Rejection: He should not do this. Perhaps he will not see it, and he will worry, and this will cause misfortune to come upon him.
(Abaye): Since we learned that omens are significant, on Rosh Hashanah one should eat pumpkin, fenugreek (Rashi - clover) leeks, beets and dates (these grow quickly, or are sweet).
Rav Mesharshiya (to his sons): When you go to learn from your Rebbe'im, first learn the text (by heart). When he teaches, look at his mouth - "v'Hayu Einecha Ro'os Es Morecha."
You should learn by a river, so your teachings will endure like a river;
It is better to dwell in a wasteheap in Masa Mechasya (a city of Chachamim) than in a palace in Pumbedisa;
It is better to eat rotting fish of Masa Mechasya than Kutach (a dish made with bread and milk) of Rami Kipi.
"Va'Tispalel Chanah... . Ramah Karni ba'Shem" - my horn is exalted, but not my flask:
David and Shlomo were anointed with (oil in) a horn. Their kingships lasted;
Sha'ul and Yehu were anointed with a flask. Their kingships did not last.
ME'ILAH FOR SMELLING KETORES
(Mishnah): One who makes incense just like the Ketores (is Chayav Kares).
(Beraisa): If one makes incense just like the Ketores in order to learn or to give it to the Tzibur, he is exempt;
If he did so to smell it, he is liable.
One who smells the Ketores (of the Tzibur) is exempt (from Kares), but he transgresses Me'ilah.
Question: R. Shimon ben Pazi taught that Me'ilah does not apply to sound, sights or smells!
Answer: He means that Me'ilah does not apply to the smell of the Ketores after the cloud (of smoke) went up, for then the Mitzvah (of burning the Ketores) is finished;
Me'ilah never applies after the Mitzvah is finished.
Question: Sometimes there is Me'ilah after the Mitzvah is done, e.g. Terumas ha'Deshen!
Answer #1: Terumas ha'Deshen and Bigdei Kehunah are Shnei Kesuvim (two verses teaching the same thing, i.e. there is Me'ilah after the Mitzvah was done). They do not teach about other laws
Question: This is like Chachamim. According to R. Dosa, how can we answer?
(Beraisa): "V'Hinicham Sham" teaches that the linen garments (that the Kohen Gadol wears on Yom Kipur) require Genizah (they may not be used again);
R. Dosa says, a regular Kohen may use them. "V'Hinicham Sham" teaches that a Kohen Gadol may not use them on another Yom Kipur.
Answer: Terumas ha'Deshen and Eglah Arufah are Shnei Kesuvim, they do not teach to other cases.
Question: What is the case of Terumas ha'Deshen?
Answer (Beraisa): "V'Sam'o Etzel ha'Mizbe'ach" teaches that it must be buried there.
Question: What is the case of Eglah Arufah?
Answer (Beraisa): "V'Orfu Sham Es ha'Eglah" teaches that it must be buried there.
Question: According to the opinion that Shnei Kesuvim teach to other cases, how can we answer?
Answer: Regarding each, a verse teaches not to learn to other cases;
It says "ha'Arufah" and "v'Sam'o" (but normally, there is no Me'ilah after the Mitzvah).
(Beraisa): Ketores is composed of the following:
Seventy Manos of each of the following - Tzari (sap of the balsam tree, Tziporen (Shecheles, a kind of root/annual plant; alternatively, onycha, a type of flower), Chelbenah (galbanum, a gum resin), and frankincense;
Sixteen Manos of each of the following - myrrh, cassia, spikenard and saffron;
Twelve Manos of costus, three Manos of cinnamon bark, and nine Manos of cinnamon. (The following are not counted among the 11 ingredients. They "serve" the other spices.)
Nine Kavim of soap of Boris Karshinah (soap of Karshina; alternatively, vetch lye);
Twenty-one Kavim of wine of Kafrisim (a fruit of the caper tree; Rashi - a certain place);
If Kafrisim wine is not available, (strong) old white wine is used.
A quarter (Kav) of Sodom salt, an (arbitrarily) small amount of Ma'aleh Ashan (an herb that is Metamer (makes the smoke go straight up));
R. Nasan says, a small amount of Kipas ha'Yarden (cyclamen) is added. (Tosfos - some say that Sodom salt and Kipas ha'Yarden are included with the wine for soaking Tziporen, they are not added to the Ketores);
If any honey was added, it is Pasul;
If any spice was lacking, he (the Kohen Gadol) will be Chayav Misah (for entering the Kodesh ha'Kodashim without valid Ketores, and/or for burning Pasul Ketores there).
