every day (Vayikra 6:13). His Korban is known as the Minchas Chinuch (RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'aseh ha'Korbanos 13:2-4).

4a)[line 6]TECHINASAN- grinding the wheat to make flour for them

b)[line 7]HARKADASAN- sifting the flour for them

5)[line 8] , KOL MELACHAH SHE'EFSHAR LA'ASOSAH ME'EREV SHABBOS, EINAH DOCHAH ES HA'SHABBOS- any Melachah that it is possible to perform on Erev Shabbos does not Docheh ("push aside") Shabbos (see Mishnah Shabbos 130a and SHULCHAN ARUCH OC 331:6)

6)[line 11] KOL HA'MENACHOS- that is, all of the Menachos except for the Shtei ha'Lechem and Lechem ha'Panim (see KESEF MISHNAH to RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'aseh ha'Korbanos 12:23)

7a)[line 11] YESH BAHEN MA'ASEH KLI BIFNIM- there are certain actions in their preparation that must be done in Klei Shares inside of the Azarah (e.g. kneading, shaping into loaves and baking)

b)[line 11] V'EIN BAHEN MA'ASEH KLI BA'CHUTZ- but these action that must be performed in Klei Shares may not be done outside of the Azarah (grinding and sifting, however, may be performed outside of the Azarah)

8)[line 13]' KARNOSAV ARBA ETZBA'OS- the corners of the loaves project upward to a height of four Etzba'os (there are four Etzba'os in a Tefach. Each Etzba (known as "Agudal") is equal to 1.9, 2 or 2.4 cm, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions)

9)[line 18] SHE'YEHU LO PANIM- (a) that it should have facets (RASHI, 1st explanation); (b) according to the alternate (or additional) Girsa SHE'YEHU LO PINIM - that it should have corners (or and that it should have corners), which are known as the Keranos (RASHI, 2nd explanation) (see Insights)

10)[line 18] ' HA'SHULCHAN ORKO ASARAH V'ROCHBO CHAMISHAH- the Shulchan (Golden Table) is ten Tefachim long and five Tefachim wide. The verse (Shemos 25:23) states that the Shulchan is two Amos long and one Amah wide, and Rebbi Yehudah rules that the Amos of the utensils of the Beis ha'Mikdash are built with Amos of five Tefachim (Menachos 97a).

11)[line 20]KOFEL- he folds upward

12)[line 23] '' 'HA'SHULCHAN ORKO SHTEIM ESREI V'ROCHBO SHESH- the Shulchan (Golden Table) is twelve Tefachim long and six Tefachim wide. The verse (Shemos 25:23) states that the Shulchan is two Amos long and one Amah wide, and Rebbi Meir rules that the Amos of the utensils of the Beis ha'Mikdash are built with Amos of six Tefachim (Menachos 97a).

13)[line 26] TEFACHAYIM REVACH BA'EMTZA- two Tefachim of space on the Shulchan itself, in between the two stacks of loaves

14)[line 27] KEDEI SHE'TEHEI HA'RU'ACH MENASHEVES BAHEM- so that the air circulates through them

15)[line 28] SHNEI BAZICHEI LEVONAH- two bowls of Levonah. A Kometz of Levonah is placed alongside each stack in a Bazach (bowl). After the loaves of Lechem ha'Panim are removed, the Levonah is salted and burned on the Mizbe'ach. The offering of the Levonah permits the loaves to be eaten.

16)[line 30]" ...""V'NASATA AL HA'MA'ARECHES LEVONAH ZAKAH ..."- "and you shall place pure Levonah alongside (lit. on) the stack [of Lechem ha'Panim]" (Vayikra 24:7) - Our Gemara brings the Machlokes as to whether the bowls of Levonah were place on the Shulchan next to the stacks of Lechem ha'Panim, or whether they were placed inside of the two topmost loaves.

