[2a - 32 lines; 2b - 23 lines]
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.
 Gemara 2a [line 21]:
Should be corrected as suggested by Shitah Mekubetzes #6
 Gemara [last line]:
The words "Ho'il u'Meratzin l'Figulin" הואיל ומרצין לפיגולין
should be "Ho'il u'Meratzin l'Figulan" הואיל ומרצין לפיגולן
 Rashi 2a DH veshe'Kiblu Pesulin ... : ד"ה ושקבלו פסולין
"b'Teme'in Mairi ..." בטמא מיירי
These words are not Rashi's; rather, they were written in the margin at the end of the Mishnah by a commentator who meant to argue with Rashi (RADAL)
 Rashi DH Eima k'Man ד"ה אימא כמאן:
"d'Lailah Lav Mechusar Zman" דלילה לאו מחוסר זמן (Source: Kerisus 8a)
 Rashi DH Eima k'Man ד"ה אימא כמאן:
"v'Hai Ba'al ha'Shas ..." והאי בעל הש"ס
Rashi's Girsa of the Gemara is that of Rabeinu Gershom, whose text does not include the words "v'Iy Tana Shachatah ba'Lailah" ואי תנא שחטה בלילה until "Ka Mashma Lan" קמשמע לן (lines 24-31). Rashi's intention is that one who is Gores these words did not want to explain the Mishnah in a manner of "Lo Zu, Af Zu" לא זו אף זו, and he therefore switched the order of the cases of the Mishnah, as does Tosfos (DH Shachatan). This version of the Gemara assumes such a Girsa in the Mishnah. (Rabeinu Gershom writes a similar comment regarding this version of the Gemara.) (OLAS SHLOMO)
 Rashi 2b DH u'Meshani Ho'il ד"ה ומשני הואיל:
The words "d'Ha Zerikah Chashuvah" דהא זריקה חשובה
should be "d'Ha Shechitah Chashuvah" דהא שחיטה חשובה (Rashash, Olas Shlomo)
(a)It is forbidden to derive personal benefit from anything that is Hekdesh, as the Torah states, "Lo Suchal le'Echol b'Sha'arecha... u'Nedarecha Asher Tidor" - "You may not eat in your settlements... and your pledges [to Hekdesh] that you will pledge" (Devarim 12:17) (RAMBAM Hilchos Me'ilah 1:1-3; see Insights). The minimum amount for which one transgresses this prohibition is a Perutah's worth of benefit.
(b)If someone benefited from Hekdesh b'Mezid (intentionally), he is liable to Malkus (according to the Rabanan; according to Rebbi he is liable to Misah b'Yedei Shamayim - Sanhedrin 83a) and must pay to Hekdesh the amount that he benefited. However, the object from which he benefited remains Hekdesh.
(c)If someone benefited from Hekdesh b'Shogeg (unintentionally), the object loses its Kedushah. He must bring a Korban Asham Me'ilos (as described in Vayikra 5:15-16) and repay Hekdesh the value of his benefit plus an additional fifth (of the ensuing total, or a quarter of the original value). This is true of any object that has Kedushas Damim (i.e. its value is consecrated to Hekdesh). An object that has Kedushas ha'Guf (i.e. an object with intrinsic Kedushah, such as the utensils used in the Beis ha'Mikdash or a live Korban that is used in the Beis ha'Mikdash "as is") does not lose its Kedushah under any circumstances (Rosh Hashanah 28a).
(d)The Lav of Me'ilah applies to the entire body of an animal that is Kodshei Kodashim, from the time that it is sanctified. After its blood is applied to or cast on the Mizbe'ach, the Lav of Me'ilah only pertains to the Eimurim of the animal (i.e. to the parts of the animal that are offered on the Mizbe'ach). Since the Kohanim may eat the rest of the animal, it is no longer called Kodshei HaSh-m (Vayikra 5:15).
(e)Kodshim Kalim are the property of their owner while they are alive and as such, the Lav of Me'ilah does not apply to them at that point since they are not "Kodshei HaSh-m." After their blood is cast on the Mizbe'ach, the Lav of Me'ilah applies to the Eimurim (just as in Kodshei Kodashim), since they become Kodshei HaSh-m. (See chart #1 to Me'ilah 2a.)
(f)There are some objects of Hekdesh to which the laws of Me'ilah do not apply ("Lo Mo'alin"), but which the Chachamim prohibited to use ("Lo Nehenin"). They are classified in the category of "Lo Nehenim v'Lo Mo'alin."
2)[line 1]קדשי קודשיםKODSHEI KODASHIM (KODSHEI KODASHIM / KODSHIM KALIM)
(a)The term Kodshei Kodashim refers to the Korbenos Olah, Chatas and Asham (and Menachos), which have a greater degree of sanctity. They may only be slaughtered in the northern part of the Azarah and those parts that may be eaten may only be eaten in the Azarah by male Kohanim.
(b)The term Kodshim Kalim refers to the Korbenos Shelamim, Todah, Ma'asar Behemah, Pesach and Bechor, which have a lesser degree of sanctity. They may be slaughtered in the entire Azarah (and not only in its northern part) and may be eaten in the entire city of Yerushalayim by men or women, Kohanim or non-Kohanim.