R. Shimon says, Tzari is a sap of the Ketef tree;
Karshina soap is used to rub the Tziporen (which is black), to make it nice. Tziporen is soaked in the wine, to make it pungent;
Mei Raglayim (urine; Birkei Yosef, Kol Bo - water of a foul smelling spring. We would never consider urine!) would also make it pungent, but Mei Raglayim may not be brought into the Mikdash, for this would be a disgrace.
This supports R. Yosi b'Rebbi Chanina.
(R. Yosi b'Rebbi Chanina): "Kodesh Kodashim Tihyeh Lachem" (presumably, this is the intended verse) teaches that the Ketores must be made in the Mikdash.
Question (Mishnah #1): If one was Makdish his property and it included things valid for Korbanos Tzibur, they are given to workers for their wages (and then bought back with (half-)Shekalim of Terumas ha'Lishkah, from which all Korbanos Tzibur must be bought).
Question: What things are valid for Korbanos Tzibur?
It cannot refer to animals, wine or Soles. Later, the Mishnah explicitly mentions them (with things valid for Korbanos Yachid)!
Answer: It must refer to Ketores. (If it was made in the Mikdash, it would have to be Kodesh. It would not be part of a man's property!)
Answer #1 (R. Oshaya): The Mishnah refers to Ketores given to a worker for wages;
(Mishnah #2) Question: What do we do with excess Ketores? (One Maneh of Ketores is burned every day, and an additional double handful (which is less than a Maneh) on Yom Kipur. The total for a regular year (354 days) is less than the 368 Manos of Ketores prepared in one batch. In a leap year (384 days) there will be (enough and) excess if there were at least 16 or 17 Manos of leftover Ketores from last year (we add these to the 368). The excess cannot simply be used the next year, for it was bought with Shekalim of last year, and Korbanos Tzibur must be bought from Shekalim given for the current year.)
Answer: We separate money (of Bedek ha'Bayis) to give to workers (for Bedek ha'Bayis) for their wages (R. Gershom - for what they spent for materials). We are Mechalel (redeem) the extra Ketores on the money and pay the workers with Ketores;
We then buy back the Ketores with money from the new Terumah.
Objection (Rav Yosef): Regarding all leftovers, we learned (Shitah Mekubetzes - Rav Yehudah taught) that they would buy them back from the new Terumah. Regarding Ketores, it does not say this! (This shows that Mishnah #1 does not discuss Ketores. Shitah Mekubetzes (36) - even though in the Seifa of Mishnah #1, Ben Azai says that it is bought back from the new Terumah, the first Tana (R. Akiva) does not say so. Alternatively, the text reads "it is bought back from Terumas ha'Lishkah" (it does not say "new"), i.e. it is bought back right away, unlike Ketores which is bought back only at the end of the year, from the new Terumah.)
Answer #2 (Rav Yosef): The Makdish had one of the ingredients for the Ketores.
(Beraisa): A batch of 368 Manos of Ketores was made at once. This is one Maneh for every day (on the average, there are 365 days in a year) and three Manos from which the Kohen Gadol would take a double handful on Yom Kipur;
The leftover was given to workers for wages.
(Mishnah) Question: What do we do with excess Ketores?
Answer: Money was separated to be given to workers for their wages, they would be Mechalel the extra Ketores on the money and pay the workers with Ketores, and buy it back from (the new) Terumas ha'Lishkah.
(Beraisa - R. Shimon ben Gamliel): The extra Ketores every year would accumulate. Every 60 or 70 years (about 184 Manos would be leftover,) they would make just half a batch. (Rosh (in Shitah) rejects this text, for the excess in 60 years cannot suffice (an average year is really 365 and a quarter days, the average annual excess is two and three quarter Manos less the double handful.) Some say that it is possible, if the last two years were not leap years. Many prefer the text "every 72 years." Calculations of the double handful range from a fifth of a Maneh to a half-Maneh. Our text implies that the average was between 60 and 70 years. If we ignore the double handfuls, a half-batch would suffice about every 67 years. If we account for them, the double handfuls would have to be miniscule to average significantly less than every 70 years. However, if we say that the weight of a batch was really more than 368 due to ingredients whose weight the Gemara ignored (e.g. wine absorbed by the Tziporen, salt... ) and/or Hachra'os (perhaps we learn from Shemen ha'Mishchah), the average frequency could be anywhere between 60 and 70 years, even if the double handful was bigger.)