17)[line 31]" ...""V'ALAV MATEH MENASHEH ..."- "and next to it (i.e. next to the camp of Efrayim), the camp of Menasheh" (Bamidbar 2:20)

18)[line 33] SHENAYIM L'SEDER ZEH U'SHENAYIM L'SEDER ZEH- two [Senifim] for this stack [of Lechem ha'Panim] and two [Senifim] for that stack [of Lechem ha'Panim]

19)[line 34]'' V'ESRIM VE'SHEMONAH KANIM KA'CHATZI KANEH CHALUL- and twenty-eight rods that were shaped like the split halves of hollow reeds

20)[line 35] LO SIDUR KANIM V'LO NETILASAM DOCHEH ES HA'SHABBOS - both placing the Kanim in the stacks of Lechem ha'Panim and taking them out when the loaves are removed to be eaten on Shabbos are not Docheh Shabbos, that is, it is prohibited to perform them on Shabbos, since using them is not a necessity on Shabbos (TILTUL B'SHABBOS: GEZEIRAS KEILIM)

(a)The Gemara (Shabbos 123b) relates that the prohibition of Muktzah began in the times of Nechemyah, who made an enactment (with a few exceptions) that no utensils may be handled on Shabbos, since he saw that people were desecrating Shabbos by bringing piles of wheat from the fields into the city. A decree was issued forbidding any utensil to be carried.

(b)The Rishonim record a number of different reasons for the decree of Muktzah. Different types of Muktzah may be related to the different reasons for the decree.

1.The RA'AVAD (Hilchos Shabbos 22:12) states that the reason for the decree of Muktzah is so that people should not carry from Reshus ha'Yachid to Reshus ha'Rabim on Shabbos (just like the original decree of Nechemyah). This is supported by the Gemara later (Shabbos 124b).

2.The RAMBAM does not mention this reason, but instead lists three other reasons for the decree of Muktzah: (a) to prevent a person from making his Shabbos into a regular weekday by carrying all of his things around all day; (b) conversely, a person who does not work during the week needs some way to designate that Shabbos is different from the weekdays; the prohibition of Muktzah distinguishes Shabbos from the weekdays for such a person; (c) the Rabanan prohibited handling a utensil used primarily for a labor which is forbidden on Shabbos ("Kli she'Melachto l'Isur"), lest one inadvertently use it for its purpose and do a Melachah on Shabbos.

(c)Our Gemara states that in the Beis ha'Mikdash, small rods were used for separating the loaves of the Lechem ha'Panim from each other to allow air to circulate around them. These rods were not used on Shabbos and may not even be moved on Shabbos. Rabah (Shabbos 124a) says that even though it is permitted to use a Kli sh'Melachto l'Heter (a utensil used to do an act which is permitted on Shabbos), these rods were not permitted to be used because it was not necessary to use them. The Rishonim cite several explanations for this:

1.The TOSFOS HA'ROSH and RASHBA answer that Rabah is consistent with his reasoning elsewhere. Rabah (later on Shabbos 124a) is of the opinion that a Kli sh'Melachto l'Heter may not be moved solely for the sake of protecting the utensil ("me'Chamah l'Tzel" - "from the sun to the shade"); it may only be moved in order to use it or to use its place (see Charts to Shabbos #18). Since it was not necessary to use the rods, using the rods would be akin to moving them me'Chamah l'Tzel, and therefore it was prohibited. (The Rishonim cite a variant text of the Gemara in which it is Rava, and not Rabah, who made this statement. This is even more difficult to understand, because Rava permits moving utensils of permitted usage even me'Chamah l'Tzel - 124a.)

2.The annotator of the "Oraisa" RASHBA (Rav Moshe Mordechai Karp of Kiryat Sefer) points out that according to the MAGID MISHNAH, the RAMBAM (Hilchos Shabbos 25:3) maintains that even a Kli sh'Melachto l'Heter may not be moved for no purpose at all. It may be moved only for a definite purpose. (The Rashba to Shabbos 43b also records such an opinion.) According to this opinion, then, we can understand the ruling of our Gemara. Moving the rods in order to separate the Lechem ha'Panim was considered moving them for no purpose, since the Lechem ha'Panim only remained on the Shulchan without the rods for a short period of time.