3)[line 3]קיבל דמןKIBEL DAMAN (FOUR AVODOS OF KODSHIM)
Offering a Korban is comprised of four main actions. These four "Avodos" are Shechitah (slaughtering), Kabalas ha'Dam (collecting the blood of the Korban that will be applied to or cast on the Mizbe'ach), Holachah (carrying the blood towards the Mizbe'ach) and Zerikah (applying the blood to or casting the blood on the Mizbe'ach).
4a)[line 5]חוץ לזמנוCHUTZ L'ZEMANO (PIGUL)
(a)A sacrifice that was slaughtered (or any of the other three main actions involved in offering a sacrifice: Kabalas ha'Dam, Holachas ha'Dam, Zerikas ha'Dam — see previous entry) with the intention of eating it or offering it Chutz li'Zemano (after its allotted time) becomes disqualified. Similarly, a Minchah that was offered with intentions of offering it (i.e. doing one of its essential Avodos) or eating it after its allotted time becomes disqualified.
(b)It is forbidden to eat such a Korban, as the verse states, "v'Im He'achol Ye'achel mi'Besar Zevach Shelamav ba'Yom ha'Shelishi, Lo Yeratzeh, ha'Makriv Oso Lo Yechashev Lo, Pigul Yiheyeh" - "If [the person offering the sacrifice plans] to eat it on the third day, [the sacrifice] will not be accepted. It is considered Pigul (putrid, rejected) and it will not be counted in his favor" (Vayikra 7:18).
(c)If a person eats a k'Zayis of Pigul b'Mezid (intentionally) after Hasra'ah (being forewarned), he is punished with Malkus (lashes); the Lav for eating Pigul is learned from the verse of the Milu'im (Shemos 29:34). If he was not given Hasra'ah, he is Chayav Kares. If he eats it b'Shogeg (unintentionally), he must bring a Korban Chatas (as with all sins for which one is liable to Kares b'Mezid). (SEFER HA'CHINUCH Mitzvah #144)
b)[line 5]חוץ למקומוCHUTZ LI'MEKOMO
(a)A Korban that was slaughtered (or any of the other three main actions involved in offering a sacrifice: Kabalas ha'Dam, Holachas ha'Dam, Zerikas ha'Dam — see above, entry #3) with the intention of eating it or offering it outside of the area designated for it becomes disqualified, and may not be eaten or offered on the Mizbe'ach. This is learned from the verse that repeats the prohibition of Chutz li'Zemano, slaughtering a Korban with the intention of eating or offering it after its allotted time (Vayikra 19:7; see next entry).
(b)If a person intentionally eats from a Korban that was offered with the intention of Chutz li'Mekomo, he receives Malkus (lashes). If he eats from it unintentionally, he is exempt from bringing a Korban Chatas.
5)[line 9]שלנהSHE'LANAH (PESULEI KORBAN: LINAH)
Linah is the term used when any parts of the Korbanos were not placed on the Mizbe'ach until the following morning ("Linah" means to sleep overnight — see RASHI to Bereishis 24:23). They become disqualified and may never be placed on the Mizbe'ach. Nosar, a type of Linah, defines parts of Korbanos that were not eaten during their allotted time (see Background to Kerisus 13:23), that become disqualified and may never be eaten.
6)[line 9]שיצאהSHE'YATZ'AH (PESULEI KORBAN: YOTZEI)
Yotzei is the term used when any parts of the Korbanos went out of their allotted boundaries before they were offered on the Mizbe'ach.
7)[line 17]כמה דחנקינון דמיK'MAH D'CHANKINUN DAMI- it is as if he choked them to death
8)[line 12]חומשCHOMESH (ME'ILAH: CHOMESH)
See above, entry #1.
9)[line 12]משלמיןחומשM ESHALMIN CHOMESH- The Gemara does not mention it, but another obvious difference between Me'ilah d'Oraisa and Me'ilah d'Rabanan is that for Me'ilah d'Rabanan one does not bring a Korban Asham (Tosfos DH u'Mai; see Shitah Mekubetzes #7)
10)[line 16]לימא תנינא להא דעולאLEIMA TENINA L'HA D'ULA- Ula's statement taught us two laws: (a) If Kodshim die, one can no longer be Mo'el in them mid'Oraisa; (b) One is Mo'el in them, nevertheless, mid'Rabanan. The Gemara is now trying to prove the second point.
11)[line 20]בדילין מנהוןBEDEILIN MINHON- people stay away from them
12)[line 21]מתו נמי תנינאMESU NAMI TANINA- There are two ways of learning this question: (a) According to Rashi, the Gemara is now disproving Ula's statement from a Mishnah. Our disproof is: from the fact that the Mishnah singles out a dead Chatas as having Me'ilah mid'Rabanan, this implies that other dead Kodshim do not even have Me'ilah mid'Rabanan; (b) Rabeinu Gershom and the Shitah Mekubetzes #10 explain that the Gemara is proving Ula's statement. We see from the Mishnah that there is Me'ilah mid'Rabanan in a dead Chatas, and so too in any other dead Korban. (These two explanations depend on the two Girsa'os of the Gemara's answer, as we point out in the Girsa Section to Me'ilah 3a #1.)