THE ATTRIBUTES OF LIVING IN ERETZ YISRAEL (cont.)
R. Zeira wanted to go to Eretz Yisrael, so he was avoiding Rav Yehudah (his Rebbi).
(Rav Yehudah): Anyone who goes from Bavel to Eretz Yisrael transgresses an Aseh - "They will be brought to Bavel, and there they will be until I redeem them".
R. Zeira explains that the verse discusses the Kelim of the Mikdash.
Rav Yehudah holds that another verse forbids people to return - "I put an oath upon you, daughters of Yerushalayim, with deer or wild goats".
R. Zeira holds that this oath forbids Yisrael to return together, by force.
Rav Yehudah derives another oath from another verse, to forbid an individual to return.
R. Zeira learns that verse like R. Yosi b'Rebbi Chanina:
(R. Yosi b'Rebbi Chanina): The verses recount three oaths Hash-m imposed: Yisrael should not return together, by force; Yisrael should not rebel against the other nations; and the nations should not subjugate Yisrael too harshly.
Rav Yehudah: "If you will awaken, if you will arouse" shows that there were more oaths!
R. Zeira learns the additional oaths like R. Levi:
(R. Levi): The three additional oaths forbid us to reveal the time to redemption, to push off the redemption (alternatively - to demand redemption too strongly), and to reveal the secret (of the calculation of leap years and months, or of the reasons for Mitzvos) to the nations.
(R. Elazar): "With deer or wild goats" - if we do not keep the oaths, Hash-m will make our flesh prey for others, like flesh of deer or wild goats.
(R. Elazar): Anyone who lives in Eretz Yisrael dwells without sin - "the neighbors should not say that I struck the inhabitants, whose sin is borne".
(Rava): We learned that the verse refers to those who suffer intestinal sicknesses.
(Rav Anan): If one is buried in Eretz Yisrael, it is as if he is buried under the Mizbe'ach.
It says "A Mizbe'ach of earth", and it says "Its earth atones for its people."
Ula frequently came to Eretz Yisrael. He died in Chutz la'Aretz.
R. Elazar lamented "On Tamei ground you will die"!
Bearers of the news: His coffin is coming for burial here.
(R. Elazar): This is not the same as dying here.
A Yavam asked if he should go to Chutz la'Aretz to do Yibum.
R. Chanina: His brother died for marrying a Nochris (i.e. a resident of Chutz la'Aretz), blessed be Hash-m, Who killed him for that. Will the Yavam do the same?!
(Rav Yehudah citing Shmuel): Just like it is forbidden to go from Eretz Yisrael to Bavel, it is forbidden to go from Bavel (which has Yeshivos that spread Torah) to other lands.
(Rabah and Rav Yosef): One may not even go from Pumbedisa (Rav Yehudah, Rabah, Rav Yosef, Abaye and Rava were successive Roshei Yeshiva there) to Bei Kuvi.
A man went from Pumbedisa to Bei Kuvi, and Rav Yosef excommunicated him.
A man went from Pumbedisa to Astonya, and he died.
Abaye: Had this Chacham wanted to live, he could have lived (by staying in Pumbedisa)!
(Rabah and Rav Yosef): Eretz Yisrael absorbs the best of Bavel; Bavel absorbs the best of other lands.
Question: To what does this refer?
Suggestion: It refers to lineage.
Rejection: It was taught that we consider people of other lands to be of doubtful lineage relative to Eretz Yisrael, and Eretz Yisrael has doubtful lineage compared to Bavel! (Ezra took all people of bad lineage with him to Eretz Yisrael.)
Answer: Rather, it refers to burial.
(Rav Yehudah): One who dwells in Bavel is as if he dwells in Eretz Yisrael - "Take refuge in Tziyon, dwellers of Bavel".
(Abaye): We have a tradition that Bavel will not see the birthpangs of Mashi'ach. This refers to Hutzal of Binyamin.
Then it will be called "The horn of salvation."
REVIVAL OF THE DEAD IN CHUTZ LA'ARETZ
(R. Elazar): The dead in Chutz la'Aretz will not live - "I will put Tzvi (glory) in the land of the living." The dead will live only in the land in which is Tzivyoni (My desire).
