KESUVOS 111-112 - Dedicated in memory of Max (Meir Menachem ben Shlomo ha'Levi) Turkel, by his children Eddie and Lawrence and his wife Jean Turkel/Rafalowicz. Max was a warm and loving husband and father and is missed dearly by his family and friends. His Yahrzeit is 5 Teves.

[111a - 53 lines; 111b - 53 lines]

1)[line 1]"בבלה יובאו ושמה יהיו עד יום פקדי אתם נאם ה' [והעליתים והשיבתים אל המקום הזה]""BAVELAH YUVA'U, V'SHAMAH YIHEYU [AD YOM PAKDI OSAM, NE'UM HASH-M, V'HA'ALISIM V'HASHIVOSIM EL HA'MAKOM HA'ZEH]" - "They (the holy vessels of the Beis ha'Mikdash] will be brought to Bavel and there they will remain [until I remember them, says HaSh-m; then I will bring them up and return them to this place.]" (Yirmeyahu 27:22) (THE VESSELS REMAIN IN BAVEL)

(a)This prophecy was said in response to the false prophets who were predicting the speedy return of the holy vessels that Nevuchadnetzar had taken to Bavel when he exiled Yechonyah. Not only would those vessels not return, but the vessels that Nevuchadnetzar had not yet sent into exile would be taken to Bavel as well, at the time of Galus Tzidkiyahu, which would occur a few years later. In Bavel they would remain until such time as HaSh-m would remember them and redeem them from Galus (in the days of Koresh, King of Persia).

(b)The verse relates the specific case of Chananyah ben Ezur, a false prophet, who predicted in HaSh-m's name (in the presence of the Kohanim and all the people who were standing in the Beis ha'Mikdash) that in two years' time, the exile people that had been sent to Bavel together with Yechonyah ha'Melech and the holy vessels that Nevuchadnetzar had taken into exile at the same time were destined to return. Yirmeyahu ha'Navi replied fervently, "Amen! So may it be the will of HaSh-m!"

(c)Yirmeyahu explained that a negative prophecy can be changed, should the people do Teshuvah. Consequently, in the event that Chananyah's prophecy came true, this would in no way interfere with the reputation of Yirmeyahu as a true prophet. A positive prophecy (such as that of Chananyah), on the other hand, cannot be reversed. That being the case, if his prophecy would fail to materialize, he would be proven to be a Navi Sheker, a false prophet.

(d)After Chananyah attempted to substantiate his false predictions, HaSh-m instructed Yirmeyahu to inform him that he would die that year. He died on Erev Rosh Hashanah of that year, and in a final attempt to prove Yirmeyahu wrong, he instructed his sons to hide his death until after Rosh Hashanah, and to make it appear as though he had not died that same year as Yirmeyahu said he would.

(e)Unfortunately, it was Yirmuyahu ha'Navi's prophecy, and not that of Chananyah, that materialized.

2)[line 4]"השבעתי אתכם בנות ירושלים...""HISHBATI ESCHEM BENOS YERUSHALAYIM..."- "I adjure you, O daughters of Yerushalayim, by the gazelles or by the hinds of the field, should you wake or rouse the love until it pleases." (Shir ha'Shirim 2:7, 3:5) - Note that there are two identical verses and another similar verse (ibid. 8:4) that account for the various oaths mentioned in our Gemara. A fourth verse (ibid. 5:8) is not considered, since it does not mention Ta'iru or Te'oreru, the words that hint to the oaths. (See SHITAH MEKUBETZES and MAHARSHA.)

3)[line 6]שלא יעלו ישראל בחומהSHE'LO YA'ALU YISRAEL B'CHOMAH- that Bnei Yisrael should not band together and come to Eretz Yisrael by force, like a fortifying wall

4)[line 13]שלא יגלו את הקץS HE'LO YEGALU ES HA'KETZ- that the prophets among them should not reveal [the time of] the End [of Days] (RASHI)

5)[line 13]ושלא ירחקו את הקץSHE'LO YERACHAKU ES HA'KETZ- (a) that Bnei Yisrael should not delay the final redemption by sinning; (b) According to the Girsa SHE'LO YIDCHAKU ES HA'KETZ - that Bnei Yisrael should not force the final redemption to come with their prayers (this Shevu'ah does not apply today; in fact, the opposite is true - ARIZAL to Shir ha'Shirim 8:4)

