ONE MAY NOT PRAY WHEN INTOXICATED
(Rav Sheshes): I can exempt [Yisrael] from judgment (for their transgressions) from the time of the Churban until now - "Aniyah u'Shchuras v'Lo mi'Yayin"! (The difficulties of exile distract them. It is as if they are drunk.)
Question (Beraisa): If a drunk person bought or sold, it is a valid sale. If he transgressed something punishable by death or lashes, he receives the punishment;
The general rule is, he is like a sober person in every way, except that he is exempt from prayer;
Answer: Rav Sheshes means that he can exempt from punishment for [lack of intent during] prayer.
(R. Chanina): A drunkard is like a sober person only if he is not as drunk as Lot [was when he slept with his daughters]. If he is as drunk as Lot, his actions do not take effect.
(R. Chanina): Hash-m will shelter from punishments one who is Mafik Magen at a time of pride (Rashi - he refrains from Magen Avraham (prayer) when he is drunk. Tosfos - he suppresses his Yetzer ha'Ra when it seeks to overpower him, i.e. when he is drunk, he goes to sleep to sober up) - "Ga'avah Afikei Maginim..."
Question: What is the source that 'Afik' denotes removing?
Answer: It says "...ka'Afik Nechalim Ya'avoru."
(R. Yochanan): The verse discusses one who [when he is drunk] is not Mafik (reveal) Magen (prayer. Tosfos - he takes out a shield to fight his intoxication.)
Question: What is the source that 'Afik' denotes exposure?
Answer: "Va'Yera'u Afikei Mayim va'Yigalu..."
Question: Either way, it teaches that one should not pray when drunk. What do they argue about?
Answer: They argue about Rav Sheshes' practice. [When drunk,] he would tell his attendant to wake him in time to pray. (Rashi - this is like R. Yochanan. R. Chanina forbids praying until he wakes up by himself. Tosfos - it is like R. Chanina. R. Yochanan advises to remain awake and sober up (e.g. through traveling), lest he be overcome by sleep.)
PRAYER AND LEARNING REQUIRE A SETTLED MIND
(R. Chiya bar Ashi): One should not pray when his mind is unsettled - 'b'Tzar Al Yoreh.' (This is not a verse. Perhaps it is from Sefer ben Sira, a collection of proverbs often cited by Chachamim.)
R. Chanina would not pray on a day when he got angry - 'b'Tzar Al Yoreh.'
Mar Ukva would not judge on a day when the south wind blows. (It is very harsh);
(Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak): To decide Halachah, one needs clarity like a day when the north wind blows.
Abaye: Had my [surrogate] mother asked me [to do even simple things, such as] to bring to her a dip, it would have detracted from my Girsa (learning by heart. I.e. I would have been unable to continue after the interruption);
Rava: Had lice bitten me, it would have detracted from my learning.
The mother of Mar brei d'Ravina made for him a garment for every day of the week [so he would not need to launder during the week; Me'iri - to spare him from Bitul Torah due to lice].
(Rav Yehudah): Night was made for sleeping. (Tosfos - this refers to short summer nights. Me'iri - one should sleep at night so he can learn during the day without sleeping.)
(Reish Lakish): Moonlight is to enable people to stay up at night and learn Oral Torah.
People told R. Zeira that his teachings are very clear.
R. Zeira: I learned them during the day.
Rav Chisda's daughter (to Rav Chisda): Don't you want to sleep a bit?
Rav Chisda: Many days [after death] are coming which are short [in opportunity for Torah and Mitzvos]. There will be plenty of time to sleep then!
(Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak): We are like day laborers. (Me'iri - we should strive to learn the entire day, for then we can get the most clarity.)
Rav Acha bar Yakov would borrow and pay up (if he could not learn his normal quota during the day, he would compensate at night).
(R. Elazar): One should not pray for three days after traveling (his mind is not settled) - "v'Nachaneh Sham Yomim Sheloshah va'Avinah va'Am." (Only then, Ezra had Binah, i.e. understanding.)
Shmuel's father would not pray for three days after traveling.
Shmuel would not pray in a house with beer. (Rashi - the smell intoxicated him. Me'iri - it distracted him);
Rav Papa would not pray in a house with [the smell of] fish.
EFFECTS OF WINE
(R. Chanina): One who is enticed through wine resembles his Creator - "va'Yarach Hash-m Es Re'ach ha'Nicho'ach." (Rashi - smell resembles drinking. After this, Hash-m swore not to flood the world again.)
(R. Chiya): One whose mind remains settled after drinking has understanding like the 70 Chachamim (the Great Sanhedrin). The Gematriya of Yayin is 70, like Sod. When one ingests wine, secrets come out. (Rashi - only an exceptional person can hold them in while drunk.)
(R. Chanin): "Tenu Shechar l'Oved [v'Yayin l'Marei Nafesh]" - wine was created only to console mourners, and to give to Resha'im their reward in this world.
