12th Cycle Dedication

ERCHIN 6-9 - Two weeks of study material have been dedicated by Mrs. Estanne Abraham Fawer to honor the twelfth Yahrzeit of her father, Rav Mordechai ben Eliezer Zvi (Rabbi Morton Weiner) Z'L, who passed away on 18 Teves 5760. May the merit of supporting and advancing Dafyomi study -- which was so important to him -- during the weeks of his Yahrzeit serve as an Iluy for his Neshamah.

1)

(a)To whom is our Mishnah referring when it gives the minimum number of days for a To'ah to return to her days of Zivus, as seven days?

(b)What is the maximum number of days?

(c)What is the Torah-law of a woman who is not a Zavah and who sees blood for ...

1. ... one day?

2. ... two consecutive days?

3. ... three consecutive days?

(d)After that, she enters the period of Zivus. When does she re-enter the period of Nidus once again (assuming that she did not see blood during that period for three consecutive days)?

1)

(a)When our Mishnah gives the minimum number of days for a To'ah to return to her days of Zivus, as seven - it is referring to a woman who sees blood, but who does not know whether she is in the days of Nidus or of Zivus.

(b)The maximum number of days is - seventeen.

(c)The Torah-law of a woman who is not a Zavah and who sees blood for ...

1. ... one day is that - she is a Nidah, and must observe another six days of Tum'ah, whether she sees blood or not.

2. ... two days is that - she must observe another five days.

3. ... three days - must observe another four days (assuming that this all takes place during the days of Nidus).

(d)After that, she enters the realm of Zivus. Assuming that she did not see blood during that period for three consecutive days - she re-enters the period of Nidus once again after eleven days.

2)

(a)What happens if, during the period of Zivus, she sees blood ...

1. ... once?

2. ... twice?

3. ... three times?

(b)The Beraisa rules that if a To'ah sees just once, she enters the period of Nidus after seventeen days. How does that work? Does it include the days on which she sees?

(c)What will be the Din, assuming that her sighting took place at the beginning of the period of Zivus?

2)

(a)If, during the period of Zivus, she sees blood ...

1. ... once - she counts it as one day and Tovels.

2. ... twice - she counts them as two days and Tovels.

3. ... three times - she is a Zavah, who requires seven consecutive clean days before she can become Tahor, after which she is obligated to bring a Korban.

(b)The Beraisa rules that if a To'ah sees just once, she enters the period of Nidus after seventeen days (excluding the day on which she sees) - because in the event that she is standing at the beginning of Nidus (the worst scenario), she must wait another six days (for her Nidus to terminate), plus eleven days for the period of Zivus to pass.

(c)Assuming that her sighting took place at the beginning of the period of Zivus - she will enter the period of Nidus already after eleven days.

3)

(a)What does the Beraisa say about a case were the To'ah sees for two or three consecutive days? Why is that?

(b)What will be the Din assuming that ...

1. ... those sightings take place at the beginning of the period of Nidus?

2. ... in the latter case, if all three sightings actually take place at the beginning of the period of Zivus?

3)

(a)The Beraisa rules in a case were the To'ah sees for two or three consecutive days - that she enters the period of Nidus after seventeen days (excluding the days on which she saw), as we explained.

(b)Assuming that ...

1. ... those sightings take place at the beginning of the period of Nidus - then her period of Nidus will begin after sixteen and fifteen days respectively (incorporating the remaining days of Nidus and the eleven days of the period of Zivus).

2. ... in the latter case, if all three sightings actually take place at the beginning of the period of Zivus - she will become permitted immediately after seven clean days.

4)

(a)The Beraisa rules that if the To'ah sees for five consecutive days, she enters the period of Nidus after fifteen days. How is that?

(b)If she sees for twelve consecutive days, the Tana gives her eight consecutive days. Why is that?

(c)And what does the Tana say with regard to a To'ah who sees for ...

1. ... thirteen consecutive days?

2. ... fourteen consecutive days?

4)

(a)The Beraisa rules that if the To'ah sees for five consecutive days, she enters the period of Nidus after fifteen days - in case the first two days were the end of her Zivus, and the last three, the beginning of her Nidus, leaving four days of Nidus and eleven of the period of Zivus.

