WHICH RESHUYOS ARE CONSIDERED LIKE ONE?
(Rav Yehudah): According to R. Meir, roofs are a Reshus unto themselves, Chatzeros are a Reshus unto themselves, and Karfifos are a Reshus unto themselves;
According to Chachamim, roofs and Chatzeros are one Reshus, and Karfifos are one Reshus;
According to R. Shimon, all of them are one Reshus.
One Beraisa supports Rav [who says that if a roof is totally open to another roof to which it is forbidden, one may carry in it only within four Amos], and one Beraisa supports Rav Yehudah.
Support (for Rav - Beraisa #1 - R. Meir): All roofs in the city are one Reshus. One may not transfer between a roof and a Chatzer.
Kelim that were Shoves in the Chatzer may be moved in the Chatzer. Kelim that were Shoves on the roof may be moved on the roof;
This is as long as a roof is not 10 Tefachim higher or lower than the adjacent roof.
Chachamim say, every roof is a separate Reshus. One may carry only within four Amos.
Support (for Rav Yehudah - Beraisa #2 - Rebbi): When we learned from R. Shimon in Tako'a, we would bring to him [on Shabbos] oil and a towel, transferring them from roof to roof, from roof to Chatzer, from Chatzer to Chatzer, from Chatzer to Karfef, and from Karfef to Karfef, until we reached the bathing spring.
R. Yehudah says, at a time of danger we used to take a Sefer Torah from Chatzer to roof, from roof to Chatzer and from Chatzer to Karfef to read from it;
Chachamim: You cannot bring a proof [of the Halachah] from a time of danger!
WHEN DOES R. SHIMON SAY THAT ALL ARE ONE RESHUS?
(Mishnah - R. Shimon): Roofs, [Chatzeros and Karfifos are all considered one Reshus for Kelim that were Shoves in them].
(Rav): The Halachah follows R. Shimon, [but even he permits transferring between Chatzeros only] if they were not Me'arev [by themselves];
If they were Me'arev, we decree not to transfer [even Kelim that were Shoves in a Chatzer to another Chatzer], lest one transfer Kelim that were Shoves in a house to another Chatzer.
(Shmuel and R. Yochanan): [It is permitted] whether or not they were Me'arev.
(R. Yochanan: Who said that it makes a difference whether or not they were Me'arev?! Rashi deletes this from the text.)
Question (Rav Chisda, against Shmuel and R. Yochanan): It is unreasonable to permit [to take to another Chatzer] some Kelim in a Chatzer (those that were Shoves in the Chatzer), and forbid others [that were Shoves in the house. They are prone to be confused! This is difficult only for Shmuel and R. Yochanan, who permit even when the Chatzeros were Me'arev by themselves, for then it is common for Kelim that were Shoves in the house to be in the Chatzer, since one may carry them out.]
Answer: R. Shimon does not decree about this, like he holds elsewhere:
(Mishnah - R. Shimon): [If each of three people is permitted only four Amos, and one is between the other two,] this is like three Chatzeros [in a row] open to each other and open to Reshus ha'Rabim:
If the outer Chatzeros were Me'arev with the middle Chatzer, it is permitted with them, they are permitted with it, and they are forbidden with each other.
He does not decree lest one take Kelim of an outer Chatzer to the other outer Chatzer. Also here, he does not decree lest Kelim that were Shoves in the house be taken to another Chatzer!
Question (against Rav - Rav Sheshes - Mishnah - R. Shimon): Roofs, Chatzeros and Karfifos are all considered one Reshus for Kelim that were Shoves in them, but not for Kelim that were Shoves in the house.
If he permits when the Chatzeros were Me'arev by themselves, we find a case of Kelim that were Shoves in the house [and are now in the Chatzer, that one may not take them to another Chatzer];
However, if he permits even when they were not Me'arev [like Rav says], Kelim that were Shoves in the house will not be found in the Chatzer! (Does he teach about one who transgressed and carried them out to the Chatzer?!)
Answer (Rav Sheshes): He teaches about hats and scarves. (One was wearing them when he walked out to the Chatzer, and took them off in the Chatzer.)
Support (for Rav - Beraisa): If Bnei Chatzer forgot to be Me'arev [together] with Bnei Mirpeses (a ladder from the Chatzer leads to a balcony leading to their apartments):
Anything (e.g. a mound at least four Tefachim wide and) 10 Tefachim tall is [permitted] to the Bnei Mirpeses. (They may transfer between it and their apartments.) Anything less than 10 is [accessible even] to the Bnei Chatzer [hence it is forbidden to both].
This is when there were many people in the Chatzer and in the Mirpeses, and each of these two was Me'arev by itself, or if there was only one Dirah in each of them, in which case each need not be Me'arev by itself;
if there were many people in the Chatzer and in the Mirpeses and they forgot to be Me'arev, the roof, Chatzer, Achsadra and Mirpeses are all one Reshus.
Inference: [This is like R. Shimon, who says that they are all one Reshus, and it says that] this is only when they were not Me'arev!
Rejection: No, it is like Chachamim.
Support: If the Beraisa was R. Shimon, it would have included Karfifos and Mavo'os, for he holds that also they are one Reshus!
Support (for Rav - Beraisa): If five Chatzeros are open to each other and to a Mavoy, and all forgot to be Me'arev, one may not take Kelim from the Chatzer to the Mavoy or vice-versa;
One may move Kelim that were Shoves in the Chatzer in the Chatzer, but not in the Mavoy.
R. Shimon permits, for he holds that when Reshuyos of Rabim forgot to be Me'arev, the roof, Chatzer, Achsadra, Mirpeses, Karfef and Mavoy are all one Reshus.
Inference: This is only when they were not Me'arev [at all]!
Rejection: No, it is when the Chatzeros were not Me'arev together, but the houses in each Chatzer were Me'arev.
Question: 'They were not Me'arev' connotes that they were not Me'arev at all!
Answer #1: 'They were not Me'arev' means that they were not Mishtatef [in the Mavoy].
Answer #2: R. Shimon addresses Chachamim according to their reasoning:
I permit whether or not they were Me'arev. You should agree with me at least when they were not Me'arev that they are one Reshus! (There is no reason to decree.)
Chachamim: No, they are different Reshuyos.
(Beraisa): One may move Kelim...but not in the Mavoy.
Suggestion: This supports R. Zeira:
(R. Zeira citing Rav): If Shituf was not made in a Mavoy, one may move things only within four Amos.
Rejection: The Beraisa means that [one may move...] but not [transfer] to the Mavoy.
Question: The Reisha already taught this!
Answer: This must be repeated;
One might have thought that Chachamim argue with R. Shimon only when the Chatzeros were Me'arev [individually], but they agree when they were not Me'arev. The repetition teaches that they argue in both cases.