Question (R. Aba bar Mamal - Beraisa): "Your dead will live" refers to those who die in Eretz Yisrael. "the Mesim of My nation will rise" are those who die in Chutz la'Aretz;
"I will put Tzvi in the land of the living" refers to Nevuchadnetzar, a king as fast as a deer, who was sent to ravage Eretz Yisrael!
Answer (R. Elazar): Another verse supports me - "He gives a soul to the nation on it (Eretz Yisrael) and spirit to those who walk in it";
"The Mesim of My nation" refers to stillborn babies (of Eretz Yisrael).
R. Aba explains "He gives a soul to the nation on it" like R. Avahu:
(R. Avahu): Even a Kena'ani slave in Eretz Yisrael is guaranteed a share in the world to come.
It says "He gives a soul l'Am (to the nation) on it", and it says "Wait here Im (with) the donkey" - we read 'Im' like 'Am', a nation that resembles a donkey.
(R. Yirmiyah bar Aba): "And spirit to those who walk in it" - anyone who walks four Amos in Eretz Yisrael is guaranteed a share in the world to come.
Question: Does R. Elazar really hold that the dead outside of Eretz Yisrael will not live?!
Answer (R. Ila): Their bones roll to Eretz Yisrael, and come to life in Eretz Yisrael.
Question (R. Aba Sala Rava): Surely, Tzadikim should not endure such pain!
Answer (Abaye): Underground tunnels are made for Tzadikim.
Question (Karna): Yakov Avinu knew that he was a total Tzadik. If the dead of Chutz la'Aretz live, why did he trouble his children to bury him in Eretz Yisrael?
Answer: He was concerned lest he not merit tunnels.
R. Chanina asked similarly about Yosef ha'Tzadik, and gave the same answer.
Rabah's brothers sent Karna's teaching to Rabah, to try to persuade him to come to Eretz Yisrael.
Ilfa added: There was a case of a man that was pained by his great desire for a woman who lived in Chutz la'Aretz. He was about to go; when he heard Karna's teaching, he held himself back, and stayed in Eretz Yisrael the rest of his life.
Even though you (Rabah) are great, one who learns from a Rav is incomparably better.
Don't say that you do not have a Rav here. There is R. Yochanan!
If you will not come, beware of three things:
Do not sit too much, for this causes Tachtoniyos (hemorrhoids);
Do not stand too much, since this is bad for the heart;
Do not walk too much, since this is bad for the eyes.
Rather, one should sit a third, stand a third, and walk a third.
It is better to stand than to sit unsupported.
Question: But he said that standing is bad for the heart!
Answer: Rather, it is better to stand with support than to sit unsupported.
(Yitzchak, Shimon and Oshaya): The Halachah follows R. Yehudah regarding mules.
(Beraisa - R. Yehudah): If a mule (it is a crossbreed of a horse and donkey) desires to mate, we may not mate it with a horse or donkey, only with a mule as itself (i.e. both of their mothers were horses, or both were donkeys. R. Yehudah is unsure whether or not we are concerned also for the father's seed, or if it is considered to be just like its mother.)
(Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak): Yitzchak (above) is R. Yitzchak Nafcha; Shimon is R. Shimon ben Pazi (alternatively - R. Shimon ben Lakish); Oshaya is R. Oshaya b'Rebbi.
WHO WILL BE REVIVED?
(R. Elazar): Ignoramuses will not be revived - "The dead will not live".
Support#1 (Beraisa) Suggestion: Perhaps "the dead will not live" applies to everyone!
Rejection: "Refa'im will not rise" - it discusses only those who Rifu (slackened) from Torah.
Rejection (R. Yochanan): No, the verse refers to those who served idolatry.
Support #2 (R. Elazar, for himself): "The dew of lights is Your dew, and You will cause Refa'im to fall to the ground" - the light of Torah revives only those who use the light of Torah.
R. Elazar saw that R. Yochanan was pained. He comforted him by showing that there is hope for ignoramuses:
Question: "You who cling to Hash-m are all alive today" - is it possible to cling to Hash-m?! "Hash-m is a consuming fire"!
Answer: Rather, if one who marries his daughter to a Chacham, does business for and benefits Chachamim from his property, the Torah considers him to cling to the Divine presence.
Question: "You will love Hash-m and cling to Him" - is it possible to cling to Hash-m?
Answer: Rather, if one marries his daughter to a Chacham, does business for and benefits Chachamim from his property, the Torah considers him to cling to the Shechinah.