6)[line 15]אני מתיר את בשרכםANI MATIR ES BESARCHEM- I will permit your flesh [to be taken by anybody who wants]

7)[line 17]"ובל יאמר שכן חליתי העם היושב בה נשוא עון""U'VAL YOMAR SHACHEN CHALISI HA'AM HA'YOSHEV BAH NESU AVON."- "And the inhabitant [of Yerushalayim] shall not say, 'I am sick'; the people who dwell there shall be forgiven their iniquity." (Yeshayah 33:24) - The inhabitants of Yerushalayim shall not say that they are sick from all of their troubles because their sins will be forgiven and there will be no more troubles or sicknesses (METZUDOS ibid.).

8)[line 18]אנן בסובלי חלאים מתנינן להANAN B'SOVLEI CHALA'IM MASNINAN LAH- we learn that this verse is referring to people who are suffering from illnesses

9)[line 22]"[לכן כה אמר ה' אשתך בעיר תזנה ובניך ובנתיך בחרב יפלו ואדמתך כחבל תחלק ואתה] על אדמה טמאה תמות [וישראל גלה יגלה מעל אדמתו]""... AL ADAMAH TEME'AH TAMUS..." - "[Therefore, so says HaSh-m: 'Your wife will commit adultery in the city, your sons and daughters will be killed by the sword, your land will be divided up by a rope (measure),] you will die in a Tamei land [and Yisrael will be exiled from their land.']" (Amos 7:17) (AMATZYAH, KOHEN OF BEIS EL, AND AMOS HA'NAVI)

(a)After Amatzyah, the Kohen of Beis El, informed King Yeravam (the second) that Amos rebelled in that he had prophesied that the king would die and the Ten Tribes would be exiled from their land, he turned to Amos and ordered him to run away to Yehudah and to eat bread and prophesy there, for he had no business to prophesy in Beis El which housed the sanctuary of the King of Yisrael, where they served idols and not HaSh-m.

(b)The above verse was Amos' answer to Amatzyah's attack. As a result of internal strife at the end of the reign of Hoshe'a ben Eilah (the last king of Yisrael), when he attempted to stop the worship of the Golden Calf, Amatzyah fled to Chutz la'Aretz, where he died. His sons and daughters were killed by the king, his wife became a prostitute, and the people of Yisrael were exiled from their land by Sancheriv.

10)[line 23]קולטתו מחייםKOLATETO ME'CHAYIM- (lit. when Eretz Yisrael receives him from a state of life) when he dies in Eretz Yisrael

11)[line 24]בי חוזאהBEI CHOZA'AH- a district of Bavel on the caravan road, along the Tigris River and its canals

12)[line 24]למיחתL'MEICHAS- to go down [to Bavel]

13)[line 25]כותיתKUSIS- a Nochris, i.e. a Jewess who lives outside of Eretz Yisrael

14)[line 25]והוא ירד אחריוV'HU YERED ACHARAV!?- and he (i.e. you) wants to go down to Bavel after him?!

15)[line 27]מפומבדיתא לבי כוביMI'PUMBEDISA L'VEI KUVEI- from Pumbedisa (lit. Mouth of Bedisa, a canal of the Euphrates) to Bei Kuvei, which was six Parsa'os away. Pumbedisa was the location of a great Yeshiva in Bavel, which existed for 800 years. The scholars of Pumbedisa were known for their keen intellect (Bava Metzia 38b). To emphasize its importance as a Torah center, Rabah and Rav Yosef stated that just as one is prohibited from leaving Eretz Yisrael to Chutz la'Aretz, so is one prohibited from leaving Pumbedisa.

16)[line 29]לאסתוניאL'ISTUNIYA- a place near Pumbedisa

17)[line 31]כל הארצות עיסה לארץ ישראלKOL HA'ARATZOS ISAH L'ERETZ YISRAEL- (a) all lands are considered as a dough with regard to Eretz Yisrael; just as the different ingredients of a dough are indiscernible from one another, the different families that live outside of Eretz Yisrael are indiscernible (which ones are of reputable lineage and which ones are Mamzerim) (RASHI); (b) all lands are considered waste in comparison with Eretz Yisrael; the Kohanim and the other inhabitants of Eretz Yisrael were careful to inspect the lineage of all of its inhabitants (RASHI to Kidushin 69b; Rashi (ibid. 71a) cites REBBI MOSHE ME'ROMAT, who claims that the word "Isah" refers to the solid grape waste that is left after the juice is squeezed out)

18)[line 33]"הוי ציון המלטי יושבת בת בבל""HOY TZIYON! HIMALTI YOSHEVES BAS BAVEL!"- "Ho! Escape, O Tziyon, you who dwell with the daughter of Bavel." (Zecharyah 2:11) - Even while Bnei Yisrael were in Bavel, they were called "Yoshevei Tziyon" (SHITAH MEKUBETZES).

