A MARRIAGE THAT WAS INITIALLY INVALID (Yerushalmi Perek 9 Halachah 10 Daf 57b)

תני רבי חנן קומי רבי הילא תרין אמורין חד אמר לכתובה אבל לא לתנאין וחרנה אמר בין בכתובה בין לתנאין


(R. Chanin, in front of R. Heila): (Our Mishnah said that if a minor's father married him off, and he matured, or a married Nochri converted with his wife, her Kesuvah is valid.) Two Amora'im argued. One said that this refers to [Ikar] Kesuvah, but not to stipulations (additions). The other said that this refers to both to Kesuvah and stipulations (additions).

ניחא גר קטן וקטן מגרש


Question: (We are thinking that these refer to the previous clause, one who remarries his ex-wife does so on condition that she will receive only her original Kesuvah.) This is fine for a convert. Can a minor divorce?!

אמר רבי חגיי קיימתיה כיי דמר ר' לעזר בשם רבי חנינה והוא שבא עליה משנתפקח ומשנשתפה וכא הוא שבא עליה משהגדיל:


Answer (R. Chagai): I answered this like R. Elazar said in the name of R. Chaninah, (if a husband was a Cheresh or a wife was a lunatic, and he or she became healthy and they stay married, she has a Kesuvah;) this is if he had Bi'ah with her after he became healthy or she became sane. And here, he had Bi'ah with her after he matured.

הדרן עלך פרק הכותב לאשתו

WHICH WIFE HAS PRECEDENCE TO COLLECT HER KESUVAH? (Yerushalmi Perek 10 Halachah 1 Daf 57b)

מתני' מי שהיה נשוי לשתי נשים ומת הראשונה קודמת לשנייה יורשי הראשונה קודמין ליורשי השנייה


(Mishnah): If a man had two wives and he died, his first wife collects before the second, and her heirs collect before the heirs of the second;

נשא את הראשונה ומתה נשא שנייה ומת הוא [דף נח עמוד א] שנייה ויורשיה קודמין ליורשי הראשונה:


If he married a woman and she died, and then he married a second woman and he died, the second woman or her heirs collect before the heirs of the first wife.

גמ' מתניתא לענין כתובה אבל לענין מזונות שתיהן שוות


(Gemara): Our Mishnah refers to the Kesuvah, but for food, both of them have equal rights.

כתובה וקבורה מי קודם


Question: [If one wife died, and before she was buried her husband died, and he did not leave over enough property for his remaining wife's] Kesuvah and burial [of the Mes], which has precedence? (When a wife dies, burial is in place of her Kesuvah.)

כתובה ומלוה בעדים מי קודם


Question: Kesuvah and a loan through witnesses (without a document), which has precedence? (The loan was a prior Chiyuv, but only the Kesuvah is collected from Meshubadim. We explained these like R. MEIR SIMCHAH.)

כתובה ופרנסת בנות מי קודם


Question: Kesuvah and Parnasah of the daughters (each orphaned daughter receives a 10th of the estate when she marries), which has precedence?

מאן דאמר גובין פרנסה מן משועבדין פרנסת בנות קודמת ומאן דמר אין גובין פרנסה מן משועבדין אין פרנסת בנות קודמת


Answer: According to the opinion that we collect Parnasah from Meshubadim, Parnasah of the daughters has precedence. According to the opinion that we do not collect Parnasah from Meshubadim, Parnasah of the daughters does not have precedence. (SEFER NIR - all agree that we do not collect Parnasah from what the father sold. Rather, we discuss property that the sons sold after death of the father.)

לא אמר אלא מתה הא נתגרשה כבעל חוב היא


Limitation: [We say that the first wife and her heirs collect before the second and her heirs] only when he died, but if he divorced her, she is like a creditor (and the second wife has precedence);

כהדא דתני נשא אשה וכתב לה כתובה גירשה ולא נתן לה כתובה נשא אחרת וכתב לה כתובה החזיר את הראשונה וכתב לה כתובה על כתובתה הראשונה של ראשונה קודמת לשנייה ויורשיה והשנייה ויורשיה קודמין (ליורשי) [צ"ל לשנייה של - שערי תורת ארץ ישראל] הראשונה


Source (Beraisa): If one married a woman, wrote to her a Kesuvah, divorced her and did not give her the Kesuvah, and he married another and wrote her a Kesuvah, and remarried the first and wrote to her a Kesuvah in addition to her first Kesuvah, [collection of] the first [Kesuvah] of the first wife has precedence over [collection rights of] the second [wife] and her heirs, and the second and her heirs have precedence over [collection of] the second [Kesuvah] of the first wife. (SHA'AREI TORAS ERETZ YISRAEL)

אמר בן ננס (יורשי הראשונה אומרים) [צ"ל אם מתה אחת בחייו ואחת במותו יכולין יורשי הראשונה לומר - קרבן העדה] ליורשי השנייה אם כבעל חוב אתם טלו את שלכם וצאו [צ"ל ואנו נטול השאר בכתובת בנין דכרין - קרבן העדה] ואם לאו אנו ואתם נחלוק בשוה


Ben Nanas says, if one [wife] died in his lifetime and one after his death, the heirs of the first can say to the heirs of the second 'if you are like a creditor, take your [Kesuvah] and leave, and we take the rest due to Kesuvas Benin Dichrin. If not, we and you will divide equally.'


Note: 'Kesuvah' is Ikar Kesuvah (100 or 200). Kesuvas Benin Dichrin is an enactment that a woman's sons inherit the dowry she brought into the marriage. If not, people would fear to give a nice dowry, lest the husband's sons from other women inherit most of it.