21)[line 37]() [](V'SHOMTO) [V'SHOMTAN]- he removes them

22)[line 37]() [] (V'NOSNO) [V'NOSNAN] L'ORKO SHEL SHULCHAN- and he places them along the length of the Shulchan [on the floor - TOSFOS to Menachos 97a DH l'Orko]

23)[line 39]" , ' , , [- .']""VA'YOMER ELAI, 'ZEH HA'MAKOM ASHER YEVASHLU SHAM HA'KOHANIM ES HA'ASHAM V'ES HA'CHATAS, ASHER YOFU ES HA'MINCHAH, L'VILTI HOTZI EL HE'CHATZER HA'CHITZONAH [- L'KADESH ES HA'AM.']"- "And he said to me, 'This is the place where the Kohanim shall cook the [Korban] Asham (guilt offering) and the [Korban] Chatas (sin offering), where they shall bake the Minchah (flour offering), so that they should not carry them to the outer courtyard - [to sanctify the people.']" (Yechezkel 46:20)

24a)[line 43] NIMTZA SHULCHAN MEKADESH CHAMISHAH ASAR TEFACH L'MA'ALAH- we find that the Shulchan is responsible for consecrating a stack of loaves of Lechem ha'Panim that is fifteen Tefachim high (six times two and one half Tefachim)

b)[line 44] '' NIMTZA SHULCHAN MEKADESH SHNEIM ASAR TEFACH L'MA'ALAH- we find that the Shulchan is responsible for consecrating a stack of loaves of Lechem ha'Panim that is twelve Tefachim high (six times two Tefachim)

25)[line 45] KANIM SHEKU'EI MESHAKA LEHU- they would sink the Kanim [into the loaves]

26a)[line 45] ?MAI TAIMA?- What was the reason [that Kanim were needed in the first place]?

b)[line 45] MISHUM I'APUSHEI LECHEM- in order [to prevent] the loaves [from] becoming moldy

27)[line 46] D'MAGBAH LEI PURTA- [the Kanim were actually sunk into the loaves only to the extent that they were still able] to lift them up a small amount (that was insignificant in terms of the height of the stack)

28a)[line 47] B'GAVEI D'LECHEM HAVU YASVEI- they (the Bazichin) were sitting inside of the [the two topmost] loaves

b)[line 47] UL'VAHADEI D'LECHEM HAVU KAIMEI- and they [only] reached the height of the topmost loaves

29)[last line] KERANOS L'GAVEI D'LECHEM KAYIF LEHU- the Keranos (horns) of the Lechem ha'Panim were bent in towards the interior of the loaves (see Graphics for the Sugya of the Lechem ha'Panim)


30)[line 1]MISGARTO- its frame (see Shemos 25:25)

31)[line 1] K'MAN D'AMAR MISGARTO L'MATAH HAYESAH - according to the opinion that the Misgeres was placed below [the top of the Shulchan] (SHULCHAN: MISGERES)

Among the utensils of the Mishkan and the Beis ha'Mikdash was the Shulchan ha'Zahav (the Golden Table, see Shemos 25:23-30). There is an argument as to the location of the Misgeres, the "frame" of the Shulchan. Some say that it was affixed around the top of the table, like the vertical ledge that is on the edge of the tables of princes (with the Zer, "crown," directly on top of it). Others say that it was below the tabletop from leg to leg on the four sides of the table, and that the top of the table lay upon the Misgeres (accordingly, the Zer was on top of the tabletop).

32)[line 3] PARKUDEI HAVAH MIFRAKDA- it was leaning outward [to such an extent that the bread was not elevated by it]

33)[line 3] LECHEM B'GAVEI D'SHULCHAN HAVAH YASIV- and the [lowermost] loaves were lying on (lit. in) the Shulchan

34)[line 7] TAVLA HA'MIS'HAPECHES TEME'AH - a flat board that can be used on either side (lit. that turns over) is Temei'ah (KLEI ETZ: TUM'AH)

(a)The Torah states that wooden utensils can become Tamei if they are touched by a person or object that is an Av ha'Tum'ah, of if they are under the same Ohel as a dead person (Vayikra 11:32, Bamidbar 31:20). However, since the Torah compares a wooden object that becomes Tamei to a sack ("Sak"), the wooden object must have certain qualities in common with a sack in order to become Tamei.

