[3a - 18 lines; 3b - 23 lines]
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach, the Tzon Kodashim and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.
 Gemara 3a [line 1]:
"Ho'il ul'Chaparah Ka Asya, Lo Bedeilin Minah ..." הואיל ולכפרה קא אתיא לא בדילין מינה
The Rishonim quote two Girsa'os of the Gemara's answer (see Tosfos to Menachos 52a, and Shitah Mekubetzes here #1). The printed Girsa appears to be a combination of the two, which is incomprehensible.
(a) Rashi has the Girsa of the Bach #1.
(b) The other Girsa is "Ho'il ul'Chaparah Lo Chazya ... Kodshim Ho'il v'Chazyan l'Chaparah הואיל ולכפרה לא חזיא ... קדשים הואיל וחזין לכפרה (the word ka'Asi is removed), Bedeilei Minhon ... בדילי מנהון (see Shitah Mekubetzes #1). As we explained in Background to Me'ilah 2:12, the Girsa affects how the question of the Gemara is to be understood.
 Rashi 3a [at the top of the page]:
The Girsa of the Tzon Kodashim is not clear at all
 Gemara 3b [line 1]:
"Ba'i Rebbi Elazar" בעי רבי אלעזר
The Girsa of the Bach #1 appears more correct than the Girsa of the Tzon Kodashim in the right margin
 Gemara [line 4]:
"Chada Migo Chada" חדא מגו חדא
"Lo Chada Migo Chada" לא חדא מגו חדא is the Girsa of Rashi
 Gemara [line 6]:
Should be corrected as suggested by Shitah Mekubetzes #3
 Gemara [line 20]:
The words "Amar Lei Rav Ashi l'Rava" אמר ליה רב אשי לרבא
should be "Amar Lei Rav Ashi l'Rebbi Aba" אמר ליה רב אשי לרבי אבא (Sefer ha'Yuchsin, Radal, Ben Aryeh; because Rav Ashi never saw Rava, as stated in Kidushin 72b)
 Rashi 3b DH O Dilma ד"ה או דלמא:
Should be corrected as suggested by Shitah Mekubetzes #9
 Rashi DH Amar Rav Gidal ד"ה אמר רב גידל:
The words "Eino Motzi mi'Yedei Me'ilah b'Kodshei Kodashim" אינו מוציא מידי מעילה בקדשי קדשים are the beginning of a new Dibur
1)[line 5]חטאות המתותCHATA'OS HA'MESOS (CHAMESH CHATA'OS MESOS)
There are five Chata'os that are put to death by being locked up without food until they die:
1.The offspring of a Chatas
2.The Temurah (see Background to Temurah 2:1) of a Chatas
3.A Chatas whose owner has died
4.A Chatas of a sheep or goat that became a year old (and is therefore invalid as a Korban Chatas), the owner of which brought a different Chatas to atone for his sin
5.A Chatas that was lost and was later found with a Mum, whose owner brought a different Chatas to atone for his sins (Temurah 21b)
2)[line 5]מעות ההולכות לים המלחMA'OS HA'HOLCHOS L'YAM HA'MELACH
(a)If a person sets aside money to purchase a Korban Chatas and the coins were lost, and were found only after he brought a Korban Chatas from other coins, it is forbidden mid'Rabanan to derive benefit from the original coins. They must be disposed of in such a way that no one can benefit from them, which is similar to throwing them into Yam ha'Melech. (Similarly, when a person's Korban Chatas itself was lost, and he brought a different animal as his Korban, and the original animal was found, that animal must be locked away until it dies (see previous entry), and no one may benefit from it.)
(b)If one does derive benefit from the original coins or the original animal, he does not bring a Korban Me'ilah since money that is "destined for Yam ha'Melach," i.e. that must be destroyed, and animals that must be put to death, are not considered Kodshei HaSh-m (Me'ilah 3a).
3)[line 8]חדא מגו חדא, וחדא מגו חדאCHADA MIGO CHADA, V'CHADA MIGO CHADA- through an inference made from one Mishnah which is applied to another Mishnah and then used to understand a third Mishnah (the same words that are used on the next Amud have a different meaning — see below, entry #7)
4)[line 9]מטמאים בגדים אבית הבליעהMETAM'IM BEGADIM A'BEIS HA'BELI'AH (NIVLAS OF TAHOR)
(a)Normally, items that are Tamei spread Tum'ah through touching them or carrying them ("Maga" or "Masa"). The only object that is Metamei mid'Oraisa while being eaten is Nivlas Of Tahor (the carcass of a kosher bird). Nivlas Of Tahor is a kosher bird that died or was killed without Shechitah. (This includes a bird that is unfit to be brought as a Korban upon which Melikah was performed.) It is only Metamei while in the Beis ha'Beli'ah (throat), during the process of being swallowed.
(b)A Nivlas Of Tahor is Metamei the person eating it, as well as any clothes or utensils that he is touching at the time that it is in his throat, giving them the status of "Rishon l'Tum'ah." (Once it is swallowed, the person remains Tamei, but is only Metamei food and drinks, i.e. he is a Rishon l'Tum'ah).
5)[last line]במת יחידBAMAS YACHID (BAMAS YACHID / BAMAS TZIBUR)
(a)BAMAH - A Bamah is a raised area used for sacrifices. Before the Beis ha'Mikdash was built, there were times when it was permitted to offer sacrifices on public altars (Bamas Tzibur or Bamah Gedolah) and private altars (Bamas Yachid or Bamah Ketanah (see Insights to Pesachim 91:2)).
