ERUVIN 26 (23 Nisan) - dedicated l'Iluy Nishmas the father of Mr. Avy Reichman Z'L of Queens, NY, Dovid ben Avraham Z'L, by Avy's children.

[26a - 35 lines; 26b - 42 lines]

1)[line 1]שלפינהוSHALFINHU- he pulled them out

2)[line 2]נקטינהו מבתריהNAKTINHU MI'BASREI- they picked them up from behind him (and took them away)

3)[line 7]אמר ליה רב פפא לרבאAMAR LEI RAV PAPA L'RAVA- Rav Papa cited proof that Rava was indeed correct in his ruling, which is why he uprooted the sticks of Rav Huna bar Chinena in the first place (RASHI, in his first explanation); alternatively Rav Papa changed his mind and decided that he — and Rava — were incorrect in uprooting Rav Huna bar Chinena's sticks (RASHI, in his second explanation; see Insights)

4)[line 8]אדרכליןADRACHLIN- builders

5)[line 10]כיון דלצניעותא עבידאKEIVAN DEL'TZENI'USA AVIDA- since the wall around the orchard was made simply for privacy (Rashi's first explanation); alternatively, since the walls of the Avarneka were only made for privacy (Rashi's second explanation)

6)[line 13]העשויה לנחתHA'ASUYAH L'NACHAS- (a) that is made for the protection of what is placed there (RASHI); (b) according to the Girsa SHE'EINAH ASUYAH L'NACHAS - that is not made to be permanent (RABEINU CHANANEL)

7)[line 14]ערסייתאARSEYASA- neighborhoods

8)[line 15]פירא דבי תוריPIRA D'VEI TOREI- the ditches where date pits were stored as food for oxen


(a)The following is a list of measures of volume used in the Mishnah and Gemara:

1.1 Kor (= 1 Chomer) = 30 Se'in

2.1 Lesech = 15 Se'in

3.1 Eifah = 3 Se'in

4.1 Se'ah = 6 Kabin

5.1 Tarkav (= Trei v'Kav, or 3 Kabin) = 12 Lugin

6.1 Kav = 4 Lugin

7.1 Log (= 1 Rova) = 4 Revi'iyos = 6 Beitzim

8.1 Beitzah = 2 or 3 k'Zeisim, according to the varying opinions

(b)A Beis Kor is a parcel of land in which a Kor (30 Se'ah) of grain is normally planted. The area of a Beis Kor is 75,000 square Amos, approximately 17,280 square meters (186,000 square feet) or 24,883 square meters (267,837 square feet), depending upon the differing Halachic opinions

10)[line 21]אסטרטיא של מלךISTERATYA SHEL MELECH- an enclosed area behind a palace where kings stroll

11)[line 23]"חצר התיכונה""CHATZER HA'TICHONAH"- "the middle court" (Melachim II 20:4) - In this verse, these words are actually written "ha'Ir ("the city") ha'Tichonah." According to Rebbi Eliezer, this teaches us that it is permitted carrying in an area that was not enclosed for living purposes even if it is as big as an average sized city (which is 40 Se'ah according to Chananya, and 30 Se'ah according to Rebbi Ilai).

12)[line 31]דילמא אתי לאיגרויי ביה שטןDILMA ASI L'IGRUYEI BEI SATAN- it may cause the Satan to start up with them


13)[line 31]והוי כי אורח לגבייהוV'HEVI KI ORACH L'GABAIHU- such that he would be as a guest with regard to the rest of the inhabitants of the courtyard

14)[line 36]אצוותא חרוזיאתאATZVASA CHARUZEYASA- (a) the thick fibrous substance that grows around a palm tree (RASHI); (b) thick thorny creepers that grow on a palm tree, whose leaves are shaped like a scorpion (RAMBAM, Peirush ha'Mishnayos, TIFERES YISRAEL)


15)[line 38]בכל מערביןBA'KOL ME'ARVIN- an Eruv can be made with any type of food. (Rashi claims that this refers to Eruvei Chatzeiros and Eruvei Techumin. Other Rishonim state that this refers to Eruvei Techumin only; Eruvei Chatzeiros can only be made with bread.)

16)[line 38]מערביןME'ARVIN

(a)A person is allowed to walk only a distance of 2000 Amos, approximately 960 meters (3147 feet) or 1,152 meters (3774 feet), depending upon the differing Halachic opinions, from his city (or dwelling place if he is not in a city) on Shabbos or Yom Tov. If he wants to walk another 2000 Amos, he must make an Eruv Techumin.

(b)This is accomplished by placing an amount of any food that would be used for two meals nearly 2000 Amos away from his present location, in the direction in which he wishes to walk. The location where his food is placed is considered his new dwelling or place of Shevisah for that Shabbos or Yom Tov, and he may walk 2000 Amos in any direction from there.