Therefore, if an individual made a half-batch of Ketores, he is liable;
We never heard that a third or quarter batch was made.
Chachamim say, one may prepare even just one Maneh, the amount offered each day, and offer it.
This supports Rava;
(Rava): If one makes a half-batch of Ketores, he is liable. "Veha'Ketores Asher Ta'aseh" forbids whatever one makes (that is valid for Haktarah). The Tzibur offers half a Maneh in the morning and a half in the afternoon. (Rashi according to Shitah Mekubetzes - Rava means that he is liable if he makes a full day's worth, i.e. a Maneh. Rosh (in Shitah 4) - one is liable for making a k'Zayis, for b'Di'eved, Haktarah of even a k'Zayis is valid.)
GRINDING THE KETORES
(Beraisa - Aba Yosi ben Yochanan): Twice a year they would regrind the Ketores;
In summer, they would spread it out, lest it get moldy;
In winter, they would gather it together, lest it lose its smell.
When grinding, (the overseer) says "make it very fine. Very fine make it."
On Erev Yom Kipur, they would take three Manos and grind them extra fine. From them the Kohen Gadol would take a double handful;
(Beraisa) Question: Why does it say that "(the Kohen Gadol takes Ketores) Dakah"? All the Ketores is fine - "v'Sochakta Mimenah Hadek"!
Answer: The Ketores for Yom Kipur must be extra fine.
(Beraisa): When grinding, (the overseer) says "make it very fine. Very fine make it."
This supports R. Yochanan;
(R. Yochanan): Just like speech is bad for wine, it is good for spices.
SPICES VALID FOR KETORES
(R. Yochanan): Moshe was told the 11 ingredients of the Ketores on Sinai.
(Rav Huna): He learns from the verse;
"Kach Lecha Samim" alludes to two spices. With "Nataf u'Shcheles v'Chelbenah," there are five. "Samim" connotes another five (like were already taught), making 10 in all. "Levonah Zakah" is the 11th.
Question: We should say that the verse (does not teach about the number of spices, rather, it is merely a Klal, Prat and Klal (general term, specific term, general))! "Samim" is a Klal. "Nataf u'Shcheles v'Chelbenah" are Peratim. "Samim" is another Klal;
From a Klal u'Frat u'Chlal we learn everything similar to the Peratim, i.e. things that are Metamer and aromatic!
Answer: Had the Torah wanted to teach only the Klal, Prat and Klal, it would write only one Prat.
Question: No one Prat would suffice!
Had it written only "Nataf," we would think that the spices must come from trees;
Had it written only "Shecheles," we would think that the spices must grow from the ground, and not on trees;
Had it not written "Chelbenah", we would not know to take a bad-smelling spice.
Answer: We can expound "Kach Lecha" like a Klal ("Samim" is extra, to teach about the number).
Question: We should say that the second "Samim" also alludes to (only) two spices, just like the first!
Answer: If so, the Torah would have written them next to each other, and the Peratim afterwards.
(Beraisa - Tana d'Vei R. Yishmael): "Samim" is a Klal. "Nataf u'Shcheles v'Chelbenah" are Peratim. "Samim" is another Klal;
From a Klal u'Frat u'Chlal we learn everything similar to the Peratim, i.e. things that are Metamer and aromatic.
Question: Perhaps the (latter) Klal is like the first Klal, and the (last) Prat is like the first Prat(im)! (This will be explained.)
Answer: No. Rather, we learn the first way.
Question: What did the Beraisa ask?
Answer: It asked that the second "Samim" should also allude to (only) two spices, just like the first. It answered like we answered above, that if so, the Torah would have written them next to each other, and the Peratim afterwards.
Question: What is the meaning of "perhaps... the Prat is like the first Prat(im)"?