(b)If she sees for twelve consecutive days, the Tana gives her eight consecutive days - in case the first two days belonged to the period of Zivus, the following seven to that of Nidus, and the last three, a second period of Zivus, in which case the eighth day is actually the eleventh day of the Zivus period.

(c)The Tana rules in the case of a To'ah who sees for ...

1. ... thirteen consecutive days that - she enters the period of Nidus after seven days, on the assumption that, in the worst scenario, the first two days belonged to the period of Zivus, the next seven, to Nidus, and the last five, to Zivus, leaving another seven clean days ...

2. ... fourteen consecutive days - the same will apply to where (since, based on the fact that a Zavah remains a Zavah until she has observed seven clean days) - it will be the last six sightings that belong to her Zivus (instead of five).

8b----------------------------------------8b

5)

(a)Rav Ada bar Ahavah asked Rabah (or Rava) why the To'ah needs so many days. What did he mean by that? What was his mistake?

(c)Besides the fact that not all women who err are Safek Zavos, what else is wrong with the Beraisa 'Kol ha'To'os Zavos Mevi'os Korban ve'Eino Ne'echal'?

(d)How do we therefore amend the Beraisa? What does the Tana really mean to say?

5)

(a)Rav Ada bar Ahavah asked Rabah (or Rava) why the To'ah needs so many days. He erroneously thought that - our Mishnah is giving the minimum and maximum periods required by the To'ah to become permitted to her husband (which, in any event, she does after counting seven clean days).

(b)To which Rabah replied that - what the Tana is discussing is the minimum and maximum time until she reverts to the period of Nidus, as we explained).

(c)Besides the fact that, when the Beraisa states 'Kol ha'To'os Zavos Mevi'os Korban ve'Eino Ne'echal', not all women who err are Safek Zavos - the first two cases (of one and two sightings respectively) do not require a Korban anyway, since with less than three sightings, a woman does not become a Zavah.

(d)We therefore amend the Beraisa to read - 'Kol Zavos ha'To'os Mevi'os Korban ve'Eino Ne'echal'.

6)

(a)Why can the Korban of the To'ah not be eaten?

(b)Which are the only two exceptions listed by the Tana, whose Korban may be eaten?

(c)Why is that?

6)

(a)The Korban of the To'ah cannot be eaten - because she might be a Nidah, and not a Zavah.

(b)The only two exceptions listed by the Tana whose Korban may be eaten - are the last two ('Pischah Shiv'ah' and 'Pischah Shemonah'), where she saw thirteen and twelve days respectively ...

(c)... because even if her first two sightings took place on the last two days of Zivus, this leaves us with ten (or eleven) days, seven of which are the days of Nidus and three of Zivus (making her a Vadai Zavah), as she will if the first three days belong to the period of Zivus.

7)

(a)Which case is our Mishnah referring to when the Tana states ...

1. ... that the minimum period of Nega'im is seven days?

2. ... that the maximum number is three weeks?

(b)What do we learn from the Gezeirah-Shavah (in connection with Nig'ei Batim) "ve'Shav ha'Kohen" "u'Va ha'Kohen"?

7)

(a)When our Mishnah states ...

1. ... that the minimum period of Nega'im is seven days - it is referring to certain cases of Nig'ei Adam (who is quarantined for only seven days (see Rabeinu Gershom).

2. ... that the maximum number is three weeks - it is referring to Nig'ei Batim.

(b)We learn from the Gezeirah-Shavah (in connection with Nig'ei Batim) "ve'Shav ha'Kohen" "u'Va ha'Kohen" that - just as at the end of one week, if the appearance of the plague remains static, the house is locked up for a second week, so too, if it remains static at the end of the second week, it is locked up again for a third week.

8)

(a)Rav Papa ascribes the Pasuk in Tehilim, "Tzidkascha ke'Har'rei Keil" to Nig'ei Adam, and "Mishpatecha ki'Tehom Rabah" to Nig'ei Batim. Why is that?

