ERUVIN 101 ג€“ The Zechus of today's learning has been dedicated by Dr. Louis and Rita Katz of Modi'in, Israel, for the Refuah Sheleimah of their granddaughter, Dafna Chaya bat Chasya Rivka.

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We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.

[1] Gemara 101a [line 20, 23]:

(a) The words "Amar Lei ha'Hu Tzeduki" אמר ליה ההוא צדוקי

should be "Amar Lei ha'Hu Mina" אמר ליה ההוא מינא

(b) The words "she'Mehadkin Es ha'Resha'im" שמהדקין את הרשעים

should be "she'Mehadkin Umos ha'Olam" שמהדקין אומות העולם

(Dikdukei Sofrim #3, #7; these words were changed by the censor.)


1)[line 1]שבמוקצהMUKTZAH- an enclosed storage area located behind a house (which is not used regularly)

2)[line 1]וחדקים שבפרצהCHADAKIM SHEB'PIRTZAH- [bundles of] thorns [bound together, filling] in a breach [of a fence]

3)[line 2]ומחצלותMACHATZALOS- [reed] mats

4)[line 3]הנגררתHA'NIGRERES- lit. which is dragged; i.e. detached from its moorings

5)[line 4]וקנקןKANKAN- (O.F. coltre) a sharp blade, normally attached to the front of a plow, which cuts the ground vertically

6)[line 4]שקשורין ותלוייןKESHURIN U'TELUYIN- tied and hung (but not necessarily high off the ground)

7)[line 6]צירTZIR- pivot (hinge-pin)

8)[line 15]סוכי קוציםSOCHEI KOTZIM- branches of thorn-bushes

9)[line 16]דלת אלמנהDELES ALMANAH- (a) a "widowed" door, called such due to the fact that it is missing certain parts (RASHI); (b) the door of a widow, who does not have the wherewithal to build or maintain her door properly (RASHASH)

10)[line 16]דלת אלמנה הנגררת אין נועליןבהD ELES ALMANAH HA'NIGRERES, EIN N'OALIN BAH- that is, one may not close such a door even if it has a Tzir (or Heker Tzir; TOSFOS DH Deles)

11)[line 17]דחד שיפאD'CHAD SHIFA- made up of only one plank

12)[line 18]דלית ליה גשמהD'LEIS LEI GASHMAH- (a) which is missing a crossbar connecting its planks (RASHI); (b) which has no threshold under it; rather it is lowered onto the ground when being closed and lifted off when being opened (RABEINU CHANANEL, ROSH)

13)[line 18]מדורתאMEDURTA- a large pile of firewood (on Yom Tov)

14a)[line 18]ממעלה למטהMI'MA'ALAH L'MATAH- to hold the upper branches in place and add ones below

b)[line 19]ממטה למעלהMI'MATAH L'MA'ALAH- to build the bonfire from the bottom up (which is the normal way to build a bonfire, and is similar to building)

15a)[line 19]וכן ביעתאV'CHEN BEI'ASA- and so too [in the following cases one must hold the upper object in place in the air and only then slide that which holds it up underneath it:] (a) eggs [that are placed over a grill (O.F. gradil) or over pieces of firewood) (RASHI); (b) an egg [that is placed over a configuration of other eggs or firewood] (TOSFOS)

b)[line 19]קידראKIDRA- a pot [that is placed over the fire and supported by jugs]

c)[line 19]פוריאPURYA- a [travel] bed (constructed by placing a piece of leather over a collapsible frame)

d)[line 19]חביתאCHAVISA- large jugs [that are being stored in a configuration of (a) rows (RASHI); (b) one on top of two (RASHI to Beitzah 32b])

16)[line 20]חדקאהCHIDKA'AH!- [you] thorny person!

17)[line 20]"טובם כחדק ישר ממסוכה""TOVAM K'CHEDEK YASHAR MI'MESUCHAH..."- "The best of them is like a brier, the upright one sharper then a thorn hedge. On the day of your expectation, your punishment will come; now you shall become perplexed" (Michah 7:4).

18)[line 21]שפיל לסיפיה דקראSHFIL L'SEIFEI D'KRA- lower your eyes to the end of the verse (and you will realize that the comparison is complimentary)

19)[line 23]שמהדקין את הרשעים לגיהנםSHE'MEHADKIN ES HA'RESHA'IM L'GEHINOM- they crush (lit. stick) the wicked to Gehinom

20)[line 24]"קומי ודושי בת ציון...""KUMI V'DOSHI BAS TZIYON..."- "Arise and thresh, daughter of Tziyon, for I will make your horn iron, and I will make your hoofs copper, and you shall beat many nations. I shall devote their profit to HaSh-m, and their treasure to the Master of the entire earth" (Michah 4:13).

21)[line 25]לא יעמוד... ויפתחLO YA'AMOD... V'YIFTACH- a person may not stand in a Reshus ha'Yachid and open [a door] in a Reshus ha'Rabim [with a key found in the Reshus ha'Rabim] or vice versa (for fear that he may come to bring the key into the Reshus in which he is standing)

22)[line 28]פטמיםPATAMIM- (a) butchers (RASHI); (b) merchants who fatten animals and fowl for sale (ARUCH, ROSH)

23a)[line 29]צמריםTZAMARIM- wool merchants

b)[line 29]שוק של צמרים הוהSHUK SHEL TZAMARIM HAYAH- that is, even though entering the marketplace of wool merchants is never necessary on Shabbos (as opposed to entering the marketplace of butchers, who also provided cooked meat; Kelim 5:6), Rebbi Yosi rules that there was no Rabbinic decree enacted to prohibit doing so (TIFERES YISRAEL)

24)[line 30]כרמליתKARMELIS- The entire Yerushalayim was a Karmelis, as the Gemara goes on to explain.