אמר לו ר"ע בני שנייה קפצה עליהן ירושת תורה ונוטלין כתובת אמן וחוזרין וחולקין


R. Akiva: The latter's heirs, [when the husband died] Torah inheritance jumped upon them [and Kesuvas Benin Dichrin is Batel]. They receive their mother's Kesuvah, and return to divide [the rest of the Mes' property equally].

רבי מנא אמר בשיש שם דינר יתר נחלקו אבל אם אין שם דינר יתר אף (רבי עקיבה יודה לבן ננס שאילו ואילו חולקין בשוה) [צ"ל בן ננס יודי לר"ע בני השניה קפצה עליהן ירושת תורה ונוטלין כתובת אמן וחוזרין וחולקין - פני משה]


(R. Mana): They argue about when there is an extra Dinar [above Ikar Kesuvah and both dowries], but if there is not an extra Dinar, even Ben Nanas agrees to R. Akiva that sons of the second, Torah inheritance jumped upon them, and they receive their mother's Kesuvah and return to divide [the rest. Kesuvas Benin Dichrin applies only when there is an extra Dinar to fulfill Torah inheritance.]

אמר ליה רבי יוסי בי ר' בון הך דלא תניתא פליגא את עבד ליה פליגא


Objection (R. Yosi bei R. Bun): Where an argument was not taught, you make an argument?! (Ben Nanas' words 'take your [Kesuvah] and leave, and we take the rest due to Kesuvas Benin Dichrin' connotes that there is no extra Dinar. In this case, he and R. Akiva argue. We have no source that they argue about when there is an extra Dinar!)

אלא בשאין שם יתר דינר נחלקו אבל אם יש שם יתר דינר אף (בן ננס יודי לרבי עקיבא בני השנייה קפצה עליהן ירושת תורה ונוטלין כתובת אמן וחוזרין וחולקין) [צ"ל רבי עקיבה יודה לבן ננס שאילו ואילו חולקין בשוה - פני משה]


Rather, they argue about when there is no extra Dinar, but if there is an extra Dinar, even R. Akiva agrees to Ben Nanas that both of them divide equally (if the second's sons do not want the first's sons to take Kesuvas Benin Dichrin. We explained this like PNEI MOSHE. SEFER NIR points out that this is unlike the Bavli, which holds that Kesuvas Benin Dichrin applies even if the second's sons do not want it to.)

והחוב ממעט ודכוותה והחוב מרבה


A debt (that the Mes owed) can diminish [the estate, so there is no extra Dinar], and a debt (that was owed to the Mes) can increase [the estate, so there is an extra Dinar].

היך עבידא היה שם שדה והיא עתידה לחזור ביובל את רואה אותן כאילו (מוחזרת היך עבידא) [צ"ל כבר חזר - קרבן העדה]


What is the case? If there was a field [that the Mes sold], and it is destined to return in Yovel, we view it as if it was returned [in the calculation of the estate. And likewise if he bought a field that will return in Yovel, we view it as if it was returned.]

[דף נח עמוד ב] קידש רחל וכנס לאה וחזר וכנס רחל על דעתון דרבנין רחל קודמת ועל דעתיה דר' אלעזר בן עזריה לאה קודמת


If he was Mekadesh Rachel, and entered (made Nisu'in with) Leah, and returned and entered Rachel, according to Rabanan (who say that an Arusah collects her full Kesuvah), Rachel has precedence [to collect her entire Kesuvah]. According to R. Elazar ben Azaryah (Rachel has precedence only for the 100 or 200 that an Arusah receives. For the additions), Leah has precedence.

אומר אף רבי לעזר מודי מאחר שחזר וכנס רחל רחל קודמת


Rejection: Even R. Lazar agrees that after he returned and entered Rachel, Rachel has precedence (she has a lien for her entire Kesuvah from Eirusin, on condition that she make Nisu'in. We explained this like PNEI MOSHE);

למה זה דומה לאחד שלווה מחבירו ואמר לו אם לא החזרתי לך מיכן עד י"ב חדש יהיו כל נכסי משועבדין לך הגיע י"ב חדש ולא החזיר נשתעבדו הנכסים מיכן ולבא


What is this like? It is like one who borrowed from his friend, and said 'if I do not return it to you within 12 months, all my property is Meshubad to you.' The 12 months came and he did not return. The property is Meshubad from now (the time of the loan) and onwards;

אבל אם אמר לו לא יהו נכסי משועבדין לך אלא לאחר י"ב חדש לא נשתעבדו אלא לאחר י"ב חדש


However, if he told him 'my property is not Meshubad to you until after 12 months, it is not Meshubad until after 12 months.

ימים שבנתיים תפלוגתא דרבי מאיר ורבנין על דעתיה דרבי מאיר בשטר נתחייבו הנכסים על דעתיה דרבנן בכסף נתחייבו:


The days in between (during the 12 months), R. Meir and Rabanan argue [about the status of the property]. According to R. Meir, the property is Meshubad through a document. According to Rabanan, the property is Meshubad through money. (R. MEIR SIMCHAH - the Yerushalmi holds that Shibud is mid'Oraisa, through the loan itself, just Chachamim removed Shibud when there is no document. Stipulating that there is no Shibud until after 12 months is a Tenai against Torah. Chachamim hold that the Tenai is Batel; the money [lent] creates a Shibud immediately. R. Meir holds that a Tenai against Torah is sustained if it is possible to fulfill, e.g. selling an Amah Ivriyah on condition not to do Yi'ud. Here it is possible not to collect from Meshubadim within 12 months, so the Tenai is sustained; the Shibud is like the document says, i.e. only after 12 months.)