(b)Among these qualities are:

1.The object must have a receptacle, i.e. an area in which it can contain other objects, as opposed to a flat board (with the exception of a "Tavla ha'Mis'hapeches" - see below, (c)).

2.It must not be large enough to hold 40 Se'ah, for if it is that large it cannot be transported when filled, as opposed to a sack, which is made to be transported either empty or full.

3.It must be an object that is sometimes transported, and not one that is always stationary. If it is left stationary, it is called a "Kli he'Asuy l'Nachas" and is not Mekabel Tum'ah.

(c)Our Gemara mentions a Machlokes with regard to whether or not a "Tavla ha'Mis'hapeches" (a flat board that can be used as a tabletop on both of its sides) is Mekabel Tum'ah. According to the opinion that the Misgeres of the Shulchan was below the tabletop, from leg to leg (see above, entry #31), there is one opinion that a Tavla ha'Mis'hapeches is Mekabel Tum'ah mid'Oraisa. Another opinion rules that there is a doubt as to whether it is Mekabel Tum'ah. These rulings apply specifically to a Tavla ha'Mis'hapeches that is not Asuy l'Nachas.

35)[line 10] !?KLI ETZ HE'ASUY L'NACHAS HU!? - It is a wooden utensil that is always stationary!?

See previous entry.

36)[line 12] DUMYA D'SAK BA'INAN- it must be similar to a sack, [which is made to be transported, either empty or full]

37)[line 16]"... ...""... AL HA'SHULCHAN HA'TAHOR ..."- "... on the Table [of] pure [gold] ..." (alt. "on the true surface of the Table," such that the Senifin do not elevate the bottommost loaves off of the tabletop) (Vayikra 24:6, see RASHI there)

38)[line 21] SILUKO K'SIDURO- the bread is as hot (alt. soft, fresh TOSFOS to Chagigah 26b DH Siluko) when it is removed from the Shulchan as when it was arranged on the Shulchan in the Heichal the previous Shabbos; alt. the bread is as hot when it is removed from the Shulchan as when it was [removed from the oven and] arranged on the silver table in the Ulam on Friday of the previous week (where it stayed until it was arranged on the Shulchan in the Heichal on Shabbos - as in Shekalim 6:4) (LIKUTIM in the name of SHOSHANIM L'DOVID of Rebbi David Pardo)

39)[line 21]"[ , '] .""... LASUM LECHEM CHOM B'YOM HILAKCHO."- "[And the Kohen gave him consecrated bread, for there was no bread there but the Lechem ha'Panim which had been taken from before HaSh-m in order] to put hot bread [in its place] on the day that it was taken." (Shmuel I 21:7) - The literal meaning of the verse is that the bread was hot on the day that it was taken off the Shulchan. (See Background to Menachos 95:38.)

40)[line 22] V'TEIPUK LI MISHUM TZIPUY- let me derive that the Table will be Mekabel Tum'ah because of the gold leaf that was used to overlay it, and not because of the fact that it was sometimes transported

41)[line 23]DULVEKI- (O.F. faldestol - a folding seat) delphica, a three-legged table covered with leather, used for setting a meal

42)[line 23]SHE'NIFCHASU- that broke, but did not develop holes as big as pomegranates

43)[line 23] SHE'CHIPAN B'SHAYISH- that a person covered with marble

44a)[line 24] MEKOM HANACHAS KOSOS- a place on the original table on which to place cups

b)[line 25] MEKOM HANACHAS CHATICHOS- a place on the original table on which to place pieces [of meat or bread]

45)[line 27] TZIPUY OMED- a lasting metal plating that is secured to the utensil (with nails) (whereas the Shulchan did not have such a plating)

46)[last line] BESHE'CHIPAH ES (LEVAZBEZIN) [LEVAZBEZAV]- when one plates its border or rim that rises above the surface of the table