25)[line 33]לשעריגינהS HA'AREI GINAH- the gates of a garden (which is a Karmelis, since it is larger than a Beis Se'asayim and not Hukaf l'Dirah)


26)[line 6]שערי גינהSHA'AREI GINAH- the gates of a garden (which opens into a Reshus ha'Rabim, and is assumed to have a lock-box [see Perush Chai 99:10,11] whose upper surface area is four-by-four Tefachim as well as ten Tefachim above the ground — making it a Reshus ha'Yachid)

27)[line 6]בית שערBEIS SHA'AR- a gatehouse (which is a Reshus ha'Yachid)

28)[line 12]באיסקופהISKUFAH- threshold; front stoop of a house (which is a Karmelis)

29)[line 22]מדקאמר וכן חנויותMID'KA'AMAR V'CHEN CHANUYOS- That is, the word "v'Chen" implies that just as when locking a garden the key must be in the same Reshus as the lock, so, too, when locking a store the key must be in the same Reshus as the lock. Since it is evident from the Beraisa that the lock of the store (when it is under ten Tefachim) is a Karmelis, the key must be in a Karmelis as well. (TOSFOS DH mid'Ka'amar)

30)[line 24]מקום פטורMAKOM PETUR

(a)A Makom Petur is a place or object which does not fulfill any of the conditions which characterize the other three Reshuyos (domains) of Shabbos: Reshus ha'Yachid, Reshus ha'Rabim, and Karmelis (see Introduction to Maseches Shabbos). Transferring between a Makom Petur and one of the other three Reshuyos is permitted, as long as the Makom Petur is not used to circumvent the prohibition of Hotza'ah by transferring from a Reshus ha'Yachid to a Reshus ha'Rabim or vice versa through the Makom Petur.

(b)Some examples of a Makom Petur are:

1.A doorstep that has an area less than four-by-four Tefachim and is lower than ten Tefachim from the ground;

2.A pole in Reshus ha'Rabim with an area less than four by four Tefachim and a height which is not greater than ten Tefachim;

3.The air higher than ten Tefachim above a Reshus ha'Rabim or a Karmelis. See Charts to Shabbos #1-2.

31)[line 30]ויש בו לחוק ולהשלימוV'YESH LO LA'CHUK UL'HASHLIMO (CHOKEKIN L'HASHLIM)

(a)Chokekin l'Hashlim (excavating to complete [a required measurement]) is a Halachic device by which a small space may be judged to be larger if there is sufficient volume in the surrounding walls to make up for the additional required size.

(b)For example, the Gemara records an argument between Rebbi Meir and Chachamim as to whether or not we apply Chokekin l'Hashlim to an archway which begins to curve at too low a point for the doorway to require a Mezuzah (i.e., it is not four Tefachim wide for a height of ten Tefachim), when the walls surrounding the archway are thick. If they are thick enough that were they to be excavated, the doorway could be made four Tefachim wide for a height of ten Tefachim, Rebbi Meir asserts that the doorway requires a Mezuzah.

(c)The Machlokes regarding Chokekin l'Hashlim is only applicable to part of an opening. For example, in the above situation Rebbi Meir applies Chokekin l'Hashlim only when the lower three Tefachim of the doorway are four Tefachim wide, but the doorway narrows before it reaches a height of ten Tefachim. Chokekin can complete the doorway by making the top as if it, too, were four Tefachim wide, though in reality it is narrower than that.

(d)This Machlokes between Rebbi Meir and the Chachamim appears in our Gemara. The situation here involves a lock-box which is not four Tefachim wide and yet has space in the width of the door next to it to widen it until it is four Tefachim wide.

32)[line 35]הדר ביה רבי מאיר משערי גינהHADAR BEI REBBI MEIR MI'SHA'AREI GINAH- Rebbi Meir retracted his opinion from that which he previously prohibited standing in one Reshus and operating a lock and key in a different Reshus, even if it is only prohibited to carry from one to the other mid'Rabanan. (We know this from that which he allows such an action when the two Reshuyos are a Karmelis (the Iskufah) and a Reshus ha'Yachid (the lock-box).)

33)[line 36]מדרבנן איתא לדרב דימיD'RABANAN ISA LID'RAV DIMI- that the Rabanan agree with [that which] Rav Dimi [prohibits using a Makom Petur as a way-station between two Reshuyos when it is prohibited to transfer objects between those two Reshuyos]. (We know this from that which they prohibit removing a key from an Iskufah (a Karmelis), unlocking the lock (a Makom Petur), and then placing the key upon a window which is four-by-four Tefachim (a Reshus ha'Yachid).)

34)[line 39]לכתף עליוL'CHATEF ALAV- to rest one's burden on the Makom Petur [in order to rearrange it]

35)[line 40]נגרNAGAR- a bolt, peg (that is placed into a hole in the doorstep to prevent the door from opening) [(O.F. chevile) a peg])

36)[line 41]גלוסטראGELOSTERA- the head of the peg has a thick, rounded end which makes it possible to use it as a pestle

37)[last line]בניטל באגדו כולי עלמאB'NITAL B'OGDO KULEI ALMA- if the string attached to the peg (by which it hangs) is strong enough to bear its weight without snapping (if one were to carry the peg around by that string), everyone agrees (that since it is tied to the door in a permanent fashion it is permitted to move the peg, as fixing it in place does not appear to be Boneh, building)