19)[line 34]נקטינןNAKTINAN- we have a tradition

20)[line 34]חבלי דמשיחCHEVLEI D'MASHI'ACH- the "birth pangs" of (i.e. the suffering before) the coming of Mashi'ach

21)[line 34]אהוצל דבנימיןA'HUTZAL D'VINYAMIN- to a city in Bavel, located between Sura and Neharde'a, that was walled from the time of Yehoshua bin Nun, where members of the tribe of Binyamin may have settled after they were taken into exile

22)[line 34]קרנא דשיזבתאKARNA D'SHEIZVASA- the corner (nook) of refuge

23)[line 35]"... ונתתי צבי בארץ חיים""... V'NASATI TZEVI B'ERETZ CHAYIM"- "[When I shall bring you down with those who descend into the pit, with the people of old, and shall set you in the lowest parts of the earth, in places desolate of old, with those who go down to the pit, so that you will not be inhabited;] but I shall bestow splendor on the land of the living." (Yechezkel 26:20)

24)[line 35]שצביוני בהSHE'TZIVYONI BAH- [a land] that I desire; [a land] in which I take pleasure

25)[line 36]"יחיו מתיך נבלתי יקומון...""YICHYU MESECHA, NEVEILASI YEKUMUN..."- "Your [righteous] dead men shall live, together with my (i.e. the nation of Yisrael's) dead body shall they arise. [Awake and sing, you who dwell in dust; for your dew is as the dew of herbs, and the earth shall cast out the shades of the dead.]" (Yeshayah 26:19)

26)[line 38]מייתינא עלייהוMAISINA ALAIHU- I will bring upon them

27)[line 38]מלכא דקליל כי טביאM ALKA D'KALIL KI TAVYA- a king that is as swift as a gazelle

28)[line 39]בנפליםB'NEFALIM- with stillborn fetuses

29)[line 43]ע''י גלגולAL YEDEI GILGUL- through the rolling of their bones until they reach Eretz Yisrael

30)[line 44]מחילותMECHILOS- tunnels

31)[line 45]דברים בגוDEVARIM B'GO- there are matters concealed in this

32)[line 49]גלגל בעצמו עד יום מותוG ILGEL B'ATZMO AD YOM MOSO- he suffered his pain until the day of his death [and did not leave to marry her]

33)[line 51]ואם אין אתה עולה הזהר בשלשה דבריםV'IM EIN ATAH OLEH HIZAHER BI'SHELOSHAH DEVARIM- that is, the air of Eretz Yisrael is healthier and you need not take so much care to avoid the following illnesses, but if you remain in Chutz la'Aretz you must take care to avoid the following illnesses.

34)[line 51]לתחתוניותTACHTONIYUS- hemorrhoids


35)[line 2](וכן) [וכאן] אמרו(V'CHEN) [V'CHAN] AMRU- This Girsa is found in the SHITAH MEKUBETZES and manuscripts. (a) Rabah had apparently asked his brothers in Eretz Yisrael to determine who had ruled like Rebbi Yehudah regarding mules. The answer to his question was appended to a lengthy outburst of Agadah meant to persuade Rabah to move to Eretz Yisrael and join his brothers - SHITAH MEKUBETZES; (b) This was part of the attempt to persuade Rabah to move to Eretz Yisrael. His brothers pointed out that he can only receive Semichah if he comes to Eretz Yisrael (Sanhedrin 5a). They continued, "If you think that it will not help you receive Semichah since you are among the descendants of Eli ha'Kohen (Rosh Hashanah 18a), who was cursed that his children will never receive Semichah (Sanhedrin 14a), do not despair. Many Tana'im ruled that we do not follow the lineage of the father (alone) in these matters, and therefore since your mother is not a descendant of Eli ha'Kohen you may merit to receive a Semichah after all - RABEINU CHANANEL, cited by SEFER YUCHASIN, Ma'amar ha'Sheni; see MAHARIT, PNEI YEHOSHUA, IYUN YAKOV.