(b)Rav Yehudah explains the simple P'shat in the Pasuk to mean that, were it not for the fact that "Tzidkascha ke'Har'rei Keil" (that Hash-m raises/removes our sins from the scales), nobody would be able to stand up to "Mishpatecha (which are) ki'Tehom Rabah". How does Rabah explain it?

(c)We link the respective opinions of Rabah and Rav Yehudah to a Machlokes between Rebbi Elazar (Nosei) and Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi b'Rebbi Chanina (Koveish). What is that Machlokes referring to?

8)

(a)Rav Papa ascribes the Pasuk in Tehilim, "Tzidkascha ke'Har'rei Keil" to Nig'ei Adam, and "Mishpatecha ki'Tehom Rabah" to Nig'ei Batim - because the former sometimes can be decided in as little as a week (which is a mark of Hash-m's Chesed), whereas the latter lasts three (which is a sign of Hash-m's Mishpat).

(b)Rav Yehudah explains the simple P'shat in the Pasuk to mean that were it not for the fact that "Tzidkascha ke'Har'rei Keil" (that Hash-m raises/removes our sins from the scales), nobody would be able to stand up to "Mishpatecha (which are) ki'Tehom Rabah", whereas according to Rabah, the Pasuk means that - it is because Hash-m's judgments are like the great deep (to which He lowers our sins to forgive them), that His Righteousness is like the Divine mountains).

(c)We link the respective opinions of Rabah and Rav Yehudah with a Machlokes between Rebbi Elazar (Nosei) and Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi b'Rebbi Chanina (Koveish) - regarding Hash-m's method of applying Chesed in a judgment with regard to a Rasha after his death [See also Rabeinu Gershom and Mesores ha'Shas).

9)

(a)Rav Yehudah on the other hand holds like Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Chanina, who says 'Nosei'. What does Nosei mean?

(b)How does Rav Yehudah then explain the Pasuk, in conjunction with Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Chanina?

9)

(a)Rav Yehudah on the other hand holds like Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Chanina, who says 'Nosei', which means - that Hash-m lifts up the scale containing our sins to underneath His Throne and forgives them, causing the scale of merit to weigh down.

(b)In conjunction with Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Chanina, he now explains the Pasuk to mean that - if not for the kindness that Hash-m performs with us by removing the sins from the scales, we would be unable to survive His judgment (our sins, like Rabah explains), which would weigh down to the depths.

10)

(a)How many full months (of thirty days) are there in a regular year?

(b)The minimum number given by our Mishnah is four. What is the maximum?

(c)What is the earliest time after baking that the Tana gives for the Kohanim to eat the Sh'tei ha'Lechem on Shavu'os?

(d)And what is the latest time?

10)

(a)There are - six full months (of thirty days) in a regular year.

(b)The minimum number given by our Mishnah is - four, the maximum - eight.

(c)The earliest time after baking that the Tana gives for the Kohanim to eat the Sh'tei ha'Lechem on Shavu'os is - on the second day (if Shavu'os falls on any day of the week other than Sunday.

(d)The latest time is - on the third day, if it falls on Sunday (since the baking of the Sh'tei ha'Lechem overrides neither Shabbos nor Yom-Tov), in which case they must then be baked on Friday.

11)

(a)What does the Mishnah mean when it gives ...

1. ... the earliest time that the Lechem ha'Panim can be eaten as nine days?

2. ... the latest time as eleven?

(b)The earliest time for B'ris Milah is on the eighth day. What is the latest (assuming that the baby is healthy)?

11)

(a)When the Mishnah gives the ...

1. ... earliest time that the Lechem ha'Panim can be eaten as nine days - it is referring to a regular week, when they are baked on Friday (since their baking does not override Shabbos).

2. ... latest as eleven - it is referring to when Rosh-Hashanah falls on Thursday and Friday (since it does not override Yom-Tov either).

(b)The earliest time for B'ris Milah is on the eighth day, and the latest (assuming that the baby is healthy) - on the twelfth (if the baby is born during Bein-ha'Shemashos of Erev Shabbos, and the following Shabbos is followed by Rosh-Hashanah (since a B'ris Milah not in its time overrides neither Shabbos nor Yom-Tov).