(R. Chiya bar Rav Yosef): In the future, Tzadikim will rise from the ground in Yerushalayim - "They will sprout from the city like herbs".
"The city" is Yerushalayim - "I will protect this city".
(R. Chiya bar Rav Yosef): A Kal v'Chomer teaches that Tzadikim will return to life clothed:
Wheat is planted bare, and it rises with many covers. Tzadikim are buried clothed, all the more so they will rise clothed!
THE PRODUCE OF ERETZ YISRAEL
(R. Chiya bar Rav Yosef): In the future, buns and silk garments will grow in Eretz Yisrael - "Yehi Pisas Bar ba'Aretz" (alludes to something of grain as big as a palm (Pas), and also to Kesones Pasim).
(Beraisa): "Yehi Pisas Bar ba'Aretz b'Rosh Harim" - in the future, wheat will grow like palm trees on the mountaintops.
Suggestion: Perhaps it will be hard to harvest.
Rejection: "Its fruit will rustle like (trees of) Levanon" - Hash-m will bring a wind from His storehouse, causing the produce to fall. A person will take a handful from the field to feed his household.
"With choice Kilyos of wheat" - in the future, wheat will be like big like the two kidneys of a large ox.
Do not be surprised at this. A fox made its den in a turnip, and the remains of the turnip weighed 60 Litra (60 pounds).
(Beraisa - R. Yosi): In Sichin, a man inherited three branches of mustard. One split open; it contained nine Kavim of mustard, and the wood covered a potter's shack.
R. Shimon ben Tachlifa: My father left us a head of cabbage; we used a ladder to climb onto it.
"You will drink wine, the blood of the grape" - the world to come will be unlike this world;
In this world, it is a toil to harvest and press grapes. In the world to come, a man will bring a grape in a wagon or boat, put it in a corner of his house, and it will supply him like a fattened ox;
The vine branch will be used as fuel for cooking.
Each grape will contain 30 Sa'im of wine. We read "you will drink Cheimar" like Chomer (30 Sa'im).
(Rav Dimi): "He will tie his foal to the vine" - every vine in Eretz Yisrael will require a foal to harvest it.
"And his donkey's children to the Serekah (vine branch)" - every Serak (barren tree) will produce what two donkeys can bear.
Suggestion: Perhaps there will be no moisture in it?
Rejection: "He will wash his garment in wine".
Suggestion: Perhaps it will not be red?
Rejection: "The blood of the grape..."
Suggestion: Perhaps it will not intoxicate?
Rejection: "Susah" (this connotes seducing).
Suggestion: Perhaps it will have no taste?
Rejection: "Ha'Chlili (red) eyed from wine" - any palate that tastes it will say(give) "Li Li (to me, to me)".
Suggestion: Perhaps it is good for youths only?
Rejection: "Ul'Ven Shinayim" can be read "ul'Ven Shanim" (a man of years).
Question: What is the simple meaning of the verse?
Answer (Rav Dimi): The congregation of Yisrael asks Hash-m 'Hint with Your eyes that are sweeter than wine, and show me Your teeth, that are better than milk'.
This supports R. Yochanan.
(R. Yochanan): One who whitens his teeth (smiles) at his friend is better than one who gives him milk. We read the verse "Libun (whitening) teeth (is better) than milk".
R. Chiya bar Ada was the teacher of Reish Lakish's children. He did not come for three days.
Reish Lakish: Why didn't you come?
R. Chiya bar Ada: My father left me a vineyard of vines on poles. The first day I harvested 300 clusters; each produced a Se'ah. The second day I harvested 300 clusters; each produced half a Se'ah. The third day I harvested 300 clusters, each produced a third of a Se'ah, and I made the majority of the vineyard ownerless!
Reish Lakish: Had you not neglected your job, it would have produced more.
Rami bar Yechezkel saw goats eating under fig trees in Bnei Berak. Honey was dripping from the figs, and milk from the goats, and they mixed. This is "flowing with milk and honey".
(R. Yakov ben Dostai): It is three Mil (a Mil is about a kilometer) from Lud to Ono. I once went before dawn, and I was up to my ankles in date honey.
(Reish Lakish): I saw the (region flowing with) milk and honey of Tzipori. It was 16 Mil by 16 Mil.
(Rabah bar bar Chanah): I saw the milk and honey of all of Eretz Yisrael. It was 88 Mil by 24 Mil.