WHAT MAY BE BOUGHT WITH MONEY OF MA'ASER
Question: Abaye does not consider fish to be Gidulei Karka!
(Abaye): If one ate Putisa (a bug found in water), he receives four sets of  lashes. (There are two Lavim for Sheretz ha'Mayim, and two [general] Lavim for [all kinds of] Sheratzim);
If he ate an ant, he is lashed five times. (There are two general Lavim, and three for Sheretz ha'Aretz);
If he ate a wasp, he is lashed six times [for the above five and for Sheretz ha'Of].
If fish are considered Gidulei Karka, one who eats Putisa should be liable also for Sheretz ha'Aretz!
Answer #2 (Ravina): They argue about birds:
Beraisa #1 includes them, for they reproduce and are Gidulei Karka;
Beraisa #2 excludes them, for they were not created from the ground.
Question: How do these two opinions expound the Klal u'Frat u'Chlal?
Answer: The opinion that includes birds holds that the latter Klal is primary. Essentially, it is a Prat u'Chelal, in which the Klal adds to the Prat and includes everything;
The first Klal teaches us not to [make a Prat u'Chelal and] include everything. Rather, we exclude anything that does not resemble the Peratim in two respects (reproducing and growing from the ground);
The opinion that excludes birds holds that the first Klal is primary. Essentially, it is a Klal u'Ferat; in which we include only the Prat;
The latter Klal teaches us not to [make a Klal u'Ferat and] include only the Prat. Rather, we include anything that resembles the Peratim in three respects (it was also created from the ground).
MAY ONE BE ME'AREV WITH FOODS NOT COMMONLY EATEN?
(Rav): One may be Me'arev with Pa'apu'in (a type of beet or cress), purslane, and coriander, but not with immature grain (fodder) or Kafniyos (bad unripe dates).
Question: One cannot be Me'arev with coriander!
(Beraisa): People with many children may eat coriander (it reduces a person's seed), but people without children may not eat it;
When it is hard [like wood], i.e. when seeds sprout inside, no one should eat it. (It is harmful.)
Answer #1: Someone with children may be Me'arev with it before it hardened;
Answer #2: Even someone without children may be Me'arev with it. (Rav holds like the first Tana of our Mishnah):
(Mishnah): We may be Me'arev for a Nazir with wine, and for a Yisrael with Terumah.
Even though they may not eat it, since others may eat it, it is valid. The same applies here.
Answer #3: Rav refers to coriander of Madai, which is good for everyone.
Question: Rav permits to be Me'arev with fodder!
(Rav): One may be Me'arev with hops or fodder. One blesses Borei Peri ha'Adamah on it.
Answer: Before he came to Bavel he forbade it. After he came [and saw that people eat it], he permitted it.
Question: (Why is the Halachah based on Bavel?) Bavel is not the majority of the world!
(Beraisa): If one planted beans, barley or clover to eat the vegetable [when it is moist], we ignore his intent and follow the practice of normal people [who eat only the seeds]. Therefore, the seeds are Tevel [must be tithed], the vegetable is exempt.
If one planted cress or Gargir [a kind of mustard] to eat the vegetable, the vegetable and seeds are Tevel. If he planted them for the seeds, the seeds and vegetable are Tevel. (Tosfos - in both cases, both are Tevel. The Beraisa teaches them separately to teach that Ma'aser is primarily for the one he intended for. This determines whether Ma'aser Sheni or Oni is given. (Ma'aser of vegetables depends on when they are picked. For seeds we follow the time it was a third grown. These could be in different years.) It also affects which is considered better. One may not declare bad produce to be Ma'aser to exempt good.)
Answer: Rav refers to fodder grown in a garden (everyone eats it).
Question: What are Gargir seeds used for?
Answer (R. Yochanan): Previous generations did not have peppercorns, so they would crush these seeds and dip roasted meat in them.
When R. Zeira was weary from learning, he would sit in front of the door to Rav Yehudah bar Ami's academy, in order to stand up for Rabanan passing by and earn reward. A child exited after learning from his Rebbi. R. Zeira asked him what he learned.
The child: One blesses Borei Peri ha'Adamah on hops. One blesses sheha'Kol [Nihyah bi'Dvaro] on fodder.
R. Zeira: The opposite would be more reasonable! Fodder grows from the ground. Hops grow [on shrubs. They do not nurture from the ground, rather,] from the air!
The Halachah is like the child learned.
Question: What is the reason?