(b)BAMAH GEDOLAH - Only one public altar was in use at any particular time. At various times in our history, the Bamah Gedolah was in Gilgal (where the Mishkan stood before the land was completely conquered, until it was moved to Shiloh), Nov and Giv'on (after the Mishkan in Shiloh was destroyed, see Zevachim 112b). An individual could offer only voluntary sacrifices on a Bamah Gedolah. There is a difference of opinion among the Tana'im as to whether all communal sacrifices could be offered on a Bamah Gedolah or only the communal sacrifices that have a fixed time (Zevachim 117a).
(c)BAMAH KETANAH - Any person, even if he was not a Kohen, could build a Bamah Ketanah anywhere in Eretz Yisrael and offer upon it his personal sacrifices. Only voluntary sacrifices could be offered on a Bamah Ketanah.
(d)MIZBE'ACH - The Mishkan was built in Shiloh, a city in the portion of Efrayim, after the 14 years of conquest and apportionment of Eretz Yisrael. A Mizbe'ach (altar) was built to replace the Bamos, and as long as the Mishkan stood in Shiloh, sacrificing on the Bamos was prohibited. The Tana'im argue as to whether this Mizbe'ach was a stone structure or whether it was the hollow wooden Mizbe'ach overlaid with copper that was constructed for the Mishkan in the desert, filled with stones (Zevachim 61b). The Mishkan stood in Shiloh for 369 years (Seder Olam Raba 11).
(e)BEIS HA'MIKDASH - The Beis ha'Mikdash is known as the "Beis Olamim," the "Eternal Dwelling," because once it was chosen, it became the permanent dwelling place of the Shechinah. Once again the Bamos were prohibited, but this time permanently. The Mizbach ha'Chitzon (Outer Mizbe'ach), also know as the Mizbach ha'Olah (Mizbe'ach of the Korban Olah) of the Beis ha'Mikdash consisted of three concrete and stone platforms poured one on top of the other. (For a description of the Mizbe'ach ha'Chitzon, see Background to Menachos 97:9.)
6)[line 1]קלטוה מחיצותKALTUHA MECHITZOS- the walls of the Azarah "capture it" (i.e. they do not allow it to be returned to a Bamas Yachid to be sacrificed)
7)[line 4]חדא מגו חדא קמיבעיאCHADA MIGO CHADA KAMIBA'YA- he asked, "If the answer to my first question is such, then I have another question." (The same words that are used on the previous Amud have a different meaning — see above, entry #3.)
8)[line 14]התודהHA'TODAH (KORBAN TODAH)
(a)The Todah (thanksgiving offering) is a form of Shelamim that is eaten for only one day and one night (Vayikra 7:15). Korbenos Shelamim that are offered by an individual may be brought from male or female sheep, cows or goats. They are Kodshim Kalim, and may therefore be slaughtered in the entire Azarah (and not only in its northern part).
(b)Before its slaughter, the owner presses his hands on the head of the animal (Semichah). The blood of the Todah is cast on the northeastern and southwestern corners of the Mizbe'ach ("Shenayim she'Hen Arba"). Nesachim (a flour offering consisting of flour and oil and a wine libation) are brought as part of the Korban (Bamidbar 15:3-12). The flour offering is completely burned on the Mizbe'ach and the wine is poured into one of the Sefalim (the silver libation pipes located at the top of the southwest corner of the Mizbe'ach) (RAMBAM and RA'AVAD Hilchos Ma'aseh ha'Korbanos 2:1). The amount of flour, oil and wine needed depends upon the animal offered, as specified in Bamidbar (ibid.).
(c)An animal that was sacrificed as a Todah was brought together with forty loaves of bread, ten each of the following:
1.Chalos Matzos - Matzos mixed with oil;
2.Rekikin - flat Matzos saturated with oil;
3.Soles Murbeches - Matzos made of boiled flour mixed with oil;
4.Loaves of leavened bread. (Vayikra 7:12-13)
(d)One loaf of each type of bread was given to the Kohen who performed the Zerikas ha'Dam of the Todah (Vayikra 7:14). (These four loaves were known as Terumas Lachmei Todah.) The Chazeh (breast) and Shok (the two upper sections of the right hind leg, until the hip joint) of the Todah were given to the Kohen (Vayikra 7:34). Certain fats and other parts of the Korban were offered on the Mizbe'ach (Vayikra 3:3-4, 9-10, 14-15). The owner and his guests (men or women) eat the rest of the Korban inside the borders of the city of Yerushalayim. The meat may be cooked in any fashion and is eaten on the day that it is slaughtered and the following night.
9)[line 15]קרמו פניה בתנורKARMU PANEHA B'TANUR- it formed a crust in the oven
10)[line 20]אמר ליה בזריקהAMAR LEI B'ZERIKAH- Rebbi Aba is answering that Machsheves Pigul prevents Me'ilah in Kodshim Kalim only if it took place during the Zerikah. The Mishnah that discusses Lachmei Todah, however, is discussing a case of Machsheves Pigul during Shechitah, which does not make the Todah become "real" Pigul (see Insights)
11)[line 22]פקע פיגולו ממנוPAKA PIGULO MIMENU- the prohibition of Pigul has left it; i.e. after the fire has taken hold of part of the Kometz, even if it comes off the Mizbe'ach, it should be put back on again (Zevachim 43a), because it is no longer considered to be Pigul