(R. Chanin bar Papa): One has not received the Berachah "u'Verach Es Lachmecha v'Es Meimecha" unless wine spills (is poured freely) like water in his house;
Just like bread may be bought with money of Ma'aser Sheni, also 'Mayim'. I.e. the verse does not discuss water, rather, wine;
The verse calls wine "water" to teach that one is blessed only if wine spills like water in his house.
(R. Ilai): [The nature of] a person is recognized through three things - his Kos (how he acts after drinking), his Ka'as (anger), and his Kis (wallet, i.e. business integrity. Maharsha - these indicate how he treats himself, Hash-m, and other people, respectively);
Some say, he is recognized also through his laughter.
A NOCHRI DWELLING IN A CHATZER WITH YISRAELIM
(Rav): Rebbi and R. Chiya were asked about cases in which a Yisrael and a Nochri lived in an inner Chatzer (the only exit is through an outer Chatzer) and a Yisrael lived in the outer Chatzer. Both of them forbade.
Rav Sheshes said that Rav's teaching is like R. Meir. Rabah agreed.
Objection (Rav Yosef): R. Meir forbids even when a lone Yisrael lives with a Nochri. If so, why was it taught that there is also a Yisrael in the outer Chatzer?
Suggestion: In both cases there just happened to be a Yisrael in the outer Chatzer!
Rejection: They asked Rav about the inner Chatzer, and he permitted!
Counter-question: If Rav's teaching is not like R. Meir, it must be like R. Eliezer ben Yakov [who argues with R. Meir.] R. Eliezer says that a Nochri forbids only if two Yisraelim forbid each other! (Since the inner Yisrael is permitted in his place, he does not forbid the outer Yisrael due to Drisas ha'Regel, i.e. his right to walk there.)
Answer: It is like R. Akiva, who says that even one who is permitted in his place forbids due to Drisas ha'Regel.
Question: If so, even if there is no Nochri, the inner Yisrael forbids the outer!
Answer (Rav Huna brei d'Rav Yehoshua): It is like R. Eliezer ben Yakov [regarding a lone Yisrael living with a Nochri] and like R. Akiva [regarding Drisas ha'Regel]. The case is, the Yisraelim made an Eruv;
If there was no Nochri, the inner Yisrael would not forbid the outer.
Question (R. Elazar): If a Yisrael and a Nochri live in an outer Chatzer and a Yisrael lives in the inner Chatzer, what is the law?
We forbid when the Nochri is in the inner Chatzer, for then it is common for a Yisrael to live with him, for the Nochri is afraid to kill the Yisrael;
If the outer Yisrael asks what happened to the inner Yisrael, the Nochri cannot say that he went away, for the outer Yisrael will know that he is lying [since he did not see him leave];
It is uncommon for a Yisrael to live with a Nochri in the outer Chatzer, lest the Nochri kill him. If the inner Yisrael asks what happened to him, the Nochri can say that he went away! (Since it is uncommon, the Nochri does not forbid.)
Or, perhaps also this is common. The Nochri fears to kill the outer Yisrael, for the inner Yisrael can pass by at any time! (Therefore, also this is forbidden.)
Answer (Rav): "Ten l'Chacham v'Yechkam Od." (You learned correctly from one matter to another. Also this is forbidden.)
RENTING FROM A NOCHRI
Reish Lakish and Talmidim of R. Chanina lodged at an inn. There was a Nochri in the Chatzer who had rented his house to another Nochri. The landlord was nearby, but the tenant was away [for Shabbos].
Question: May one rent from the landlord [to permit carrying in the Chatzer through an Eruv or Bitul? Tosfos - the Halachah follows R. Yehudah. A Nochri does not forbid until he returns. The rental is for in case he will return.]
We do not ask about when the landlord [has no rights to use the house in any way and] cannot evict the tenant [before his contract ends]. If so, surely it does not help to rent from him;
We ask about when the landlord can evict the tenant. Since he can, [it is like his house, so] we may rent from him;
Or, perhaps since he has not yet evicted him, we may not rent from him!
Reish Lakish: [We have a Safek about a mid'Rabanan law. We may be lenient. Therefore] we will rent from him, and ask Chachamim in the south when we get there.
Answer (R. Efes): You were permitted to rent from him.
R. Chanina bar Yosef, R. Chiya bar Aba and Rav Asi stayed at an inn. The innkeeper, a Nochri [was away, and] returned on Shabbos.
Question: May we rent from the Nochri on Shabbos [and then be Mevatel our Reshus to one Yisrael]?
Renting [from a Nochri] is like [Yisraelim] making an Eruv. Just like an Eruv must be made before Shabbos, also renting from a Nochri;
Or, perhaps renting is like Bitul Reshus [of Yisraelim]. Just like Bitul may be done on Shabbos, also renting!
Answer #1 (R. Chanina bar Yosef): We may rent.
Answer #2 (Rav Asi): We may not rent.
R. Chiya bar Aba said that they may rely on the elder (R. Chanina). Later, they asked R. Yochanan.
Support of Answer #1 (R. Yochanan): You were permitted to rent from him. (Tosfos - normally, one may not rent on Shabbos. This rental is not for usage. It is a mere gift to permit carrying.)