12th CYCLE DEDICATION
KESUVOS 102 (3 Teves) - Today's Dafyomi material has been dedicated in memory of Hagaon Rav Yisroel Zev Gustman Ztz"L (author of "Kuntresei Shiurim") and his wife, Rebbetzin Sarah Gustman (daughter of Hagaon Rav Meir Bassin, a Dayan in Vilna) in honor of the Yahrzeit of the Rebbetzin. Sponsored by a number of Rav Gustman's Talmidim (Yechiel Wachtel, Rabbi Avrohom Feldman and Mordecai Kornfeld).

1)

ONE WHO STIPULATED TO FEED HIS STEP-DAUGHTER (Yerushalmi Perek 12 Halachah 1 Daf 64b)

[דף סד עמוד ב] מתני' הנושא את האשה ופסקה עמו שיזון את בתה חמש שנים חייב לזונה ה' שנים נישאת לאחר ופסקה עמו כדי שיזון את בתה חמש שנים חייב לזונה ה' שנים

(a)

(Mishnah): If one married a woman, and she stipulated with him to feed her daughter for five years, he must feed her for five years. If [her mother] married someone else (after the first divorced her) and she stipulated with him to feed her daughter for five years, he must feed her for five years.

לא יאמר הראשון לכשתבא אצלי אזונה אלא מוליך מזונותיה למקום שהיא

1.

[The first] cannot say 'when she comes to me I will feed her.' Rather, he sends food to where she is.

וכן לא יאמרו שניהן הרי אנו זונין אותה כאחד אלא אחד זנה ואחד נותן לה דמי מזונות:

2.

Similarly, both [husbands] cannot say 'we will feed her together.' Rather, one feeds her, and the other pays her the cost of food.

גמ' במה הוא מתחייב לה

(b)

(Gemara) Question: How does he become obligated to her?

לא כן ר' יוחנן ור"ש בן לקיש תריהון אמרין הכותב שטר חוב על חבירו בחזקת שהוא חייב לו ונמצא שאינו חייב לו אינו חייב ליתן לו

1.

Did not R. Yochanan and Reish Lakish both say that one who writes a loan document against his friend with the Chazakah (others understood) that he owes him, and it turns out that he does not owe him, he is not obligated to pay him? (We explained this like MEICHAL HA'MAYIM.)

ר' שמעון בן לקיש אמר עשו אותה כתוספת כתובה

(c)

Answer (Reish Lakish): They made it like an addition to the Kesuvah. (One obligates himself amidst dearness of Nisu'in.)

ויתן בסוף

(d)

Question: [If so,] he should pay at the end (when he divorces her, just like additions to the Kesuvah)!

עשו אותה כקידושי אשה

(e)

Answer: They made [food of a step-daughter] like Kidushin of a woman (he pays immediately).

ויתן משעה הראשונה

(f)

Question: He should pay from the beginning (for all five years)!

עשו אותה כמקדש את האשה על מנת ליתן לה שנים עשר דינר זהב בשנה להיות מעלה לה מדינר זהב לחדש

(g)

Answer: They made it like one who was Mekadesh a woman on condition to give to her 12 gold Dinarim in a year - he gives to her a gold Dinar each month.

תני זנה חמש שנים הראשונים בין ביוקר בין בזול

(h)

(Beraisa): He feeds her the first five years, whether [food] is expensive or cheap;

היו ביוקר והזילו אם הוא גרים נותן ביוקר ואם היא גרמה נותן בזול

(i)

[If he did not feed her the first five years - if food] was expensive and became cheap, if he caused [that he was not feeding her], he gives like the expensive rate. If she caused, he gives like the cheap rate.

היו בזול והוקירו בין שהוא גרם בין שהיא גרמה נותנין בזול

(j)

If [food] was cheap and became expensive, whether he caused or she caused, he gives like the cheap rate.

הדא היא הבת לא עולה ולא יורדת

1.

This is like a Beraisa taught - a daughter does not rise or descend. (He always feeds her for five years, even when he does not give to her based on the current price of food, e.g. food was expensive and became cheap, and he caused. We do not say that he feeds her now for more years (e.g. seven) so that in all he pays like he should have. Rather, for five years he gives to her based on the initial price. Perhaps this is the intent of SEDEI YEHOSHUA.)

תמן תנינן בנן נוקבן דיהוון ליכי מינאי יהון יתבן בביתי ומיתזנן מניכסיי

(k)

(Mishnah): [It says in the Kesuvah] 'female children that you will have from me, they will dwell in my house and be fed from my property [until they marry men]';

ותני עלה ומתכסיין בכסותי

1.

A Beraisa taught on this [Mishnah] says 'and they will be covered with my garments (i.e. from my estate).'

מעשה ידי הבת של מי

(l)

Question: Who receives a daughter's earnings?

1.

Note: Just before this, the Yerushalmi cited a Mishnah about a daughter fed from her father's estate due to Tenai Kesuvah. This suggests that we ask about such a daughter. However, if so, what proof do we bring from men who stipulated to feed step-daughters?! Therefore, we explain like KORBAN HA'EDAH, that we discuss one whose step-father stipulated to feed her.

נישמעינה מן הדא נישאת הבעל חייב במזונותיה והן נותנין לה דמי מזונות הדא אמרה זנה ומעשה ידיה של בעלה

(m)

Answer: We learn from the following (Mishnah): If she made Nisu'in, her husband must feed her, and they (her step-fathers) give to her the money for food. This teaches that he feeds her, and her earnings belong to her husband. (We must say that before she married, her earnings were her own. If not, her husband would not get her earnings, and would not be obligated to feed her.)