36)[line 4]פרדהPIRDAH- a female mule

37)[line 5]שתבעהSHE'TAV'AH- that made it clear that it wanted relations

38)[line 5]מרביעיןMARBI'IN- to bring a male animal upon a female animal

39)[line 10]"[מתים בל יחיו] רפאים בל יקומו...""[MESIM BAL YICHYU;] REFA'IM BAL YAKUMU..."- "[They are dead, they shall not live;] they are shades, they shall not rise; [therefore have you visited and destroyed them, and made all their memory to perish.]" (Yeshayah 26:14)

40)[line 13]"כי טל אורות טליך וארץ רפאים תפיל""KI TAL OROS TALECHA, V'ERETZ REFA'IM TAPIL"- "[Your (righteous) dead men shall live, together with my (i.e. the nation of Yisrael's) dead body shall they arise. Awake and sing, you who dwell in dust;] for your dew is as the dew of herbs, and the earth shall cast out the shades of the dead." (Yeshayah 26:19)

41)[line 18]והעושה פרקמטיאHA'OSEH PERAKMATYA- the one who deals in merchandise

42)[line 23]שמבצבצין ועוליןSHE'MEVATZBETZIN V'OLIN- that they will break through (the ground) and rise

43)[line 23]"ויציצו מעיר כעשב הארץ""V'YATZITZU ME'IR K'ESEV HA'ARETZ."- "[May there be abundance of grain in the land, may it wave on the tops of the mountains; may its fruit be like Lebanon;] and may the men of the city flourish like grass of the earth." (Tehilim 72:16)

44)[line 24]"וגנותי אל העיר הזאת [להושיעה למעני ולמען דוד עבדי]""V'GANOSI EL HA'IR HA'ZOS [L'HOSHI'AH LEMA'ANI U'LEMA'AN DAVID AVDI']" - "And I will protect this city (Yerushalayim) [for My sake and for the sake of David My servant.]" (Melachim 2 19:34) (HASH-M PROTECTS YERUSHALAYIM AGAINST SANCHERIV'S ARMY)

(a)Chizkiyahu prayed fervently to HaSh-m and sent the messengers who brought him the news of Ravshakei's blasphemy to Yeshayah ha'Navi for further instructions. This is part of HaSh-m's reply via Yeshayah after issuing a stinging attack against Sancheriv for daring to insult HaSh-m and Yisrael in the brazen manner that he did. He informed the king that his Tefilos had been answered, and assured them that he had nothing whatsoever to fear.

(b)Sure enough, Sancheriv, King of Ashur, was forced to return to his country immediately to ward off an attack by Tarhakei, King of Kush. He later returned to besiege Yerushalayim with what must have been one of the largest armies ever seen, but after his entire army died overnight he returned in disgrace to Assyria, together with his two sons. A short while later he was murdered by his own two sons as he went to worship in his temple.

(c)See Background to Sanhedrin 94:56-57.

45)[line 27]גלוסקאותGELUSKA'OS- a delicate bread made from fine white flour

46)[line 27]וכלי מילתV'KLEI MEILAS- and garments of fine wool

47)[line 28]"יהי פסת בר בארץ""YEHI FISAS BAR BA'ARETZ "- "May there be abundance of grain in the land..." (Tehilim 72:16) - Rav Yosef interprets the words "Fisas Bar" in two ways. Since "Pisas" means the palm of the hand, and grain this large is not found, it refers to a loaf of bread that is as wide as the palm of the hand. Alternatively, "Pisas" is similar to Kesones Pasim, and "Bar" also means pure or clean. As such, these words refer to garments made of pure (clean) fine wool grown from the land (RASHI).

48)[line 29]שתתמר כדקלSHE'TETAMER K'DEKEL- that it will grow as tall as a palm tree

49)[line 30]"ירעש כלבנון פריו""YIR'ASH KA'LEVANON PIRYO"- "[May there be abundance of grain in the land, may it wave on the tops of the mountains;] may its fruit be like Lebanon; [and may the men of the city flourish like grass of the earth.]" (Tehilim 72:16)

50)[line 30]ומשרה את סלתהMASHREH ES SOLTAH- makes its fine flour fall to the ground

51)[line 31]מלא פיסת ידוMELO FISAS YADO- an amount that fills the palm of his hand

52)[line 31]"עם חלב כליות חטה""IM CHELEV KILYOS CHITAH"- "[Butter of cows, and milk of sheep, with fat of lambs, and rams of the breed of Bashan, and goats,] with the fat of kidneys of wheat; [and you did drink the wine of the pure blood of the grape.]" (Devarim 32:14) - The Gemara interprets the plural form of the word "Kilyos" (kidneys).