Answer: Hops is finished produce, but fodder is not;
R. Zeira objected because hops grow from the air. Really, they grow from the ground. If one cuts the shrub, the hops will die.
THINGS THAT ARE IMPROVED THROUGH COOKING
Question: One may be Me'arev with Kafniyos! (Why does Rav forbid?)
(Beraisa): One may buy Kor (Rashi - shoots of a date tree; Rambam - the top of a date tree) with Ma'aser money; and it does not have Tum'as Ochlim;
One may buy Kafniyos with Ma'aser money; and they have Tum'as Ochlim.
R. Yehudah says, Kor is like wood in every respect, except that one may buy it with Ma'aser money. Kafniyos are like fruit in every respect, except that they are exempt from Ma'aser.
Answer #1: The Beraisa discusses Kafniyos of 'male' trees that could never become proper dates.
Objection: If so, R. Yehudah would not exempt from Ma'aser!
(Beraisa - R. Yehudah): Pagim (unripe figs) of Beisun (a place) were mentioned only regarding Ma'aser. Pagim of Beisun and Kafniyos of [male trees of] Tuvina are Tevel. (They are considered finished fruit.)
Answer #2: Rather, they come from normal trees. They have Tum'as Ochlim [because they could be fixed] like R. Yochanan taught [elsewhere]:
(R. Yochanan): This is because they could be sweetened through cooking.
Question: What did R. Yochanan discuss?
Answer (Beraisa): Small bitter almonds are Tevel. (They are considered finished fruit, since they are too bitter when they are big.) Large ones are exempt. Large sweet almonds are Tevel. Small ones are exempt. (They are unfinished.)
Version #1 (R. Yishmael b'Rebbi Yosi): Both [small or large almonds that are bitter] are exempt.
Version #2 (R. Yishmael b'Rebbi Yosi): Both are Tevel.
Question: [In version #2,] why are they Tevel? They are not proper to eat!
Answer (R. Yochanan): They can be sweetened through cooking.
(Beraisa - R. Yehudah): Kor is like wood in every respect, except that it may be bought with Ma'aser money.
Question: He does not argue with the first Tana!
Answer #1 (Abaye): They argue about if it was well cooked or fried. (The first Tana was Metaher only when only when it is like wood. R. Yehudah did not distinguish.)
Objection (Rava): No one would be Metaher if they were cooked or fried!
(Beraisa): Skin and a fetal sac are not Mekabel Tum'as Ochlim;
If the skin was well cooked, or one intended to eat the fetal sac, they are Mekabel Tum'as Ochlim. (Cooking helps for skin. All the more so it helps for Kor, which was edible to begin with!)
Answer #2 (Rava): They argue about its Berachah. (The first Tana says that one blesses Borei Peri ha'Adamah. R. Yehudah says that one blesses sheha'Kol, for it is destined to harden);
(Rav Yehudah): One blesses Borei Peri ha'Adamah on Kora (Kor);
(Shmuel): One blesses sheha'Kol.
Rav Yehudah says [that one blesses] Borei Peri ha'Adamah, for it is a food;
Shmuel says sheha'Kol, for in the end it will harden.
Shmuel (to Rav Yehudah): Your opinion is more reasonable, for radishes get hard in the end, yet the Berachah is Borei Peri ha'Adamah!
This is wrong. Radishes are planted for their own sake, but trees are not planted for Kora.
Even though Shmuel commended Rav Yehudah, the Halachah follows Shmuel.
SHI'URIM OF VARIOUS FOODS FOR AN ERUV
(Rav): One may be Me'arev with hops or fodder. One blesses Borei Peri ha'Adamah on them.
Question: (The Shi'ur for an Eruv is the amount eaten in two meals.) What is the Shi'ur for hops?
Answer: It is like Rav Yechi'el said [below, about other matters], a handful.
Question: What is the Shi'ur for fodder?
Answer (Rabah bar Tuvya bar Yitzchak): It is a bundle of vegetables [that farmers wrap together].
(Rav Chilkiya bar Yitzchak): One may be Me'arev with Kalya (a stalk hard like wood).
Objection: This cannot be!
Correction: Rather, one may be Me'arev with the vegetable of Kalya.
Question: What is the Shi'ur?
Answer (Rav Yechi'el): It is a handful.
Question: May one be Me'arev with moist beans?
R. Yirmeyah did not know. He asked in the Beis Medrash.
Answer (Rabanan citing R. Yanai): One may.
Question: What is the Shi'ur?
Answer (Rav Yechi'el): It is a handful.