(a)THE TORAH LAW - According to Torah law, in a courtyard (Chatzer) which has in it houses owned by different people, all of the neighbors may transfer objects from their houses to the courtyard and into other houses on Shabbos. Even though each house is a separately owned Reshus ha'Yachid and the Chatzer is a jointly owned Reshus ha'Yachid, it is permissible to move objects from one Reshus ha'Yachid to another. Such is also the case when several courtyards open on a dead-end alley ("Mavoy"; the Rabanan enacted that a Mavoy must have a Lechi or Korah, see Introduction to Maseches Eruvin), or when an entire city is walled. (RAMBAM Hilchos Eruvin 1:1)

(b)ERUV AND SHITUF - King Shlomo decreed that transferring objects from a private Reshus ha'Yachid to a public one is forbidden, unless an Eruv Chatzeiros (lit. a mixing of the courtyard, Rambam Hil. Eruvin 1:6; or fraternization of the courtyard, Eruvin 49a) is created on Friday, before Shabbos begins. (Shabbos 14b, Eruvin 21b). (The equivalent of an Eruv Chatzeiros for an alley or a city is called a Shituf Mavo'os.) This is accomplished by all of the neighbors collectively setting aside a loaf of bread, in one common container, in one of the houses of the courtyard (or, in the case of Shituf, in one of the courtyards of the alleyway). This shows that all neighbors have an equal share in all of the Reshuyos ha'Yachid, just as they all have a share in that bread. Through this act, they can be considered one Reshus again. (An Eruv Chatzeros uses bread. A Shituf is not limited to bread; any food may be used except for water, salt and mushrooms.) (RAMBAM ibid. 1:4-9)

18)[last line]בית הפרסBEIS HA'PRAS

(a)Beis ha'Peras is a general term referring to a field or an area that the Rabanan decreed to be treated as though it were Tamei, in certain respects. The Mishnayos in Ohalos (18:1-4) explain that there are three specific types of Beis ha'Peras:

1.A field in which a grave was plowed over, scattering the bones in all directions. Such a field may be planted with trees, but not with vegetables or grains. Its earth can make a person Tamei through Maga or Masa. Our Mishnah is discussing this type of Beis ha'Peras

2.A field (that is a Reshus ha'Rabim; TOSFOS to Kesuvos 24b; RASH to Ohalos 18:3) in which a grave is known to exist but it became lost and cannot be located. In such a field, trees may not be planted but vegetables or grains may be planted. It can make a person Tamei through Ohel (and according to some Girsa'os, through Maga and Masa as well).

3.A field on the edge of a town where a corpse was brought [and mourned] before burial. Such a field may neither be planted nor sown with vegetables or grains (but its earth is not Tamei if removed from its place). There are a number of reasons why the Rabanan might have made such a field Tamei:

i.Part of a corpse may have become dislodged and fallen there (RASHI to Moed Katan 5b DH Mishum Ye'ush) [or that an entire corpse may have inadvertently been left behind there - MEIRI ibid.].

ii.Alternatively, since a corpse is commonly found there, the Rabanan instituted that the area not be sown or planted, so as not to attract people to the area who will become Temei'im and spread Tum'ah. (PERUSH HA'MISHNAYOS of the Rambam to Ohalos 18:4)

iii.The prohibition against planting or sowing such a field has nothing to do with Tum'ah whatsoever. Rather, it involves a question of ownership. Since the community has made it their practice to mourn for and eulogize the dead in this field and the original owner did not protest this practice, he loses all rights to the land. The former owner cannot later decide to plant the field and deny the community the right to use it as a place for public mourning. (RITVA, RASH to Ohalos 18:4 and many Rishonim — see VILNA GA'ON to Choshen Mishpat 377:2)

(b)The Bartenura offers three explanations as to why the word "Peras" was used to describe these fields: 1. Tum'ah spreads (Pores) out in all directions from the field; 2. Bones that are broken (Perusim) are strewn in the field. (These first two explanations only apply to the first of the three types of Beis ha'Peras mentioned above, 1); 3. People's feet (Parsos) stay away from the area because of its Tum'ah.

(c)In the first type of Beis ha'Peras (a field with a burial plot that has been plowed), the Rabanan decreed that the field is Metamei in every direction from the grave for the length of the furrow of a plow, which is 50 Amos. This results in an area 100 Amos by 100 Amos around the grave (RASH to Ohalos 17:1). The Rabanan instituted a way to remove the Tum'ah from the area that was plowed (in certain cases) by blowing the dirt of each section of the field to check for small pieces of bone.