53)[line 32]כשתי כליות של שור הגדולKI'SHTEI KILYOS SHEL SHOR HA'GADOL- [the enormous grains of wheat will be] the size of the two kidneys of a large ox

54)[line 32]שועל קינן בלפתSHU'AL KINEN B'LEFES- a fox made his den in a turnip

55)[line 33]בליטרא של צפוריB'LITRA SHEL TZIPORI- with a measure of weight in Tzipori; the Litra is the Roman Libra, a pound

56)[line 33]בשיחיןSHICHIN- a town or city near Tzipori in the lower Galilee

57)[line 34]בדי חרדלBADEI CHARDAL- stalks of mustard

58)[line 34]ונפשחV'NIFSHACH- and it became separated [from its stalk]

59)[line 34]סוכת יוצריןSUKAS YOTZRIN- a booth used by potters

60)[line 35]קלח של כרובKELACH SHEL KERUV- a cabbage stalk

61)[line 35]"ודם ענב תשתה חמר""V'DAM ENAV TISHTEH CHAMER."- "[Butter of cows, and milk of sheep, with fat of lambs, and rams of the breed of Bashan, and goats, with the fat of kidneys of wheat;] and you did drink the wine of the pure blood of the grape." (Devarim 32:14)

62)[line 36]ענוה אחתANAVAH ACHAS- one grape

63)[line 36]בקרוןB'KARON- in a wagon

64)[line 37]כפטוס גדולK'PITUS GADOL- like a large cask

65)[line 38]גרבי ייןGARVEI YAYIN- jugs of wine

66a)[line 38]חמרCHOMER- a measure of capacity equal to one Kor (=30 Se'in)


1 Kor (Chomer) = 2 Lesachin

1 Lesech = 5 Efos

1 Efah = 3 Se'in

1 Se'ah (Garav) = 6 Kabin

1 Kav = 4 Lugin

1 Log = 6 Beitzim

1 Beitzah = approximately 0.05, 0.0576 or .1 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions

67)[line 39]"אסרי לגפן עירה [ולשרקה בני אתנו כבס ביין לבשו ובדם ענבים סותה]""OSRI LA'GEFEN IRO..."- "Binding his foal to the vine, [and his donkey's colt to the choice vine; he washed his garments in wine, and his clothes in the blood of grapes.]" (Bereishis 49:11)

68)[line 39]עיר אחתAYAR ACHAS- one foal (a young male donkey)

69)[line 41]מרוהMERAVEH- intoxicate

70)[line 41]סותהSUSO- his clothes (however, this word also has the connotation of causing to stray from the straight path (Hasatah), as wine inebriates a drunkard)

71)[line 42]חיךCHEICH- palate

72)[line 44]דבסים מחמראD'VASIM ME'CHAMRA- it is sweeter to us than wine

73)[line 45]דבסים מחלבאD'VASIM ME'CHALAVA- it is sweeter to us than milk

74)[line 46]מקרי דרדקיMAKREI DARDEKEI- a teacher of schoolboys (who teaches them to read verses)

75)[line 46]איפגרIPAGER- he took a[n unauthorized] leave of absence

76)[line 47]דלית אחתDALIS ACHAS- one grapevine

77)[line 50]וקנטיף דובשא מתאיניV'KANATIF DUVSHA MI'TE'EINEI- and fig-honey was dripping from the fig trees

78)[line 50]וחלבא טייף מנייהוV'CHALBA TAYIF MINAIHU- and milk was dripping from them

79)[line 51]מלוד לאונוMI'LOD L'ONO- from the town of Lod to the town of Ono. Lod was located in the present-day city by that name, southeast of Tel Aviv. During the time of the Gemara it was located on the road that led from Yerushalayim to Caesaria, and it had a mixed population. Ono was a Jewish town three Mil away from Lod.

80)[line 52]קדמתי בנשףKIDAMTI BA'NESHEF- I arose before dawn

81)[line 52]קרסוליKARSULAI- my ankles