Answer: It asks that since we learn from "Nataf" spices that come from trees, from "Shecheles" spices that grow from the ground, we should learn from Levonah things that resemble it in one way, i.e. aromatic spices, even if they are not Metamar!
The Beraisa answered that if so, Levonah should have been written between the Kelalim.
Objection: The Torah did not write it in between, lest the second "Samim" teach six more spices, making 12 in all!
Answer: Levonah should have been written between the Kelalim, and "Chelbenah" after them.
(Reish Lakish): The word Ketores alludes to KoTeR v'Oleh (it makes smoke that goes straight up. Rashi - Hash-m told Moshe on Sinai that there are 11 ingredients. The Torah specifies four, and Chachamim chose seven others that satisfy the Klal u'Frat u'Chlal. R. Gershom - only these 11 ingredients can be included from the Klal u'Frat u'Chlal (only they are Metamer). Be'er Sheva - some say that all 11 ingredients and the quantity of each was given on Sinai. Aruch la'Ner is unsure whether or not all details of preparing the Ketores (rubbing the Tziporen in Karshina soap, soaking it in wine... ) are from Sinai, or are mid'Rabanan.)
(Rav Chana bar Bizna): Any fast that does not include (penitent) sinners is not a proper fast;
We learn from Chelbenah. It smells bad, yet it is included with the spices for the Ketores.
(Abaye): We learn from "va'Agudaso Al Eretz Yesadah."
LIABILITY FOR ANOINTING
(Mishnah): One who anoints with the Shemen ha'Mishchah (gets Kares).
(Beraisa): If one anoints an animal or Kelim with Shemen ha'Mishchah, he is exempt. If one anoints a Nochri or corpse, he is exempt.
Question: Granted, one is exempt for anointing an animal or Kelim, for it says "Al Basar Adam Lo Yisach." These are not "Adam";
Also a corpse is no longer called Adam, rather, "Mes";
Why is one exempt for a Nochri? He is called Adam!
Answer #1: Nochrim are not called Adam. "V'Aten Tzoni Tzon Mar'isi Adam Atem" teaches that you (Yisrael) are called Adam, but Nochrim are not.
Question: It says (regarding captives taken in the war against Midyan) "v'Nefesh Adam Shishah Asar Alef"!
Answer: (Normally, Nochrim are not called Adam.) There, they are called Adam to exclude animals.
Question: It says (about the population of Ninveh) "... Harbeh mi'Shneim Esreh Ribo Adam"!
Answer: They are called Adam to exclude animals.
Answer #2: The following exempts for anointing Nochrim:
(A reciter of Beraisos - Beraisa #1): If one is commanded not to anoint (himself or others), others may not anoint him.
(Beraisa #2): If one anoints with Shemen ha'Mishchah an animal, Kelim, Nochri or Mes, he is exempt. (Most Mefarshim do not distinguish between "anointing" and "putting" oil on someone. We explain according to Rambam, who distinguishes.)
R. Meir says, one is liable for putting on a king or Kohen Gadol (who was already anointed);
R. Yehudah exempts.
Question: What is the Shi'ur to be liable for putting?
Answer #1 (R. Meir): One is liable for any amount.
Answer #2 (R. Yehudah): One is liable for a k'Zayis.
Question: R. Yehudah exempts!
Answer: He only exempts for (anointing) a king or Kohen Gadol, but not for a commoner.
Question: What is the source of their argument (regarding the Shi'ur)?
Answer (Rav Yosef): R. Meir learns from "Al Basar Adam Lo Yisach" and "va'Asher Yiten Mimenu Al Zar (v'Nichras)";
Just like the Shi'ur for Sichah (anointing, which is written regarding the Lav) is any amount (we never find a Shi'ur for Sichah), also for Nesinah (putting, which is written regarding Kares);
R. Yehudah says, we learn Nesinah from other Mitzvos of Nesinah. The Shi'ur is a k'Zayis.
All agree that any amount suffices to anoint a king or Kohen Gadol.
Question: What is the source of their argument (regarding kings and Kohanim)?
Answer (Rav Yosef): R. Meir learns from "va'Asher Yiten Mimenu Al Zar." Once a king or Kohen was anointed, he is like a Zar regarding Shemen ha'Mishchah (since he may not be anointed again);
R. Yehudah says, the verse refers to one who was always a Zar (it was never permitted to anoint him).