אמר ר' יוסי הדא אמרה פסק לזון כלתו זנה ומעשה ידיה של בנו

(n)

Inference (R. Yosi): If one stipulated to feed his daughter-in-law, he feeds her, and her earnings belong to his son (her husband).

הוא רוצה שתבוא אצלו והיא אינה רוצה הדין עמה

(o)

If he (one who stipulated to feed his step-daughter or daughter-in-law) wants her to come to him, and she does not want, the law favors her (he must feed her even if she is not with him).

דתנינן והן נותנין לה דמי מזונות

1.

Source (Mishnah): [If she married, her husband feeds her,] and [her step-fathers] give to her the money for food.

חלת כמי שנישאת

(p)

If she became sick, it is as if she married. (He gives to her the money for food, even if she does not eat normally due to her illness.)

מתה כמי שנישאת

(q)

Question: If she died, is it as if she married (and he gives to her heirs the money for food)?

מתה כבר מתה:

(r)

Answer: If she died, she died (there is no more obligation).

2)

COLLECTING FROM ONE WHO STIPULATED TO FEED HIS STEP-DAUGHTER (Yerushalmi Perek 12 Halachah 2 Daf 64b)

מתני' ניסת הבת הבעל חייב במזונותיה והן נותנין לה דמי מזונות

(a)

(Mishnah): If the daughter made Nisu'in, her husband feeds her, and [her step-fathers] give to her the money for food.

מתו בנותיהן ניזונות מנכסים בני חורין והיא ניזונת מנכסים משועבדין מפני שהיא כבעלת חוב

(b)

If [her step-fathers] died, their own daughters are fed from Bnei Chorin. She (their step-daughter) is fed [even] from Meshubadim (property sold after they stipulated to feed her), because she is like a creditor.

הפיקחין היו כותבין על מנת שאזון את בתך ה' שנים כל זמן שאת עמי:

(c)

Clever men would write '[I marry you] on condition that I will feed your daughter for five years, as long as you are with (married to) me.'

גמ' תניי כתובה שכתבו בשטר ר' יעקב בר אחא אמר איתפלגון ר' יוחנן ור"ש בן לקיש ר' יוחנן אמר לחיזוק כתבן ורבי שמעון בן לקיש אמר לגבות ממשועבדים כתבן

(d)

(Gemara): If Tanayim of the Kesuvah were written in a document, R. Yochanan and Reish Lakish argue about this. R. Yochanan says, they were written for Chizuk (merely to strengthen the matter). Reish Lakish says, they were written to enable collection from Meshubadim.

ר' ירמיה מחליף שמועתה

(e)

R. Yirmeyah reversed the opinions (R. Yochanan says, for collection from Meshubadim. Reish Lakish says, for mere Chizuk.)

אמר ר' יודן מתניתא מסייעה למאן דמר לחיזוק כתבן

(f)

(R. Yudan): A Mishnah supports the one who says that they were written for Chizuk;

[דף סה עמוד א] דתנינן תמן אין מוציאין לאכילת פירות ולשבח קרקעות ולמזון האשה והבנות מנכסים המשועבדין מפני תיקון העולם

1.

(Mishnah): We do not take [compensation for] consumed Peros (if Reuven bought a field from Shimon, and really it was Levi's, Levi takes back the field with any Peros that are on it, and Reuven collects their value from Shimon), Shevach to land (in the above case, Shimon compensates Reuven for improvements that he made to the field), or food for the widow and (orphaned) daughters [from the deceased's estate] from Meshubadim, due to Tikun ha'Olam.

לא בשטר אף הכא בשטר

2.

Is this not [even] with a document?! (It is no Chidush not to take for consumed Peros or Shevach if there was no document.) Also here (food for the widow or daughters) is [even] with a document.

אמר ר' חנניה מפני שהיא כבעלת חוב לא בשטר אף הכא בשטר.

(g)

(R. Chananyah): [Also our Mishnah supports him! If they died, their own daughters are fed from Bnei Chorin. Their step-daughter is fed from Meshubadim] because she is like a creditor. Does she not have a document (in order to collect from Meshubadim)?! Also here (the daughters) is with a document! (It connotes that the only difference between them is that the step-daughter is like a creditor.)

מתה אינה עמו נתגרשה אינה עמו

(h)

[If he wrote to feed her daughter as long as the mother is with him,] if she died, she is not with him. If she was divorced, she is not with him.

החזירה מאן דאמר לכתובה אבל לא לתנאין (תני מאן דאמר בין לכתובה בין לתנאין מה תני) [צ"ל הכא נמי מ"ד בין לכתובה בין לתנאין הכא נמי - קרבן העדה]

(i)

If he remarried her - the one who says that he returned her for the Kesuvah but not for Tana'im, also here (the Tenai for her daughter does not return). The one who says that he returned her both for Kesuvah and Tana'im, also here (he resumes to feed her daughter).

הפיקחין היו כותבין על מנת שאני זן את בתך חמש שנים כל זמן שאת עמי

(j)

(Mishnah): Clever men would write 'on condition that I will feed your daughter for five years, as long as you are with me.'

ותני עלה ובלבד מן הנישואין הראשונים

(k)

A Beraisa taught about this 'only from the first Nisu'in.' (Seemingly, this is like the opinion that he returned her only for Kesuvah. SHIREI KORBAN - the other opinion can explain, such a stipulation is acquired verbally only in the first Nisu'in.)

ואתייא כיי דמר ר' חנינא המשיא את בנו בבית זכה בבית ובלבד מן הנישואין הראשונים:

1.

This is like R. Chanina said - one who married off his son in a house, [the son] acquired the house. This is only for the first Nisu'in (amidst great pleasure, the father resolves to give it).

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